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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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2023 Diabetic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet in Korea
Nam Hoon Kim, Mi-Hae Seo, Jin Hyung Jung, Kyung Do Han, Mi Kyung Kim, Nan Hee Kim, on Behalf of Diabetic Kidney Disease Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(3):463-472.   Published online March 19, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0310
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate the prevalence, incidence, comorbidities, and management status of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetes-related end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in South Korea.
Methods
We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2019 to 2021, n=2,665) for the evaluation of prevalence, comorbidities, control rate of glycemia and comorbidities in DKD, and the Korean Health Insurance Service-customized database (2008 to 2019, n=3,950,857) for the evaluation of trends in the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes-related ESKD, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors use for DKD, and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and mortality according to DKD stages. DKD was defined as albuminuria or low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Results
The prevalence of DKD was 25.4% (albuminuria, 22.0%; low eGFR, 6.73%) in patients with diabetes mellitus aged ≥30 years. Patients with DKD had a higher rate of comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity; however, their control rates were lower than those without DKD. Prescription rate of SGLT2 inhibitors with reduced eGFR increased steadily, reaching 5.94% in 2019. Approximately 70% of DKD patients were treated with RAS blockers. The prevalence rate of diabetesrelated ESKD has been steadily increasing, with a higher rate in older adults. ASCVD and mortality were significantly associated with an in increase in DKD stage.
Conclusion
DKD is prevalent among Korean patients with diabetes and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which requiring intensive management of diabetes and comorbidities. The prevalence of diabetes-related ESKD has been increasing, especially in the older adults, during past decade.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Endothelial NOX5 Obliterates the Reno-Protective Effect of Nox4 Deletion by Promoting Renal Fibrosis via Activation of EMT and ROS-Sensitive Pathways in Diabetes
    Karin A. M. Jandeleit-Dahm, Haritha R. Kankanamalage, Aozhi Dai, Jaroslawna Meister, Sara Lopez-Trevino, Mark E. Cooper, Rhian M. Touyz, Christopher R. J. Kennedy, Jay C. Jha
    Antioxidants.2024; 13(4): 396.     CrossRef
Cardiovascular risk/Epidemiology
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Risk of Cardiovascular Disease according to Baseline Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in Different Age Groups in Korean Diabetes Population: A Cohort Study
Tae Kyung Yoo, Kyung-Do Han, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(2):265-278.   Published online February 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0443
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The association between low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in different age groups within the diabetes mellitus (DM) population remains unclear. The cohort study was conducted to investigate this relationship.
Methods
We assessed the 2009 to 2012 Korean National Health Screening and National Health Insurance Service records, with follow-up to the primary outcome (myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke) or December 2018. After excluding the participants with a history of MI or stroke, 2,227,394 participants with DM were included and categorized according to baseline LDL-C levels and age. Cox proportional hazards modeling was conducted. The CVD risk of age <40 years and LDL-C <70 mg/dL was set as the reference. In each age group, LDL-C <70 mg/dL was used as a reference for the subgroup analysis.
Results
The cut-off LDL-C value for increased MI risk in each age group varied (<40 years old, LDL-C ≥160 mg/dL: hazard ratios [HR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.644 to 2.506) (40–49-year-old, LDL-C <115 mg/dL: HR, 1.245; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.489) (50–59-year-old, LDL-C <115 mg/dL: HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.014 to 1.445) (60-69-year-old, LDL-C <145 mg/dL: HR, 1.229; 95% CI, 1.022 to 1.479) (≥70 years old group, LDL-C <100 mg/dL: HR, 1.238; 95% CI, 1.018 to 1.504). The cut-off LDL-C values for increased stroke risk varied in each age subgroup (<40 years old, LDL-C ≥160 mg/dL: HR, 1.395; 95% CI, 1.094 to 1.779) (40–49-year-old, LDL-C <145 mg/dL: HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.019 to 1.253) (50–59-year-old, LDL-C <160 mg/dL: HR, 1.079; 95% CI, 1.008 to 1.154) (60–69-year-old, LDL-C <130 mg/dL: HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.022 to 1.119) (≥70 years old, LDL-C <115 mg/dL: HR, 1.064; 95% CI, 1.019 to 1.112).
Conclusion
The effect of LDL-C on the risk of CVD differs depending on the age of the population with DM.
Drug/Regimen
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Pioglitazone as Add-on THERAPY in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled with Dapagliflozin and Metformin: Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Ji Hye Heo, Kyung Ah Han, Jun Hwa Hong, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eun-Gyoung Hong, Jae Myung Yu, Hye Seung Jung, Bong-Soo Cha
Received September 1, 2023  Accepted October 25, 2023  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0314    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study assessed the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with pioglitazone 15 mg add-on versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin and dapagliflozin.
Methods
In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase 3 study, patients with T2DM with an inadequate response to treatment with metformin (≥1,000 mg/day) plus dapagliflozin (10 mg/day) were randomized to receive additional pioglitazone 15 mg/day (n=125) or placebo (n=125) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels from baseline to week 24 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05101135).
Results
At week 24, the adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c level compared with placebo was significantly greater with pioglitazone treatment (–0.47%; 95% confidence interval, –0.61 to –0.33; P<0.0001). A greater proportion of patients achieved HbA1c <7% or <6.5% at week 24 with pioglitazone compared to placebo as add-on to 10 mg dapagliflozin and metformin (56.8% vs. 28% for HbA1c <7%, and 23.2% vs. 9.6% for HbA1c <6.5%; P<0.0001 for all). The addition of pioglitazone also significantly improved triglyceride, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels, while placebo did not. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between the groups, and the incidence of fluid retention-related side effects by pioglitazone was low (1.5%).
Conclusion
Triple therapy with the addition of 15 mg/day of pioglitazone to dapagliflozin plus metformin was well tolerated and produced significant improvements in HbA1c in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with dapagliflozin plus metformin.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Harnessing Metabolic Indices as a Predictive Tool for Cardiovascular Disease in a Korean Population without Known Major Cardiovascular Event
Hyun-Jin Kim, Byung Sik Kim, Yonggu Lee, Sang Bong Ahn, Dong Wook Kim, Jeong-Hun Shin
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(3):449-462.   Published online February 1, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0197
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study evaluated the usefulness of indices for metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance (IR), as predictive tools for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged Korean adults.
Methods
The prospective data obtained from the Ansan-Ansung cohort database, excluding patients with major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary outcome was the incidence of MACCE during the follow-up period.
Results
A total of 9,337 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 1,130 (12.1%) experienced MACCE during a median follow-up period of 15.5 years. The metabolic syndrome severity Z-score, metabolic syndrome severity score, hepatic steatosis index, and NAFLD liver fat score were found to significantly predict MACCE at values above the cut-off point and in the second and third tertiles. Among these indices, the hazard ratios of the metabolic syndrome severity score and metabolic syndrome severity Z-score were the highest after adjusting for confounding factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score for predicting MACCE was 0.716, and the metabolic syndrome severity Z-score had an AUC of 0.619.
Conclusion
The metabolic syndrome severity score is a highly reliable indicator and was closely associated with the 10-year ASCVD risk score in predicting MACCE in the general population. Given the specific characteristics and limitations of metabolic syndrome severity scores as well as the indices of NAFLD and IR, a more practical scoring system that considers these factors is essential to achieve greater accuracy in forecasting cardiovascular outcomes.
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
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Real-World Treatment Patterns according to Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Established Cardiovascular Disease in Korea: Multicenter, Retrospective, Observational Study
Ye Seul Yang, Nam Hoon Kim, Jong Ha Baek, Seung-Hyun Ko, Jang Won Son, Seung-Hwan Lee, Sang Youl Rhee, Soo-Kyung Kim, Tae Seo Sohn, Ji Eun Jun, In-Kyung Jeong, Chong Hwa Kim, Keeho Song, Eun-Jung Rhee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(2):279-289.   Published online January 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0225
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Recent diabetes management guidelines recommend that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) with proven cardiovascular benefits should be prioritized for combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and established cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was aimed at evaluating SGLT2i or GLP-1RA usage rates and various related factors in patients with T2DM and established CVD.
Methods
We enrolled adults with T2DM aged ≥30 years who were hospitalized due to established CVD from January 2019 to May 2020 at 13 secondary and tertiary hospitals in Korea in this retrospective observational study.
Results
Overall, 2,050 patients were eligible for analysis among 2,107 enrolled patients. The mean patient age, diabetes duration, and glycosylated hemoglobin level were 70.0 years, 12.0 years, and 7.5%, respectively. During the mean follow-up duration of 9.7 months, 25.7% of the patients were prescribed SGLT2is after CVD events. However, only 1.8% were prescribed GLP-1RAs. Compared with SGLT2i non-users, SGLT2i users were more frequently male and obese. Furthermore, they had a shorter diabetes duration but showed worse glycemic control and better renal function at the time of the event. GLP-1RA users had a longer duration of diabetes and worse glycemic control at the time of the event than GLP-1RA non-users.
Conclusion
The SGLT2i or GLP-1RA prescription rates were suboptimal in patients with T2DM and established CVD. Sex, body mass index, diabetes duration, glycemic control, and renal function were associated with the use of these agents.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Enhancing Patient Outcomes: Prioritizing SGLT2is and GLP-1RAs in Diabetes with CVD
    Gwanpyo Koh
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2024; 48(2): 208.     CrossRef
Drug Regimen
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The Efficacy and Safety of Moderate-Intensity Rosuvastatin with Ezetimibe versus High-Intensity Rosuvastatin in High Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Multicenter, Open, Parallel, Phase 4 Study
Jun Sung Moon, Il Rae Park, Sang Soo Kim, Hye Soon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Sin Gon Kim, Seung Hyun Ko, Ji Hyun Lee, Inkyu Lee, Bo Kyeong Lee, Kyu Chang Won
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):818-825.   Published online November 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0171
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate the efficacy and safety of moderate-intensity rosuvastatin/ezetimibe combination compared to highintensity rosuvastatin in high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
This study was a randomized, multicenter, open, parallel phase 4 study, and enrolled T2DM subjects with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5%. The primary endpoint was the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) change rate after 24-week rosuvastatin 10 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg treatment was non-inferior to that of rosuvastatin 20 mg. The achievement proportion of 10-year ASCVD risk <7.5% or comprehensive lipid target (LDL-C <70 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL, and apolipoprotein B <80 mg/dL) without discontinuation, and several metabolic parameters were explored as secondary endpoints.
Results
A hundred and six participants were assigned to each group. Both groups showed significant reduction in % change of LDL-C from baseline at week 24 (–63.90±6.89 vs. –55.44±6.85, combination vs. monotherapy, p=0.0378; respectively), but the combination treatment was superior to high-intensity monotherapy in LDL-C change (%) from baseline (least square [LS] mean difference, –8.47; 95% confidence interval, –16.44 to –0.49; p=0.0378). The combination treatment showed a higher proportion of achieved comprehensive lipid targets rather than monotherapy (85.36% vs. 62.22% in monotherapy, p=0.015). The ezetimibe combination significantly improved homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function even without A1c changes (LS mean difference, 17.13; p=0.0185).
Conclusion
In high ASCVD risk patients with T2DM, the combination of moderate-intensity rosuvastatin and ezetimibe was not only non-inferior but also superior to improving dyslipidemia with additional benefits compared to high-intensity rosuvastatin monotherapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Does Rosuvastatin/Ezetimibe Combination Therapy Offer Potential Benefits for Glucose Metabolism beyond Lipid-Lowering Efficacy in T2DM?
    Il Rae Park, Jun Sung Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2024; 48(3): 387.     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
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Glycemic Control and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results from KNOW-CKD
Ga Young Heo, Hee Byung Koh, Hyung Woo Kim, Jung Tak Park, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Jayoun Kim, Soo Wan Kim, Yeong Hoon Kim, Su Ah Sung, Kook-Hwan Oh, Seung Hyeok Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(4):535-546.   Published online April 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0112
  • 3,052 View
  • 167 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The optimal level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to prevent adverse clinical outcomes is unknown in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
We analyzed 707 patients with CKD G1-G5 without kidney replacement therapy and T2DM from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD), a nationwide prospective cohort study. The main predictor was time-varying HbA1c level at each visit. The primary outcome was a composite of development of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) or all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included the individual endpoint of MACEs, all-cause mortality, and CKD progression. CKD progression was defined as a ≥50% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline or the onset of end-stage kidney disease.
Results
During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the primary outcome occurred in 129 (18.2%) patients. In time-varying Cox model, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for the primary outcome were 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 2.49) and 1.99 (95% CI, 1.24 to 3.19) for HbA1c levels of 7.0%–7.9% and ≥8.0%, respectively, compared with <7.0%. Additional analysis of baseline HbA1c levels yielded a similar graded association. In secondary outcome analyses, the aHRs for the corresponding HbA1c categories were 2.17 (95% CI, 1.20 to 3.95) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.17 to 4.37) for MACE, and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.68 to 2.72) and 2.08 (95% CI, 1.06 to 4.05) for all-cause mortality. However, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between the three groups.
Conclusion
This study showed that higher HbA1c levels were associated with an increased risk of MACE and mortality in patients with CKD and T2DM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Beneficial Effect of Glycemic Control against Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease
    Dong-Hwa Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(4): 484.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and predictors of chronic kidney disease among type 2 diabetic patients worldwide, systematic review and meta-analysis
    Eneyew Talie Fenta, Habitu Birhan Eshetu, Natnael Kebede, Eyob Ketema Bogale, Amare Zewdie, Tadele Derbew Kassie, Tadele Fentabil Anagaw, Elyas Melaku Mazengia, Sintayehu Shiferaw Gelaw
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a Bayesian network meta-analysis
    Miao Zhu, Ruifang Guan, Guo Ma
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Its Implications across the Life Span
Brandy Wicklow, Ravi Retnakaran
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(3):333-344.   Published online February 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0348
  • 6,259 View
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  • 7 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has historically been perceived as a medical complication of pregnancy that also serves as a harbinger of maternal risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the future. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has detailed additional lifelong implications that extend beyond T2DM, including an elevated risk of ultimately developing cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the risk factors that mediate this lifetime cardiovascular risk are evident not only after delivery but are present even before the pregnancy in which GDM is first diagnosed. The concept thus emerging from these data is that the diagnosis of GDM enables the identification of women who are already on an enhanced track of cardiometabolic risk that starts early in life. Studies of the offspring of pregnancies complicated by diabetes now suggest that the earliest underpinnings of this cardiometabolic risk profile may be determined in utero and may first manifest clinically in childhood. Accordingly, from this perspective, GDM is now seen as a chronic metabolic disorder that holds implications across the life span of both mother and child.

Citations

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  • ATP5me alleviates high glucose-induced myocardial cell injury
    Qingsha Hou, Fang Yan, Xiuling Li, Huanling Liu, Xiang Yang, Xudong Dong
    International Immunopharmacology.2024; 129: 111626.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Overt Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Secondary Analysis of Nationwide Data from India
    Saurav Basu, Vansh Maheshwari, Rutul Gokalani, Chandrakant Lahariya
    Preventive Medicine: Research & Reviews.2024; 1(1): 52.     CrossRef
  • Serum betaine and dimethylglycine in mid-pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study
    Ziqing Zhou, Yao Yao, Yanan Sun, Xin Wang, Shang Huang, Jianli Hou, Lijun Wang, Fengxiang Wei
    Endocrine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Quality assessment of videos on social media platforms related to gestational diabetes mellitus in China: A cross-section study
    Qin-Yu Cai, Jing Tang, Si-Zhe Meng, Yi Sun, Xia Lan, Tai-Hang Liu
    Heliyon.2024; 10(7): e29020.     CrossRef
  • Association of VDR gene variant rs2228570-FokI with gestational diabetes mellitus susceptibility in Arab women
    Maysa Alzaim, Mohammed G.A. Ansari, Abeer A. Al-Masri, Malak N.K. Khattak, Abir Alamro, Amani Alghamdi, Amal Alenad, Majed Alokail, Omar S. Al-Attas, Ahmad G. Al-Zahrani, Nasser M. Al-Daghri
    Heliyon.2024; 10(11): e32048.     CrossRef
  • Variations in the LINGO2 and GLIS3 Genes and Gene–Environment Interactions Increase Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Chinese Women
    Xiao Huang, Weiwei Liang, Runqiu Yang, Lei Jin, Kai Zhao, Juan Chen, Xuejun Shang, Yuanzhong Zhou, Xin Wang, Hongsong Yu
    Environmental Science & Technology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Inflammation and decreased cardiovagal modulation are linked to stress and depression at 36th week of pregnancy in gestational diabetes mellitus
    Manoharan Renugasundari, Gopal Krushna Pal, Latha Chaturvedula, Nivedita Nanda, K. T. Harichandrakumar, Thiyagarajan Durgadevi
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Women with gestational diabetes mellitus, controlled for plasma glucose level, exhibit maternal and fetal dyslipidaemia that may warrant treatment
    Barbara J. Meyer, Colin Cortie, Marloes Dekker-Nitert, Helen L. Barrett, Dilys J. Freeman
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 204: 110929.     CrossRef
  • Pregnancy diet to prevent gestational diabetes: study design and dietary assessments
    Sylvia H. Ley
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2023; 118(5): 847.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
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Cardiovascular Outcomes according to Comorbidities and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Min Kyong Moon, Junghyun Noh, Eun-Jung Rhee, Sang Hyun Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Byung Jin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Seonghoon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Young Youl Hyun, Bum Joon Kim, Kyung-Do Han, In-Kyung Jeong, on Behalf of the Committee of Practice Guideline of Korean Lipid and Atheroscelerosis
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):45-58.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0344
  • 3,352 View
  • 272 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There are no clear data to support the cardiovascular (CV) risk categories and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals in Korean people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We evaluated the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) according to comorbidities and suggested LDL-C treatment goals in Korean people with T2DM in nationwide cohort data.
Methods
Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 248,002 people aged 30 to 90 years with T2DM who underwent routine health check-ups during 2009 were included. Subjects with previous CVD were excluded from the study. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined as a composite of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke during the follow-up period from 2009 to 2018.
Results
The mean age of the study participants was 59.6±10.9 years, and median follow-up period was 9.3 years. CVD incidence increased in the order of DM duration of 5 years or more (12.04/1,000 person-years), hypertension (HT) (12.27/1,000 personyears), three or more CV risk factors (14.10/1,000 person-years), and chronic kidney disease (18.28/1,000 person-years). The risk of incident CVD increased linearly from an LDL-C level of ≥70 mg/dL in most patients with T2DM. In T2DM patients without HT or with a DM duration of less than 5 years, the CVD incidence increased from LDL-C level of ≥100 mg/dL.
Conclusion
For primary prevention of CVD in Korean adults with T2DM, it can be helpful to lower LDL-C targets when there are chronic kidney disease, HT, a long duration of diabetes mellitus, or three or more CV risk factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Lipid Management in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
    Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level for Primary Prevention in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Ji Yoon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 42.     CrossRef
  • Lipid Management in Korean People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
    Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2023; 12(1): 12.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes: Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors
    Ye Seul Yang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 135.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Jong Han Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Suk Chon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Lim, YoonJu Song, Ye Seul Yang, Jae Hyeon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jong Suk Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Hae J
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 575.     CrossRef
  • Management of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
    Kyung Ae Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 111.     CrossRef
  • Significant Gap Between Guidelines and Practice in the Management of LDL Cholesterol: Insight From the Survey of the Korean Society of Myocardial Infarction
    Sang Yeub Lee, Kyung Hoon Cho, Jang Hoon Lee, Young Joon Hong, Jin yong Hwang, Myung Ho Jeong, Weon Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
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Association between Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Korean Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Junghyun Noh, Min Kyong Moon, Eun-Jung Rhee, Sang Hyun Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Byung Jin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Seonghoon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Young Youl Hyun, Bum Joon Kim, Kyung-Do Han, In-Kyung Jeong, on Behalf of the Committee of Practice Guideline of Korean Lipid and Atheroscelerosis
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):59-71.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0320
  • 3,099 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To validate the treatment target of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level according to the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk which was recommended by Korean dyslipidemia guideline.
Methods
We used the Korean National Health Insurance Service database which included 3,958,048 people aged 20 to 89 years who underwent regular health screening. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined as a composite of myocardial infarction and stroke during the follow-up period from 2009 to 2018.
Results
The risk of CVD increased from LDL-C level of 70 mg/dL in very high-risk and high-risk groups and from 130 mg/dL in moderate-risk and low-risk groups. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of LDL-C ranges 70–99, 100–129, 130–159, 160–189, and ≥190 mg/dL were 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–1.33), 1.27 (1.15–1.42), 1.39 (1.23–1.56), 1.69 (1.45–1.96), and 1.84 (1.49– 2.27) in very high-risk group, and 1.07 (1.02–1.13), 1.16 (1.10–1.21), 1.29 (1.22–1.36), 1.45 (1.36–1.55), and 1.73 (1.58–1.90) in high-risk group. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) of LDL-C ranges 130–159, 160–189, and ≥190 mg/dL were 1.15 (1.11–1.20), 1.28 (1.22– 1.34), and 1.45 (1.36–1.54) in moderate-risk group and 1.07 (1.02–1.13), 1.20 (1.13–1.26), and 1.47 (1.37–1.57) in low-risk group.
Conclusion
We confirmed the incidence of CVD was increased in higher LDL-C range. The risk of CVD increased from ≥70 mg/dL of LDL-C in very high-risk and high-risk groups, and from ≥130 mg/dL of LDL-C in moderate-risk and low-risk groups in Korean adults.

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  • Efficacy and Safety of a Single-Pill Triple Combination of Olmesartan, Amlodipine, and Rosuvastatin in Hypertensive Patients with Low-to-Moderate Cardiovascular Risk: A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label, Active-Control, Phase IV Clinical Trial
    Byung Jin Kim, Kwang Soo Cha, Wook Hyun Cho, Eung Ju Kim, Seung-Hyuk Choi, Moo Hyun Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Jun-Bean Park, Seong-Mi Park, Il Suk Sohn, Kyu Hyung Ryu, In-Ho Chae
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Reviews
Pathophysiology
Article image
Blood Pressure Target in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hyun-Jin Kim, Kwang-il Kim, on Behalf of the Policy Committee of Korean Society of Hypertension
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):667-674.   Published online September 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0215
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continues to increase worldwide, and it is a well-established cardiovascular risk factor. Hypertension is also an important cardiovascular risk factor to be controlled and is common among patients with diabetes mellitus. Optimal blood pressure (BP) goals have been the subject of great debate in the management of hypertension among patients with diabetes mellitus. This review provides detailed results from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of clinical outcomes according to the target BP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, the target BP in patients with diabetes mellitus recommended by different guidelines was summarized and presented. A target BP of <140/90 mm Hg is recommended for patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and BP should be controlled to <130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes mellitus who have high-risk clinical features. We hope that this review will be helpful to clinicians and patients by promoting the understanding and appropriate application of BP control in the comprehensive management of patients with diabetes mellitus.

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    Filippos Triposkiadis, Pantelis Sarafidis, Alexandros Briasoulis, Dimitrios E. Magouliotis, Thanos Athanasiou, John Skoularigis, Andrew Xanthopoulos
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Drug/Regimen
Article image
New, Novel Lipid-Lowering Agents for Reducing Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Statins
Kyuho Kim, Henry N. Ginsberg, Sung Hee Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(4):517-532.   Published online July 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0198
Correction in: Diabetes Metab J 2022;46(5):817
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Statins are the cornerstone of the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, even under optimal statin therapy, a significant residual ASCVD risk remains. Therefore, there has been an unmet clinical need for novel lipid-lowering agents that can target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other atherogenic particles. During the past decade, several drugs have been developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Inclisiran, a small interfering RNA that targets proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), shows comparable effects to that of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies. Bempedoic acid, an ATP citrate lyase inhibitor, is a valuable treatment option for the patients with statin intolerance. Pemafibrate, the first selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulator, showed a favorable benefit-risk balance in phase 2 trial, but the large clinical phase 3 trial (PROMINENT) was recently stopped for futility based on a late interim analysis. High dose icosapent ethyl, a modified eicosapentaenoic acid preparation, shows cardiovascular benefits. Evinacumab, an angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) monoclonal antibody, reduces plasma LDL-C levels in patients with refractory hypercholesterolemia. Novel antisense oligonucleotides targeting apolipoprotein C3 (apoC3), ANGPTL3, and lipoprotein(a) have significantly attenuated the levels of their target molecules with beneficial effects on associated dyslipidemias. Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is considered as a potential treatment to exploit the athero-protective effects of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but solid clinical evidence is necessary. In this review, we discuss the mode of action and clinical outcomes of these novel lipid-lowering agents beyond statins.

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Original Articles
Drug/Regimen
Article image
Real-World Prescription Patterns and Barriers Related to the Use of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors among Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease
Jong Ha Baek, Ye Seul Yang, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyung Do Han, Jae Hyeon Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Jong Han Choi, Kyu Yeon Hur, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):701-712.   Published online June 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0002
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To evaluate prescription trends and clinical factors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) use according to the presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or heart failure (HF) in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
Prescription patterns of SGLT2i use between 2015 and 2019 were determined using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database of claims.
Results
Of all patients with T2DM (n=4,736,493), the annual prescription rate of SGLT2i increased every year in patients with ASCVD (from 2.2% to 10.7%) or HF (from 2.0% to 11.1%). After the first hospitalization for ASCVD (n=518,572), 13.7% (n=71,259) of patients initiated SGLT2i with a median of 10.6 months. After hospitalization for HF (n=372,853), 11.2% (n=41,717) of patients initiated SGLT2i after a median of 8.8 months. In multivariate regression for hospitalization, older age (per 10 years, odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.57), lower household income (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.95), rural residents (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93 to 0.97), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) users (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.84) were associated with lesser initiation of SGLT2i in ASCVD. Additionally, female gender (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) was associated with lesser initiation of SGLT2i in HF.
Conclusion
The prescription rate of SGLT2i increased gradually up to 2019 but was suboptimal in patients with ASCVD or HF. After the first hospitalization for ASCVD or HF, older age, female gender, low household income, rural residents, and DPP-4i users were less likely to initiate SGLT2i.

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  • Effectiveness and safety of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in Asian populations
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
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    Jiashen Cai, Dorothy Huang, Hanis Binte Abdul Kadir, Zhihua Huang, Li Choo Ng, Andrew Ang, Ngiap Chuan Tan, Yong Mong Bee, Wei Yi Tay, Chieh Suai Tan, Cynthia C. Lim
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    Seung-Hyun Ko
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    Seung Min Chung, Ji-In Lee, Eugene Han, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eonju Jeon, Hye Soon Kim, Ji Sung Yoon
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Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and All-Cause Mortality according to Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in the Elderly, a Nationwide Study
You-Bin Lee, Minji Koo, Eunjin Noh, Soon Young Hwang, Jung A Kim, Eun Roh, So-hyeon Hong, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Geum Joon Cho, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):722-732.   Published online March 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0225
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We assessed the myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause death risks during follow-up according to the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among older adults.
Methods
The Korean National Health Insurance Service datasets (2002 to 2020) were used for this population-based cohort study. The hazards of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality during follow-up were analyzed according to LDL-C level in individuals aged ≥65 years without baseline cardiovascular diseases (n=1,391,616).
Results
During a mean 7.55 years, 52,753 MIs developed; 84,224 strokes occurred over a mean 7.47 years. After a mean 8.50 years, 233,963 died. A decrease in LDL-C was associated with lower hazards of MI and stroke. The decreased hazard of stroke in lower LDL-C was more pronounced in statin users, and individuals with diabetes or obesity. The hazard of all-cause death during follow-up showed an inverted J-shaped pattern according to the LDL-C levels. However, the paradoxically increased hazard of mortality during follow-up in lower LDL-C was attenuated in statin users and individuals with diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In statin users, lower LDL-C was associated with a decreased hazard of mortality during follow-up.
Conclusion
Among the elderly, lower LDL-C was associated with decreased risks of MI and stroke. Lower LDL-C achieved by statins in the elderly was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause death during follow-up, suggesting that LDL-C paradox for the premature death risk in the elderly should not be applied to statin users. Intensive statin therapy should not be hesitated for older adults with cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes.

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    Ji Eun Jun, In-Kyung Jeong, Kyu Jeong Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung, You-Cheol Hwang
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    Frontiers in Neurology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • New, Novel Lipid-Lowering Agents for Reducing Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Statins
    Kyuho Kim, Henry N. Ginsberg, Sung Hee Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 517.     CrossRef
  • Association between the Diabetes Drug Cost and Cardiovascular Events and Death in Korea: A National Health Insurance Service Database Analysis
    Seung Min Chung, Ji-In Lee, Eugene Han, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eonju Jeon, Hye Soon Kim, Ji Sung Yoon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(5): 759.     CrossRef
Review
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Article image
Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Perimenopausal Women with Diabetes
Catherine Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):492-501.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0262
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality in women and men with diabetes. Due to age and worsening of risk factors over the menopausal transition, risk of coronary heart disease events increases in postmenopausal women with diabetes. Randomized studies have conflicted regarding the beneficial impact of estrogen therapy upon intermediate cardiovascular disease markers and events. Therefore, estrogen therapy is not currently recommended for indications other than symptom management. However, for women at low risk of adverse events, estrogen therapy can be used to minimize menopausal symptoms. The risk of adverse events can be estimated using risk engines for the calculation of cardiovascular risk and breast cancer risk in conjunction with screening tools such as mammography. Use of estrogen therapy, statins, and anti-platelet agents can be guided by such calculators particularly for younger women with diabetes. Risk management remains focused upon lifestyle behaviors and achieving optimal levels of cardiovascular risk factors, including lipids, glucose, and blood pressure. Use of pharmacologic therapies to address these risk factors, particularly specific hypoglycemic agents, may provide some additional benefit for risk prevention. The minimal benefit for women with limited life expectancy and risk of complications with intensive therapy should also be considered.

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