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Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Intensified Multifactorial Intervention in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Takayoshi Sasako, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Kohjiro Ueki
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(2):185-197.   Published online January 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0325
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  • 9 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In the management of diabetes mellitus, one of the most important goals is to prevent its micro- and macrovascular complications, and to that end, multifactorial intervention is widely recommended. Intensified multifactorial intervention with pharmacotherapy for associated risk factors, alongside lifestyle modification, was first shown to be efficacious in patients with microalbuminuria (Steno-2 study), then in those with less advanced microvascular complications (the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment In People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care [ADDITION]-Europe and the Japan Diabetes Optimal Treatment study for 3 major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases [J-DOIT3]), and in those with advanced microvascular complications (the Nephropathy In Diabetes-Type 2 [NID-2] study and Diabetic Nephropathy Remission and Regression Team Trial in Japan [DNETT-Japan]). Thus far, multifactorial intervention led to a reduction in cardiovascular and renal events, albeit not necessarily significant. It should be noted that not only baseline characteristics but also the control status of the risk factors and event rates during intervention among the patients widely varied from one trial to the next. Further evidence is needed for the efficacy of multifactorial intervention in a longer duration and in younger or elderly patients. Moreover, now that new classes of antidiabetic drugs are available, it should be addressed whether strict and safe glycemic control, alongside control of other risk factors, could lead to further risk reductions in micro- and macrovascular complications, thereby decreasing all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Exploring mechanisms underlying diabetes comorbidities and strategies to prevent vascular complications
    Takayoshi Sasako
    Diabetology International.2024; 15(1): 34.     CrossRef
  • Targeting ERS-mitophagy in hippocampal neurons to explore the improvement of memory by tea polyphenols in aged type 2 diabetic rats
    Wenjuan Feng, Chenhui Lv, Le Cheng, Xin Song, Xuemin Li, Haoran Xie, Shuangzhi Chen, Xi Wang, Lushan Xue, Cheng Zhang, Jie Kou, Lili Wang, Haifeng Zhao
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine.2024; 213: 293.     CrossRef
  • Risk of Dementia Among Patients With Diabetes in a Multidisciplinary, Primary Care Management Program
    Kailu Wang, Shi Zhao, Eric Kam-Pui Lee, Susan Zi-May Yau, Yushan Wu, Chi-Tim Hung, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
    JAMA Network Open.2024; 7(2): e2355733.     CrossRef
  • Causes of In-Hospital Death and Pharmaceutical Associations with Age of Death during a 10-Year Period (2011–2020) in Individuals with and without Diabetes at a Japanese Community General Hospital
    Minae Hosoki, Taiki Hori, Yousuke Kaneko, Kensuke Mori, Saya Yasui, Seijiro Tsuji, Hiroki Yamagami, Saki Kawata, Tomoyo Hara, Shiho Masuda, Yukari Mitsui, Kiyoe Kurahashi, Takeshi Harada, Shingen Nakamura, Toshiki Otoda, Tomoyuki Yuasa, Akio Kuroda, Itsur
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(5): 1283.     CrossRef
  • External validation of a minimal-resource model to predict reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate in people with type 2 diabetes without diagnosis of chronic kidney disease in Mexico: a comparison between country-level and regional performance
    Camilla Sammut-Powell, Rose Sisk, Ruben Silva-Tinoco, Gustavo de la Pena, Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Sonia Citlali Juarez Comboni, Susana Goncalves, Rory Cameron
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    Priyanka Sati, Praveen Dhyani, Eshita Sharma, Dharam Chand Attri, Arvind Jantwal, Rajni Devi, Daniela Calina, Javad Sharifi-Rad
    Current Nutrition Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lipids as potential mediators linking body mass index to diabetes: evidence from a mediation analysis based on the NAGALA cohort
    Song Lu, Qun Wang, Hengcheng Lu, Maobin Kuang, Min Zhang, Guotai Sheng, Yang Zou, Xiaoping Peng
    BMC Endocrine Disorders.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential of FGF21 in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment based on untargeted metabolomics
    Shuai Li, Zilong Song, Chunxiang Fan, Weiwei Zhang, Tianyi Ma, Xu Li, Qi Zhang, Ming Zhao, Tianfei Yu, Shanshan Li
    Biochemical Pharmacology.2024; 225: 116306.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Type 2 Diabetes: Further Insights into the Power of Weight Loss and Exercise
    Seung-Hwan Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(3): 302.     CrossRef
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    Takayoshi Sasako, Kohjiro Ueki
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2023; 14(10): 1145.     CrossRef
Original Article
Complication
Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index Variability and Incident Diabetic Microvascular Complications: A Post Hoc Analysis of ACCORD Trial
Daniel Nyarko Hukportie, Fu-Rong Li, Rui Zhou, Jia-Zhen Zheng, Xiao-Xiang Wu, Xian-Bo Wu
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):767-780.   Published online May 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0258
  • 3,965 View
  • 222 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Obesity is associated with adverse health events among diabetic patients, however, the relationship between obesity fluctuation and risk of microvascular complications among this specific population is unclear. We aimed to examine the effect of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) variability on the risk of diabetic microvascular outcome
Methods
Annually recorded anthropometric data in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study was used to examine the association of WC and BMI variability defined as variability independent of mean, with the risk of microvascular outcomes, including neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov., no. NCT00000620).
Results
There were 4,031, 5,369, and 2,601 cases of neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy during a follow-up period of 22,524, 23,941, and 23,850 person-years, respectively. Higher levels of WC and BMI variability were associated with an increased risk of neuropathy. Compared with the lowest quartile, the fully-adjusted HR (95% CI) for the highest quartile of WC and BMI variability for neuropathy risk were 1.21 (1.05 to 1.40) and 1.16 (1.00 to 1.33), respectively. Also, higher quartiles of BMI variability but not WC variability were associated with increased risk of nephropathic events. The fully-adjusted HR (95% CI) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of BMI variability was 1.31 (1.18 to 1.46). However, the results for retinopathic events were all insignificant.
Conclusion
Among participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, WC and BMI variability were associated with a higher risk of neuropathic events, whereas BMI variability was associated with an increased risk of nephropathic events.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of body mass index and blood pressure variability with 10-year mortality and renal disease progression in type 2 diabetes
    Stephen Fava, Sascha Reiff
    Acta Diabetologica.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jiaheng Chen, Yu Ting Li, Zimin Niu, Zhanpeng He, Yao Jie Xie, Jose Hernandez, Wenyong Huang, Harry H X Wang
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    Yun Kyung Cho
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  • Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index Variability and Incident Diabetic Microvascular Complications: A Post Hoc Analysis of ACCORD Trial (Diabetes Metab J 2022;46:767-80)
    Daniel Nyarko Hukportie, Fu-Rong Li, Rui Zhou, Jia-Zhen Zheng, Xiao-Xiang Wu, Xian-Bo Wu
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 150.     CrossRef
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    Francesco Prattichizzo, Chiara Frigé, Rosalba La Grotta, Antonio Ceriello
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 199: 110646.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy in Latin America (Mexico) and the World: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Oscar Vivanco-Rojas, Sonia López-Letayf, Valentina Londoño-Angarita, Fátima Sofía Magaña-Guerrero, Beatriz Buentello-Volante, Yonathan Garfias
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(20): 6583.     CrossRef
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    Claudia R.L. Cardoso, Nathalie C. Leite, Gil F. Salles
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  • Correlation Between the Variability of Different Obesity Indices and Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study Based on Populations in Taiwan
    Zhenzhen Sun, Kun Wang, Chuan Yun, Fang Bai, Xiaodan Yuan, Yaujiunn Lee, Qingqing Lou
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 2791.     CrossRef
  • Unraveling shared risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer: a comprehensive Mendelian randomization analysis
    Kangli Yin, Tianci Qiao, Yongkang Zhang, Jiarui Liu, Yuzhen Wang, Fei Qi, Junlin Deng, Cheng Zhao, Yongcheng Xu, Yemin Cao
    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2023; 11(6): e003523.     CrossRef
Review
Type 1 Diabetes
Time in Range from Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A Novel Metric for Glycemic Control
Jee Hee Yoo, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(6):828-839.   Published online December 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0257
Correction in: Diabetes Metab J 2021;45(5):795
  • 10,074 View
  • 476 Download
  • 31 Web of Science
  • 36 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been the sole surrogate marker for assessing diabetic complications. However, consistently reported limitations of HbA1c are that it lacks detailed information on short-term glycemic control and can be easily interfered with by various clinical conditions such as anemia, pregnancy, or liver disease. Thus, HbA1c alone may not represent the real glycemic status of a patient. The advancement of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has enabled both patients and healthcare providers to monitor glucose trends for a whole single day, which is not possible with HbA1c. This has allowed for the development of core metrics such as time spent in time in range (TIR), hyperglycemia, or hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability. Among the 10 core metrics, TIR is reported to represent overall glycemic control better than HbA1c alone. Moreover, various evidence supports TIR as a predictive marker of diabetes complications as well as HbA1c, as the inverse relationship between HbA1c and TIR reveals. However, there are more complex relationships between HbA1c, TIR, and other CGM metrics. This article provides information about 10 core metrics with particular focus on TIR and the relationships between the CGM metrics for comprehensive understanding of glycemic status using CGM.

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Original Articles
Complications
Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study
Kyoung Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Jae Hyun Bae, Kyeong Jin Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(3):368-378.   Published online October 20, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0046
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  • 349 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To evaluate the association of time to reach the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with long-term durable glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
In a longitudinal observational cohort, 194 patients with T2DM newly diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013 were followed up over 6 years. Patients were classified according to the time needed to reach the target HbA1c (<7.0%): <3, 3 to 6 (early achievement group), and ≥6 months (late achievement group). Risks of microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well as macrovascular events including ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis.
Results
During a median follow-up of 6.53 years, 66 microvascular and 14 macrovascular events occurred. Maintenance of durable glycemic control over 6 years was more likely in the early achievement groups than in the late achievement group (34.5%, 30.0%, and 16.1% in <3, 3 to 6, and ≥6 months, respectively, P=0.039). Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with lower risk of composite diabetic complications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.86 in <3 months group) (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.10 in 3 to 6 months group, in reference to ≥6 months group). Similar trends were maintained for risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications, although statistical significance was not reached for macrovascular complications.
Conclusion
Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with long-term durable glycemic control and reduced risk of diabetic complications in newly diagnosed T2DM.

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    Journal of Functional Foods.2022; 98: 105270.     CrossRef
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    Anqi Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Xiaojuan Wan, Jing Zhang, Zihe Guo, Yamin Miao, Shuhan Zhao, Shuo Bai, Ziyi Zhang, Weiwei Yang
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Complications
Association between Sleep Quality and Painless Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Assessed by Current Perception Threshold in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Dughyun Choi, Bo-Yeon Kim, Chan-Hee Jung, Chul-Hee Kim, Ji-Oh Mok
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(3):358-367.   Published online August 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0219
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

It is known that the painful sensation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) results in sleep problems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not known that the painless DPN also is associated with poor sleep quality in T2DM. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between painless DPN and poor sleep quality in T2DM.

Methods

A total of 146 patients of T2DM who do not have any painful symptoms of DPN were recruited into the study. Among the patients, painless DPN was diagnosed by using the current perception threshold test. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire.

Results

The percentage of painless DPN was significantly higher in the poor sleep quality group than the good sleep quality group (70.0% vs. 35.5%, P<0.001). In the subscale results, stimulus values at 2,000 Hz, hypoesthesia and hyperesthesia were more common in the poor sleep quality group than in the good sleep quality group (45.7% vs. 25.0%, P=0.009; 34.3% vs. 18.4%, P=0.029; 40.0% vs. 19.7%, P=0.007, respectively). The association of painless DPN and poor sleep quality remained significant after adjustment for significant covariates (odds ratio, 3.825; 95% confidence interval, 1.674 to 8.742; P<0.001).

Conclusion

The current study showed that painless DPN was associated with poor sleep quality. Future studies are required to clarify the pathophysiologic causal relationship between painless DPN and sleep quality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Deteriorated sleep quality and associate factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy
    Lin Fu, Liping Zhong, Xin Liao, Lingrui Wang, Youyi Wang, Xiuquan Shi, Yanna Zhou
    PeerJ.2024; 12: e16789.     CrossRef
  • Sleep impairment: Is it an overlooked burden in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy? A single-centre, cross-sectional study from south India
    Adlin Lawrence, Himsikhar Khataniar, Sinimol Joseph, Thenmozhi Nagarajan, Soumya Umesh, John Michael Raj A
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2022; 16(8): 102568.     CrossRef
  • Sleep: an emerging therapeutic target in diabetes care
    Nishant Raizada, S. V. Madhu
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2021; 41(1): 1.     CrossRef
Type 1 Diabetes
Age at Diagnosis and the Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Jong Ha Baek, Woo Je Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Soo Kyoung Kim, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):46-54.   Published online July 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0134
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics and risk of diabetic complications according to age at diagnosis among young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods

A total of 255 T1DM patients aged less than 40 years were included. Patients were categorized into three groups (<20, 20 to 29, and 30 to 40 years) according to age at diagnosis. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was defined when spot urine-albumin creatinine ratio was 300 mg/g or more and/or estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) level was 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less.

Results

Median age at diagnosis was 25 years and disease duration was 14 years. Individuals diagnosed with T1DM at childhood/adolescent (age <20 years) had lower stimulated C-peptide levels. They received more intensive insulin treatment with higher total daily insulin doses compared to older onset groups. The prevalence of DN was higher in the childhood/adolescent-onset group than in older onset groups (25.3% vs. 15.3% vs. 9.6%, P=0.022). The eGFR was inversely associated with disease duration whilst the degree of decrease was more prominent in the childhood/adolescent-onset group than in the later onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; P<0.001). Childhood/adolescent-onset group was independently associated with the risk of DN compared to the older onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; odds ratio, 3.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 8.33; P=0.005).

Conclusion

In individuals with childhood/adolescent-onset T1DM, the reduction in renal function is more prominent with disease duration. Early age-onset T1DM is an independent risk of DN.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Brief Report
Complications
Acute Hyperglycemic Crises with Coronavirus Disease-19: Case Reports
Na-young Kim, Eunyeong Ha, Jun Sung Moon, Yong-Hoon Lee, Eun Young Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):349-353.   Published online April 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0091
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Since the first case was contracted by coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Daegu, Korea in February 2020, about 6,800 cases and 130 deaths have been reported on April 9, 2020. Recent studies have reported that patients with diabetes showed higher mortality and they had a worse prognosis than the group without diabetes. In poorly controlled patients with diabetes, acute hyperglycemic crises such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) also might be precipitated by COVID-19. Thus, intensive monitoring and aggressive supportive care should be needed to inadequately controlled patients with diabetes and COVID-19 infection. Here, we report two cases of severe COVID-19 patients with acute hyperglycemic crises in Korea.

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Original Articles
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Impact of Diabetes Control on Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Analysis from Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Registry
Gyung-Min Park, Chang Hoon Lee, Seung-Whan Lee, Sung-Cheol Yun, Young-Hak Kim, Yong-Giun Kim, Ki-Bum Won, Soe Hee Ann, Shin-Jae Kim, Dong Hyun Yang, Joon-Won Kang, Tae-Hwan Lim, Eun Hee Koh, Woo Je Lee, Min-Seon Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Hong-Kyu Kim, Jaewon Choe, Sang-Gon Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):470-479.   Published online November 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0073
  • 8,823 View
  • 70 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

There are limited data on the impact of diabetes control on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

Methods

We analyzed 6,434 consecutive asymptomatic individuals without previous history of coronary artery disease who underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) (mean age, 53.7±7.6 years and 4,694 men [73.0%]). The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were assessed by CCTA, and ≥50% diameter stenosis was defined as significant. A cardiac event was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. Study participants were categorized as normal (n=5,319), controlled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7%, n=747), or uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c ≥7%, n=368), respectively.

Results

Compared with normal individuals, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of for any atherosclerotic plaque (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.38; P=0.086) and significant coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.42; P=0.583) in controlled diabetic individuals. In contrast, uncontrolled diabetic individuals had consistently higher risks of any atherosclerotic plaque (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.70 to 2.75; P<0.001) and significant coronary artery stenosis (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 2.52 to 4.43; P<0.001) than normal individuals. During a follow-up of median 5.4 years, there was no significant difference in cardiac events between normal and controlled diabetic individuals (P=0.365). However, uncontrolled diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiac events compared with normal individuals (P<0.001) and controlled diabetic individuals (P=0.023).

Conclusion

Asymptomatic uncontrolled diabetes was associated with significant subclinical coronary atherosclerosis with subsequent high risk for cardiac events.

Citations

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Clinical Care/Education
Impact of Continuous Care on Health Outcomes and Cost for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Analysis Using National Health Insurance Cohort Database
Ji Hyun Nam, Changwoo Lee, Nayoung Kim, Keun Young Park, Jeonghoon Ha, Jaemoon Yun, Dong Wook Shin, Euichul Shin
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(6):776-784.   Published online October 21, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0189
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The objective of the study was to determine the impact of continuous care on health outcomes and cost of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea.

Methods

A nationwide retrospective, observational case-control study was conducted. Continuity of treatment was measured using Continuity of Care (COC) score. Information of all patients newly diagnosed with T2DM in 2004 was retrieved from the National Health Insurance database for the period of 2002 to 2013. The study examined 2,373 patients after applying exclusion criteria, such as for patients who died from conditions not related to T2DM. Statistical analyses were performed using frequency distribution, simple analysis (t-test and chi-squared test), and multi-method analysis (simple linear regression, logistic regression, and survival analysis).

Results

The overall COC score was 0.8±0.24. The average incidence of diabetic complications was 0.39 per patient with a higher COC score, whereas it was 0.49 per patient with a lower COC score. In both survival and logistic analyses, patients who had high COC score were significantly less likely to have diabetic complications (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.88). The average medical cost was approximately 3,496 United States dollar (USD) per patient for patients with a higher COC score, whereas it was 3,973 USD per patient for patients with a lower COC score during the 2006 to 2013 period, with a difference of around 477 USD, which is statistically significant after adjusting for other factors (β=−0.152).

Conclusion

Continuity of care for diabetes significantly reduced health complications and medical costs from patients with T2DM.

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Epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Study
Sen Li, Jiaxin Wang, Biao Zhang, Xinyi Li, Yuan Liu
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(3):319-341.   Published online April 19, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0060
  • 20,431 View
  • 255 Download
  • 126 Web of Science
  • 137 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

To investigate whether diabetes contributes to mortality for major types of diseases.

Methods

Six National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data cycles (1999 to 2000, 2001 to 2002, 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008, and 2009 to 2010) and their linked mortality files were used. A population of 15,513 participants was included according to the availability of diabetes and mortality status.

Results

Participants with diabetes tended to have higher all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, cerebrovascular disease, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. Confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models showed that both diagnosed diabetes category (yes or no) and diabetes status (diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes) were associated with all-cause mortality and with mortality due to cardiovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory diseases, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. No associations were found for cancer-, accidents-, or Alzheimer's disease-related mortality.

Conclusion

The current study's findings provide epidemiological evidence that diagnosed diabetes at the baseline is associated with increased mortality risk due to cardiovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory diseases, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease, but not with cancer or Alzheimer's disease.

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Short Communication
Complications
Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Subjects Affected by Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Jari Intra, Giuseppe Limonta, Fabrizio Cappellini, Maria Bertona, Paolo Brambilla
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):539-544.   Published online November 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0072
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Previous studies have suggested that iron-deficiency anemia affects glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements, but the results were contradictory. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to determine the effects of iron deficiency on HbA1c levels. Starting with the large computerized database of the Italian Hospital of Desio, including data from 2000 to 2016, all non-pregnant individuals older than 12 years of age with at least one measurement of HbA1c, cell blood count, ferritin, and fasting blood glucose on the same date of blood collection were enrolled. A total of 2,831 patients met the study criteria. Eighty-six individuals were diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, while 2,745 had a normal iron state. The adjusted means of HbA1c were significantly higher in anemic subjects (5.59% [37.37 mmol/mol]), than those measured in individuals without anemia (5.34% [34.81 mmol/mol]) (P<0.0001). These results suggest that clinicians should be cautious about diagnosing prediabetes and diabetes in individuals with anemia.

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Original Article
Complications
Association between Serum Cystatin C and Vascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without Nephropathy
Hye Jeong Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyoil Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Hyeong Kyu Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):513-518.   Published online October 15, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0006
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Recent studies have correlated serum cystatin C (CysC) with vascular complications, but few studies have investigated this correlation in diabetes patients without nephropathy. This study aimed to evaluate if higher serum CysC levels increase the risk for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with normal renal function or mild renal impairment.

Methods

A total of 806 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were admitted to the diabetes center of Soonchunhyang University Hospital for blood glucose control were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with nephropathy were excluded. Subjects were categorized into quartiles of serum CysC levels (Q1, ≤0.65 mg/L; Q2, 0.66 to 0.79 mg/L; Q3, 0.80 to 0.94 mg/L; and Q4, ≥0.95 mg/L).

Results

The proportion of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) (P for trend <0.001), coronary heart disease (CHD) (P for trend <0.001), and stroke (P for trend <0.001) increased across the serum CysC quartiles. After adjustment for confounding factors, the highest serum CysC level remained a significant risk factor for DR (odds ratio [OR], 1.929; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.007 to 4.144; P=0.040). Compared with Q1, a significant positive association was observed between serum CysC and CHD in Q2 (OR, 7.321; 95% CI, 1.114 to 48.114; P=0.012), Q3 (OR, 6.027; 95% CI, 0.952 to 38.161; P=0.020), and Q4 (OR, 8.122; 95% CI, 1.258 to 52.453; P=0.007). No associations were observed between CysC and stroke after additional adjustment for confounding variables.

Conclusion

Serum CysC levels are independently associated with DR and CHD, suggesting that CysC may be useful for identifying type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without nephropathy who are at high risk for vascular complications.

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Sulwon Lecture 2017
Complications
The Role of Advanced Glycation End Products in Diabetic Vascular Complications
Sang Youl Rhee, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(3):188-195.   Published online May 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0105
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In cases of chronic hyperglycemia, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are actively produced and accumulated in the circulating blood and various tissues. AGEs also accelerate the expression of receptors for AGEs, and they play an important role in the development of diabetic vascular complications through various mechanisms. Active interventions for glucose and related risk factors may help improve the clinical course of patients by reducing AGEs. This review summarizes recent updates on AGEs that have a significant impact on diabetic vascular complications.

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Short Communication
Complications
Single Sensor Gait Analysis to Detect Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Proof of Principle Study
Patrick Esser, Johnny Collett, Kevin Maynard, Dax Steins, Angela Hillier, Jodie Buckingham, Garry D. Tan, Laurie King, Helen Dawes
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(1):82-86.   Published online January 3, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.42.1.82
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

This study explored the potential utility of gait analysis using a single sensor unit (inertial measurement unit [IMU]) as a simple tool to detect peripheral neuropathy in people with diabetes. Seventeen people (14 men) aged 63±9 years (mean±SD) with diabetic peripheral neuropathy performed a 10-m walk test instrumented with an IMU on the lower back. Compared to a reference healthy control data set (matched by gender, age, and body mass index) both spatiotemporal and gait control variables were different between groups, with walking speed, step time, and SDa (gait control parameter) demonstrating good discriminatory power (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve >0.8). These results provide a proof of principle of this relatively simple approach which, when applied in clinical practice, can detect a signal from those with known diabetes peripheral neuropathy. The technology has the potential to be used both routinely in the clinic and for tele-health applications. Further research should focus on investigating its efficacy as an early indicator of or effectiveness of the management of peripheral neuropathy. This could support the development of interventions to prevent complications such as foot ulceration or Charcot's foot.

Citations

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Original Article
Complications
Features of Long-Standing Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy: A Study Based on Standardized Clinical Data
Sejeong Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Su Jin Jeong, Kiyoung Kim, Suk Chon, Seung-Young Yu, Jeong-Taek Woo
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):393-404.   Published online September 5, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.5.393
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This is part of a prospective study carried out as a national project to secure standardized public resources for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Korea. We compared various characteristics of long-standing T2DM patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and macular edema (ME).

Methods

From September 2014 to July 2015, T2DM patients with disease duration of at least 15 years were recruited at a single university hospital. Clinical data and samples were collected according to the common data elements and standards of procedure developed by the Korean Diabetes Association Research Council. Each participant was assessed by ophthalmologists for DR and ME.

Results

Among 220 registered patients, 183 completed the ophthalmologic assessment. DR was associated with longer disease duration (odds ratio [OR], 1.071; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001 to 1.147 for non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR]) (OR, 1.142; 95% CI, 1.051 to 1.242 for proliferative diabetic retinopathy [PDR]) and the use of long-acting insulin (OR, 4.559; 95% CI, 1.672 to 12.427 for NPDR) (OR, 4.783; 95% CI, 1.581 to 14.474 for PDR), but a lower prevalence of a family history of cancer (OR, 0.310; 95% CI, 0.119 to 0.809 for NPDR) (OR, 0.206; 95% CI, 0.063 to 0.673 for PDR). ME was associated with higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels (OR, 1.380; 95% CI, 1.032 to 1.845) and the use of rapid-acting insulin (OR, 5.211; 95% CI, 1.445 to 18.794).

Conclusion

Various clinical features were associated with DR and ME. Additional epidemiological and biorepository-based studies using this cohort are being conducted to deepen our understanding of diabetic complications in Korea.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal