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Original Article
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
A Prospective 1-Year Follow-Up of Glycemic Status and C-Peptide Levels of COVID-19 Survivors with Dysglycemia in Acute COVID-19 Infection
David Tak Wai Lui, Chi Ho Lee, Ying Wong, Carol Ho Yi Fong, Kimberly Hang Tsoi, Yu Cho Woo, Kathryn Choon Beng Tan
Received June 5, 2023  Accepted October 13, 2023  Published online March 11, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0175    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
We evaluated changes in glycemic status, over 1 year, of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors with dysglycemia in acute COVID-19.
Methods
COVID-19 survivors who had dysglycemia (defined by glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 5.7% to 6.4% or random glucose ≥10.0 mmol/L) in acute COVID-19 were recruited from a major COVID-19 treatment center from September to October 2020. Matched non-COVID controls were recruited from community. The 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed at baseline (6 weeks after acute COVID-19) and 1 year after acute COVID-19, with HbA1c, insulin and C-peptide measurements. Progression in glycemic status was defined by progression from normoglycemia to prediabetes/diabetes, or prediabetes to diabetes.
Results
Fifty-two COVID-19 survivors were recruited. Compared with non-COVID controls, they had higher C-peptide (P< 0.001) and trend towards higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.065). Forty-three COVID-19 survivors attended 1-year reassessment. HbA1c increased from 5.5%±0.3% to 5.7%±0.2% (P<0.001), with increases in glucose on OGTT at fasting (P=0.089), 30-minute (P=0.126), 1-hour (P=0.014), and 2-hour (P=0.165). At baseline, 19 subjects had normoglycemia, 23 had prediabetes, and one had diabetes. Over 1 year, 10 subjects (23.8%; of 42 non-diabetes subjects at baseline) had progression in glycemic status. C-peptide levels remained unchanged (P=0.835). Matsuda index decreased (P=0.007) and there was a trend of body mass index increase from 24.4±2.7 kg/m2 to 25.6±5.2 (P=0.083). Subjects with progression in glycemic status had more severe COVID-19 illness than non-progressors (P=0.030). Reassessment was not performed in the control group.
Conclusion
Subjects who had dysglycemia in acute COVID-19 were characterized by insulin resistance. Over 1 year, a quarter had progression in glycemic status, especially those with more severe COVID-19. Importantly, there was no significant deterioration in insulin secretory capacity.
Sulwon Lecture 2023
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Insulin Resistance, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical and Experimental Perspective
Inha Jung, Dae-Jeong Koo, Won-Young Lee
Received October 4, 2023  Accepted December 26, 2024  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0350    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
It has been generally accepted that insulin resistance (IR) and reduced insulin secretory capacity are the basic pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to genetic factors, the persistence of systemic inflammation caused by obesity and the associated threat of lipotoxicity increase the risk of T2DM. In particular, the main cause of IR is obesity and subjects with T2DM have a higher body mass index (BMI) than normal subjects according to recent studies. The prevalence of T2DM with IR has increased with increasing BMI during the past three decades. According to recent studies, homeostatic model assessment of IR was increased compared to that of the 1990s. Rising prevalence of obesity in Korea have contributed to the development of IR, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and T2DM and cutting this vicious cycle is important. My colleagues and I have investigated this pathogenic mechanism on this theme through clinical and experimental studies over 20 years and herein, I would like to summarize some of our studies with deep gratitude for receiving the prestigious 2023 Sulwon Award.
Original Articles
Drug/Regimen
Pioglitazone as Add-on THERAPY in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled with Dapagliflozin and Metformin: Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Ji Hye Heo, Kyung Ah Han, Jun Hwa Hong, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eun-Gyoung Hong, Jae Myung Yu, Hye Seung Jung, Bong-Soo Cha
Received September 1, 2023  Accepted October 25, 2023  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0314    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study assessed the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with pioglitazone 15 mg add-on versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin and dapagliflozin.
Methods
In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase 3 study, patients with T2DM with an inadequate response to treatment with metformin (≥1,000 mg/day) plus dapagliflozin (10 mg/day) were randomized to receive additional pioglitazone 15 mg/day (n=125) or placebo (n=125) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels from baseline to week 24 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05101135).
Results
At week 24, the adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c level compared with placebo was significantly greater with pioglitazone treatment (–0.47%; 95% confidence interval, –0.61 to –0.33; P<0.0001). A greater proportion of patients achieved HbA1c <7% or <6.5% at week 24 with pioglitazone compared to placebo as add-on to 10 mg dapagliflozin and metformin (56.8% vs. 28% for HbA1c <7%, and 23.2% vs. 9.6% for HbA1c <6.5%; P<0.0001 for all). The addition of pioglitazone also significantly improved triglyceride, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels, while placebo did not. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between the groups, and the incidence of fluid retention-related side effects by pioglitazone was low (1.5%).
Conclusion
Triple therapy with the addition of 15 mg/day of pioglitazone to dapagliflozin plus metformin was well tolerated and produced significant improvements in HbA1c in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with dapagliflozin plus metformin.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Harnessing Metabolic Indices as a Predictive Tool for Cardiovascular Disease in a Korean Population without Known Major Cardiovascular Event
Hyun-Jin Kim, Byung Sik Kim, Yonggu Lee, Sang Bong Ahn, Dong Wook Kim, Jeong-Hun Shin
Received June 22, 2023  Accepted August 18, 2023  Published online February 1, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0197    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study evaluated the usefulness of indices for metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance (IR), as predictive tools for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged Korean adults.
Methods
The prospective data obtained from the Ansan-Ansung cohort database, excluding patients with major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary outcome was the incidence of MACCE during the follow-up period.
Results
A total of 9,337 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 1,130 (12.1%) experienced MACCE during a median follow-up period of 15.5 years. The metabolic syndrome severity Z-score, metabolic syndrome severity score, hepatic steatosis index, and NAFLD liver fat score were found to significantly predict MACCE at values above the cut-off point and in the second and third tertiles. Among these indices, the hazard ratios of the metabolic syndrome severity score and metabolic syndrome severity Z-score were the highest after adjusting for confounding factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score for predicting MACCE was 0.716, and the metabolic syndrome severity Z-score had an AUC of 0.619.
Conclusion
The metabolic syndrome severity score is a highly reliable indicator and was closely associated with the 10-year ASCVD risk score in predicting MACCE in the general population. Given the specific characteristics and limitations of metabolic syndrome severity scores as well as the indices of NAFLD and IR, a more practical scoring system that considers these factors is essential to achieve greater accuracy in forecasting cardiovascular outcomes.
Pathophysiology
Deficiency of ASGR1 Alleviates Diet-Induced Systemic Insulin Resistance via Improved Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity
Xiaorui Yu, Jiawang Tao, Yuhang Wu, Yan Chen, Penghui Li, Fan Yang, Miaoxiu Tang, Abdul Sammad, Yu Tao, Yingying Xu, Yin-Xiong Li
Published online February 1, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0124    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Insulin resistance (IR) is the key pathological basis of many metabolic disorders. Lack of asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR1) decreased the serum lipid levels and reduced the risk of coronary artery disease. However, whether ASGR1 also participates in the regulatory network of insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism remains unknown.
Methods
The constructed ASGR1 knockout mice and ASGR1-/- HepG2 cell lines were used to establish the animal model of metabolic syndrome and the IR cell model by high-fat diet (HFD) or drug induction, respectively. Then we evaluated the glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro.
Results
ASGR1 deficiency ameliorated systemic IR in mice fed with HFD, evidenced by improved insulin intolerance, serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of IR index, mainly contributed from increased insulin signaling in the liver, but not in muscle or adipose tissues. Meanwhile, the insulin signal transduction was significantly enhanced in ASGR1-/- HepG2 cells. By transcriptome analyses and comparison, those differentially expressed genes between ASGR1 null and wild type were enriched in the insulin signal pathway, particularly in phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT signaling. Notably, ASGR1 deficiency significantly reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis.
Conclusion
The ASGR1 deficiency was consequentially linked with improved hepatic insulin sensitivity under metabolic stress, hepatic IR was the core factor of systemic IR, and overcoming hepatic IR significantly relieved the systemic IR. It suggests that ASGR1 is a potential intervention target for improving systemic IR in metabolic disorders.
Review
Pathophysiology
Primordial Drivers of Diabetes Heart Disease: Comprehensive Insights into Insulin Resistance
Yajie Fan, Zhipeng Yan, Tingting Li, Aolin Li, Xinbiao Fan, Zhongwen Qi, Junping Zhang
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):19-36.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0110
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Insulin resistance has been regarded as a hallmark of diabetes heart disease (DHD). Numerous studies have shown that insulin resistance can affect blood circulation and myocardium, which indirectly cause cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling, participating in the pathogenesis of DHD. Meanwhile, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia associated with insulin resistance can directly impair the metabolism and function of the heart. Targeting insulin resistance is a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of DHD. Currently, the role of insulin resistance in the pathogenic development of DHD is still under active research, as the pathological roles involved are complex and not yet fully understood, and the related therapeutic approaches are not well developed. In this review, we describe insulin resistance and add recent advances in the major pathological and physiological changes and underlying mechanisms by which insulin resistance leads to myocardial remodeling and dysfunction in the diabetic heart, including exosomal dysfunction, ferroptosis, and epigenetic factors. In addition, we discuss potential therapeutic approaches to improve insulin resistance and accelerate the development of cardiovascular protection drugs.
Original Articles
Drug/Regimen
Comparative Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy and Rosuvastatin/Ezetimibe Combination Therapy on Insulin Sensitivity and Vascular Inflammatory Response in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Ji Hye Han, Kyong Hye Joung, Jun Choul Lee, Ok Soon Kim, Sorim Choung, Ji Min Kim, Yea Eun Kang, Hyon-Seung Yi, Ju Hee Lee, Bon Jeong Ku, Hyun Jin Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):112-121.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0402
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induces endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, which are the main factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to compare the effects of rosuvastatin monotherapy and rosuvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy on lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and vascular inflammatory response in patients with T2DM.
Methods
A total of 101 patients with T2DM and dyslipidemia were randomized to either rosuvastatin monotherapy (5 mg/day, n=47) or rosuvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy (5 mg/10 mg/day, n=45) and treated for 12 weeks. Serum lipids, glucose, insulin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) levels were determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment.
Results
The reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by more than 50% from baseline after treatment was more in the combination therapy group. The serum sICAM-1 levels increased significantly in both groups, but there was no difference between the two groups. The significant changes in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and PRDX4 were confirmed only in the subgroup in which LDL-C was reduced by 50% or more in the combination therapy group. However, after adjusting for diabetes mellitus duration and hypertension, the changes in HOMA-IR and PRDX4 were not significant between the two groups.
Conclusion
Although rosuvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy had a greater LDL-C reduction effect than rosuvastatin monotherapy, it had no additional effects on insulin sensitivity and vascular inflammatory response. Further studies are needed on the effect of long-term treatment with ezetimibe on insulin sensitivity and vascular inflammatory response.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Combining Ezetimibe and Rosuvastatin: Impacts on Insulin Sensitivity and Vascular Inflammation in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Eun Roh
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2024; 48(1): 55.     CrossRef
Basic Research
A New Concept in Antidiabetic Therapeutics: A Concerted Removal of Labile Iron and Intracellular Deposition of Zinc
Vladimir Vinokur, Eduard Berenshtein, Mordechai Chevion, Dror Chevion
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):59-71.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0292
Retraction in: Diabetes Metab J 2024;48(2):325
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Basic Research
Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Attenuates Insulin Resistance in Mice with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus via Regulation of the MicroRNA-328-3p/SREBP-2/ERK Axis
Xuwen Tang, Qingxin Qin, Wenjing Xu, Xuezhen Zhang
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(2):267-286.   Published online January 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0216
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  • 6 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been illustrated to contribute to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present study, we aimed to elucidate how lncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) influences insulin resistance (IR) in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of GDM.
Methods
We initially developed a mouse model of HFD-induced GDM, from which islet tissues were collected for RNA and protein extraction. Interactions among lncRNA TUG1/microRNA (miR)-328-3p/sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) were assessed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β), insulin sensitivity index for oral glucose tolerance tests (ISOGTT) and insulinogenic index (IGI) levels in mouse serum were measured through conducting gain- and loss-of-function experiments.
Results
Abundant expression of miR-328 and deficient expression of lncRNA TUG1 and SREBP-2 were characterized in the islet tissues of mice with HFD-induced GDM. LncRNA TUG1 competitively bound to miR-328-3p, which specifically targeted SREBP-2. Either depletion of miR-328-3p or restoration of lncRNA TUG1 and SREBP-2 reduced the FBG, FINS, HOMA-β, and HOMA-IR levels while increasing ISOGTT and IGI levels, promoting the expression of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway-related genes, and inhibiting apoptosis of islet cells in GDM mice. Upregulation miR-328-3p reversed the alleviative effects of SREBP-2 and lncRNA TUG1 on IR.
Conclusion
Our study provides evidence that the lncRNA TUG1 may prevent IR following GDM through competitively binding to miR-328-3p and promoting the SREBP-2-mediated ERK signaling pathway inactivation.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diabetes and diabetic associative diseases: An overview of epigenetic regulations of TUG1
    Mohammed Ageeli Hakami
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences.2024; 31(5): 103976.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on gestational diabetes mellitus and its complications
    Ritu Rani, Havagiray Chitme, Avinash Kumar Sharma
    Women & Health.2023; 63(5): 359.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic Effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Extracts on Letrozole-Induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and its Complications in Murine Model
    Ritu Rani, Avinash Kumar Sharma, Havagiray R Chitme
    Clinical Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The role of ncRNA regulatory mechanisms in diseases—case on gestational diabetes
    Dong Gao, Liping Ren, Yu-Duo Hao, Nalini Schaduangrat, Xiao-Wei Liu, Shi-Shi Yuan, Yu-He Yang, Yan Wang, Watshara Shoombuatong, Hui Ding
    Briefings in Bioinformatics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • lncRNA TUG1 as potential novel biomarker for prognosis of cardiovascular diseases
    Habib Haybar, Narjes Sadat Sadati, Daryush Purrahman, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudian-Sani, Najmaldin Saki
    Epigenomics.2023; 15(23): 1273.     CrossRef
Short Communication
Others
Comparison of Insulin-Treated Patients with Ambiguous Diabetes Type with Definite Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Subjects: A Clinical Perspective
Insa Laspe, Juris J. Meier, Michael A. Nauck
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):140-146.   Published online March 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0322
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
In clinical practice, the distinction between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be challenging, leaving patients with “ambiguous” diabetes type. Insulin-treated patients (n=115) previously diagnosed with T2DM had to be re-classified based on clinical phenotype and laboratory results, and were operationally defined as having an ambiguous diabetes type. They were compared against patients with definite T1DM and T2DM regarding 12 clinical and laboratory features typically different between diabetes types. Characteristics of patients with ambiguous diabetes type, representing approximately 6% of all patients with T1DM or T2DM seen at our specialized clinic, fell in between those of patients with definite T1DM and T2DM, both regarding individual features and with respect to a novel classification based on multi-variable regression analysis (P<0.0001). In conclusion, a substantial proportion of diabetes patients in a tertiary care centre presented with an “ambiguous” diabetes type. Their clinical characteristics fall in between those of definite T1DM or T2DM patients.
Original Articles
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Normalized Creatinine-to-Cystatin C Ratio and Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Bo Xie, Yang Yuan, Zilin Sun, Tongzhi Wu
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):476-485.   Published online March 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0074
  • 4,849 View
  • 206 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio is recently suggested to be a surrogate marker for sarcopenia. However, little is known about its association with diabetes. This study aimed to fill in this gap based on a large-scale prospective cohort.
Methods
A population-based representative sample of 5,055 participants aged ≥45 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study was enrolled between 2011 and 2012 and followed at least once during the subsequent surveys at 2013, 2015, or 2018. Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio was calculated and normalized by body weight. Incident diabetes was ascertained by plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-reported history, or use of anti-diabetic drugs. Logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis were employed.
Results
During follow-up, 634 participants developed diabetes. The risk of diabetes was gradually and significantly decreased with increased normalized creatinine–cystatin C ratio. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for diabetes was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99) per 1 standard deviation higher of normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for muscle strength. The risk reduction in diabetes was significantly larger in participants with normal-weight and high normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio compared with those with overweight/obesity and high normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio (Pinteraction=0.01). Insulin resistance and inflammation appeared to be key mediators accounting for the observed relationship between normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio and risk of diabetes, with their mediating effect being 93.1% and 22.0%, respectively.
Conclusion
High normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio is associated with reduced risk of diabetes in middle-aged and older adults.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sex‐specific associations between skeletal muscle mass and incident diabetes: A population‐based cohort study
    Dan Liu, Nan Li, Yiling Zhou, Miye Wang, Peige Song, Changzheng Yuan, Qingyang Shi, Hui Chen, Kaixin Zhou, Huan Wang, Tao Li, Xiong‐Fei Pan, Haoming Tian, Sheyu Li
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(3): 820.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Mellitus Should Be Considered While Analysing Sarcopenia-Related Biomarkers
    Justyna Rentflejsz, Zyta Beata Wojszel
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(4): 1107.     CrossRef
  • Associations of muscle mass and strength with new-onset diabetes among middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS)
    Yun-Yun He, Mei-Ling Jin, Xiang-Yang Fang, Xiao-Juan Wang
    Acta Diabetologica.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The serum creatinine to cystatin C to waist circumference ratios predicts risk for type 2 diabetes: A Chinese cohort study
    Yinfei Chen, Weiheng Wen, Zhiliang Mai, Ming Wang, Hong Chen, Jia Sun
    Journal of Diabetes.2023; 15(10): 808.     CrossRef
  • Associations of sarcopenia with peak expiratory flow among community-dwelling elderly population: based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)
    Yun-Yun He, Mei-Ling Jin, Jing Chang, Xiao-Juan Wang
    European Geriatric Medicine.2023; 15(1): 95.     CrossRef
  • Additive impact of diabetes and sarcopenia on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: A longitudinal nationwide population-based study
    Eyun Song, Soon Young Hwang, Min Jeong Park, Ahreum Jang, Kyeong Jin Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A. Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyung Mook Choi
    Metabolism.2023; 148: 155678.     CrossRef
  • Muscle Quality in Relation to Prediabetes Phenotypes: A Population-Based Study With Mediation Analysis
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Xiaoying Zhou, Jinshui Xu, Zilin Sun, Haijian Guo, Tongzhi Wu
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Iron Overload and the Risk of Diabetes in the General Population: Results of the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey Cohort Study
He Gao, Jinying Yang, Wenfei Pan, Min Yang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(2):307-318.   Published online March 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0287
  • 5,195 View
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  • 12 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Recent studies have found that there are significant associations between body iron status and the development of diabetes. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the association among iron overload (IO), insulin resistance (IR), and diabetes in Chinese adults, and to explore the sex difference.
Methods
Men and women (age >19 years) who participated in the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey and did not have diabetes at baseline were followed between 2009 and 2015 (n=5,779). Over a mean of 6 years, 75 participants were diagnosed with incident diabetes. Logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors associated with IO. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the risk of incident diabetes and to determine whether the risk differed among subgroups. Causal mediation analysis (CMA) was used to explore the mechanism linking IO and diabetes.
Results
According to sex-stratified multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression, IO increased the risk of incident diabetes. Women with IO had a higher risk of diabetes than men. Subgroup analysis with respect to age showed that the association between IO and diabetes was stronger in older women and younger men (P<0.001). CMA showed that liver injury (alanine transaminase) and lipid metabolism abnormalities (triglyceride, apolipoprotein B) contributed to the association between IO and diabetes.
Conclusion
IO is associated with diabetes and this association is sex-specific. IO may indirectly induce IR via liver injury and lipid metabolism abnormalities, resulting in diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Quantitative susceptibility mapping for iron monitoring of multiple subcortical nuclei in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Sana Mohammadi, Sadegh Ghaderi, Fatemeh Sayehmiri, Mobina Fathi
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Cara Övermöhle, Sabina Waniek, Gerald Rimbach, Katharina Susanne Weber, Wolfgang Lieb
    The Journal of Nutrition.2023; 153(5): 1524.     CrossRef
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    Jie Feng, Xiaoyun Shan, Lijuan Wang, Jiaxi Lu, Yang Cao, Lichen Yang
    Nutrients.2023; 15(8): 1935.     CrossRef
  • Iron overload induces islet β cell ferroptosis by activating ASK1/P-P38/CHOP signaling pathway
    Ling Deng, Man-Qiu Mo, Jinling Zhong, Zhengming Li, Guoqiao Li, Yuzhen Liang
    PeerJ.2023; 11: e15206.     CrossRef
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    Ling Xie, Bin Fang, Chun Zhang
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research.2023; 1870(6): 119480.     CrossRef
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    Xuekui Liu, Xiu Hong, Shiqiang Jiang, Rui Li, Qian Lv, Jie Wang, Xiuli Wang, Manqing Yang, Houfa Geng, Yang Li
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Ji-Ren An, Qing-Feng Wang, Gui-Yan Sun, Jia-Nan Su, Jun-Tong Liu, Chi Zhang, Li Wang, Dan Teng, Yu-Feng Yang, Yan Shi
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 3235.     CrossRef
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    Han Hao, Yan Chen, Ji Xiaojuan, Zhang Siqi, Chu Hailiang, Sun Xiaoxing, Wang Qikai, Xing Mingquan, Feng Jiangzhou, Ge Hongfeng
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    Zhongjing Wang, Shu Fang, Sheng Ding, Qin Tan, Xuyan Zhang
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2022; Volume 15: 2259.     CrossRef
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    L Hof, O Old, A.U. Steinbicker, P Meybohm, S Choorapoikayil, K Zacharowski
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Reviews
Pathophysiology
Insulin Resistance: From Mechanisms to Therapeutic Strategies
Shin-Hae Lee, Shi-Young Park, Cheol Soo Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):15-37.   Published online December 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0280
  • 32,070 View
  • 2,773 Download
  • 168 Web of Science
  • 204 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Insulin resistance is the pivotal pathogenic component of many metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is defined as a state of reduced responsiveness of insulin-targeting tissues to physiological levels of insulin. Although the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance is not fully understood, several credible theories have been proposed. In this review, we summarize the functions of insulin in glucose metabolism in typical metabolic tissues and describe the mechanisms proposed to underlie insulin resistance, that is, ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. In addition, we suggest potential therapeutic strategies for addressing insulin resistance.

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Metabolic risk/Epidemiology
Obesity, Diabetes, and Increased Cancer Progression
Dae-Seok Kim, Philipp E. Scherer
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(6):799-812.   Published online November 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0077
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Rates of obesity and diabetes have increased significantly over the past decades and the prevalence is expected to continue to rise further in the coming years. Many observations suggest that obesity and diabetes are associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancers, including liver, pancreatic, endometrial, colorectal, and post-menopausal breast cancer. The path towards developing obesity and diabetes is affected by multiple factors, including adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, growth hormones, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. The metabolic abnormalities associated with changes in the levels of these factors in obesity and diabetes have the potential to significantly contribute to the development and progression of cancer through the regulation of distinct signaling pathways. Here, we highlight the cellular and molecular pathways that constitute the links between obesity, diabetes, cancer risk and mortality. This includes a description of the existing evidence supporting the obesity-driven morphological and functional alternations of cancer cells and adipocytes through complex interactions within the tumor microenvironment.

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Technology/Device
Assessment of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Resistance in Human
So Young Park, Jean-François Gautier, Suk Chon
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):641-654.   Published online September 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0220
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The impaired insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance (or decreased insulin sensitivity) play a major role in the pathogenesis of all types of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is very important to assess the pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance/ sensitivity to determine the type of DM and to plan an optimal management and prevention strategy for DM. So far, various methods and indices have been developed to assess the β-cell function and insulin resistance/sensitivity based on static, dynamic test and calculation of their results. In fact, since the metabolism of glucose and insulin is made through a complex process related with various stimuli in several tissues, it is difficult to fully reflect the real physiology. In order to solve the theoretical and practical difficulties, research on new index is still in progress. Also, it is important to select the appropriate method and index for the purpose of use and clinical situation. This review summarized a variety of traditional methods and indices to evaluate pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance/sensitivity and introduced novel indices.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal