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Basic Research
Extracellular Vimentin Alters Energy Metabolism And Induces Adipocyte Hypertrophy
Ji-Hae Park, Soyeon Kwon, Young Mi Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(2):215-230.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0332
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Previous studies have reported that oxidative stress contributes to obesity characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy. However, mechanism has not been studied extensively. In the current study, we evaluated role of extracellular vimentin secreted by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in energy metabolism in adipocytes.
Methods
We treated 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes with oxLDL and measured vimentin which was secreted in the media. We evaluated changes in uptake of glucose and free fatty acid, expression of molecules functioning in energy metabolism, synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and lactate, markers for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in adipocytes treated with recombinant vimentin.
Results
Adipocytes secreted vimentin in response to oxLDL. Microscopic evaluation revealed that vimentin treatment induced increase in adipocyte size and increase in sizes of intracellular lipid droplets with increased intracellular triglyceride. Adipocytes treated with vimentin showed increased uptake of glucose and free fatty acid with increased expression of plasma membrane glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), GLUT4, and CD36. Vimentin treatment increased transcription of GLUT1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif-1α) but decreased GLUT4 transcription. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and 2 were decreased by vimentin treatment. Markers for ER stress were increased and autophagy was impaired in vimentin-treated adipocytes. No change was observed in synthesis of ATP and lactate in the adipocytes treated with vimentin.
Conclusion
We concluded that extracellular vimentin regulates expression of molecules in energy metabolism and promotes adipocyte hypertrophy. Our results show that vimentin functions in the interplay between oxidative stress and metabolism, suggesting a mechanism by which adipocyte hypertrophy is induced in oxidative stress.
COVID-19
Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on the Metabolic Control Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Ifan Ali Wafa, Nando Reza Pratama, Nurizzah Farahiyah Sofia, Elsha Stephanie Anastasia, Tiffany Konstantin, Maharani Ayuputeri Wijaya, M. Rifqi Wiyono, Lilik Djuari, Hermina Novida
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(2):260-272.   Published online March 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0125
  • 5,548 View
  • 272 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Abrupt implementation of lockdowns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected the management of diabetes mellitus in patients worldwide. Limited access to health facilities and lifestyle changes potentially affected metabolic parameters in patients at risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine any differences in the control of metabolic parameters in patients with diabetes, before and during lockdown.
Methods
We performed searches of five databases. Meta-analyses were carried out using random- or fixed-effect approaches to glycaemic control parameters as the primary outcome: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), random blood glucose (RBG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), time-in-range (TIR), time-above-range (TAR), time-below-range (TBR). Mean difference (MD), confidence interval (CI), and P value were calculated. Lipid profile was a secondary outcome and is presented as a descriptive analysis.
Results
Twenty-one studies enrolling a total of 3,992 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM or T2DM) were included in the study. Patients with T1DM showed a significant improvement of TIR and TAR (MD=3.52% [95% CI, 0.29 to 6.74], I2=76%, P=0.03; MD=–3.36% [95% CI, –6.48 to –0.25], I2=75%, P=0.03), while FBG among patients with T2DM significantly worsened (MD=3.47 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.22 to 5.73], I2=0%, P<0.01). No significant difference was found in HbA1c, RBG, and TBR. Use of continuous glucose monitoring in T1DM facilitated good glycaemic control. Significant deterioration of lipid parameters during lockdown, particularly triglyceride, was observed.
Conclusion
Implementation of lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic did not worsen glycaemic control in patients with diabetes. Other metabolic parameters improved during lockdown, though lipid parameters, particularly triglyceride, worsened.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Disruption of diabetes and hypertension care during the COVID-19 pandemic and recovery approaches in the Latin America and Caribbean region: a scoping review protocol
    Samira Barbara Jabakhanji, Oluwabunmi Ogungbe, Sonia Y Angell, Lawrence Appel, David Byrne, Roopa Mehta, John McCaffrey, Lori Rosman, Edward W Gregg, Kunihiro Matsushita
    BMJ Open.2024; 14(1): e074443.     CrossRef
  • Influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the achievement of guideline targets for HbA1c, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol in people with diabetes in Japan
    Shingo Kuwajima, Takahito Itoh, Tatsuya Sato, Shoya Ino, Satoru Shibata, Kouhei Ohno, Hiroyuki Hotta, Tomoaki Matsumoto, Hitoshi Ooiwa, Hirofumi Kubo, Takayuki Miki
    Diabetology International.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19: What We Learned From the Lockdown Experience
    Catarina Almeida, André Ferreira, Daniela Duarte, Ana Filipa Viegas, André Santos, Alexandra Vaz, Edite Nascimento
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Emily Panza, Kevin E. Kip, Kripa Venkatakrishnan, Oscar C. Marroquin, Rena R. Wing
    Acta Diabetologica.2023; 60(6): 787.     CrossRef
  • The Impact of a Lockdown for the COVID-19 Pandemic on Seasonal HbA1c Variation in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Yu-Cheng Cheng, Yu-Hsuan Li, Hsiu-Chen Liu, Chiann-Yi Hsu, Wan-Jen Chang, I-Te Lee, Chin-Li Lu
    Life.2023; 13(3): 763.     CrossRef
  • The Impact of Partial Lockdown During COVID-19 Pandemic on Metabolic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Ayşe Zülal TOKAÇ, Tuğde Buse UĞUR, Buse Ecem KURUGÖL, Sevilay ALİGÜLÜ, Osman HAYRAN
    Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research.2023; 7(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Retrospective Study on the Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Northern Taiwan
    Hsuan Huang, Hsiao-Ling Su, Chih-Hsung Huang, Yi-Hsin Lin
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 2539.     CrossRef
  • RIPK1 and RIPK3 inhibitors: potential weapons against inflammation to treat diabetic complications
    Dan Ke, Zhen Zhang, Jieting Liu, Peijian Chen, Yucen Dai, Xinhai Sun, Yanhui Chu, Luxin Li
    Frontiers in Immunology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • “Does Physical Exercise Promote Health Benefits for Diabetic Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic?”: A Systematic Review
    Erivaldo de Souza, Daniela Meneses-Santos, Josué Cruz Santos, Felipe J. Aidar, Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho, Jymmys Lopes dos Santos, Anderson Carlos Marçal
    Sports.2023; 11(10): 192.     CrossRef
  • Impact of National Lockdown From COVID-19 Pandemic in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: An Observational Study
    Nuntakorn Thongtang, Niracha Chanwimol, Lukana Preechasuk, Varisara Boonyuang, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Supawadee Likitmaskul, Apiradee Sriwijitkamol
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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Comparison of the Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy 20 mg with Rosuvastatin 5 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg Combination Therapy on Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
You-Cheol Hwang, Ji Eun Jun, In-Kyung Jeong, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):582-589.   Published online January 16, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0124
  • 6,464 View
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  • 14 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The apolipoprotein B/A1 (apoB/A1) ratio is a stronger predictor of future cardiovascular disease than is the level of conventional lipids. Statin and ezetimibe combination therapy have shown additional cardioprotective effects over statin monotherapy.

Methods

This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled study in Korea. A total of 36 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to either rosuvastatin monotherapy (20 mg/day, n=20) or rosuvastatin/ezetimibe (5 mg/10 mg/day, n=16) combination therapy for 6 weeks.

Results

After the 6-week treatment, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apoB reduction were comparable between the two groups (−94.3±15.4 and −62.0±20.9 mg/dL in the rosuvastatin group, −89.9±22.7 and −66.8±21.6 mg/dL in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group, P=0.54 and P=0.86, respectively). In addition, change in apoB/A1 ratio (−0.44±0.16 in the rosuvastatin group and −0.47±0.25 in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group, P=0.58) did not differ between the two groups. On the other hand, triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) reductions were greater in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group than in the rosuvastatin group (−10.5 mg/dL [interquartile range (IQR), −37.5 to 29.5] and 0.0 µEq/L [IQR, −136.8 to 146.0] in the rosuvastatin group, −49.5 mg/dL [IQR, −108.5 to −27.5] and −170.5 µEq/L [IQR, −353.0 to 0.8] in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group, P=0.010 and P=0.049, respectively). Both treatments were generally well tolerated, and there were no differences in muscle or liver enzyme elevation.

Conclusion

A 6-week combination therapy of low-dose rosuvastatin and ezetimibe showed LDL-C, apoB, and apoB/A1 ratio reduction comparable to that of high-dose rosuvastatin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Triglyceride and FFA reductions were greater with the combination therapy than with rosuvastatin monotherapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Moderate-Intensity Rosuvastatin/Ezetimibe Combination versus Quadruple-Dose Rosuvastatin Monotherapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systemic Review
    Yura Kang, Jung Mi Park, Sang-Hak Lee
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2024; 65(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Combination Therapy of Ezetimibe and Rosuvastatin for Dyslipidemia: Current Insights
    Maya R Chilbert, Dylan VanDuyn, Sara Salah, Collin M Clark, Qing Ma
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy.2022; Volume 16: 2177.     CrossRef
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    V.A. Serhiyenko, A.A. Serhiyenko
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2022; 18(5): 302.     CrossRef
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    Akililu Alemu Ashuro, Yin-Guang Fan, Yuan-Sheng Fu, Dong-Sheng Di, Napoleon Bellua Sam, Hai-Feng Pan, Dong-Qing Ye
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.2021; 37(11): 821.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Rosuvastatin/Ezetimibe Combination Therapy and Rosuvastatin Monotherapy on Lipoprotein in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Multicenter Randomized Controlled Study
    Jiwoo Lee, You-Cheol Hwang, Woo Je Lee, Jong Chul Won, Kee-Ho Song, Cheol-Young Park, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Joong-Yeol Park
    Diabetes Therapy.2020; 11(4): 859.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Renal Effects of Ezetimibe–Statin Combination versus Statin Monotherapy: A Propensity-Score-Matched Analysis
    Jaehyun Bae, Namki Hong, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Yong-ho Lee
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2020; 9(3): 798.     CrossRef
  • Combined use of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe improves hepatic steatosis in patients with dyslipidemia
    Won Dong Lee, Beom Kyung Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Seung Up Kim
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology.2020; 32(12): 1538.     CrossRef
  • Influence of rosuvastatin dose on total fatty acids and free fatty acids in plasma
    Cristian I. Ciucanu, Sonia Olariu, Daliborca C. Vlad, Victor Dumitraşcu
    Medicine.2020; 99(48): e23356.     CrossRef
  • The effect of switching from statin-monotherapy to statin/ezetimibe combination therapy on lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: a multicenter open-label study (EUCLID)
    Mitsuhide Takeshita, Atsushi Tanaka, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Keiko Sato, Shigeru Toyoda, Teruo Inoue, Koichi Node
    Vascular Failure.2020; 4(1): 22.     CrossRef
  • Response: Comparison of the Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy 20 mg with Rosuvastatin 5 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg Combination Therapy on Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2019;43:582–9)
    You-Cheol Hwang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 915.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Comparison of the Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy 20 mg with Rosuvastatin 5 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg Combination Therapy on Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2019;43:582–9)
    Tae Seo Sohn
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 909.     CrossRef
  • Changes in Plasma Free Fatty Acids Associated with Type-2 Diabetes
    Amélie I. S. Sobczak, Claudia A. Blindauer, Alan J. Stewart
    Nutrients.2019; 11(9): 2022.     CrossRef
Complications
Risk Factors for the Development and Progression of Diabetic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Advanced Diabetic Retinopathy
Kyung-Jin Yun, Hye Ji Kim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Ki-Hyun Baek, Young Jung Roh, Ki-Ho Song
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(6):473-481.   Published online September 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.6.473
  • 4,348 View
  • 44 Download
  • 25 Web of Science
  • 26 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not develop diabetic kidney disease (DKD) despite the presence of advanced diabetic retinopathy (DR). We aimed to investigate the presence of DKD and its risk factors in patients with T2DM and advanced DR.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study in 317 patients with T2DM and advanced DR. The phenotypes of DKD were divided into three groups according to the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (uACR, mg/g) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2): no DKD (uACR <30 and eGFR ≥60), non-severe DKD (uACR ≥30 or eGFR <60), and severe DKD (uACR ≥30 and eGFR <60). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and HbA1c variability (standard deviation [SD] of serial HbA1c values or HbA1c-SD) were calculated for the preceding 2 years.

Results

The prevalence of no DKD, non-severe DKD, and severe DKD was 37.2% (n=118), 37.0% (n=117), and 25.8% (n=82), respectively. HbA1c-SD and the triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio correlated positively with uACR and negatively with eGFR. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the HbA1c-SD and TG/HDL-C ratio were significantly related with eGFR. Multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for several risk factors showed that HbA1c-SD and the TG/HDL-C ratio were significant risk factors for severe DKD.

Conclusion

The prevalence of DKD was about 60% in patients with T2DM and advanced DR. HbA1c variability and TG/HDL-C ratio may affect the development and progression of DKD in these patients.

Citations

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Impact of Serum Triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on Early-Phase Insulin Secretion in Normoglycemic and Prediabetic Subjects
Masanori Shimodaira, Tomohiro Niwa, Koji Nakajima, Mutsuhiro Kobayashi, Norinao Hanyu, Tomohiro Nakayama
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(4):294-301.   Published online August 20, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.4.294
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Increased triglycerides (TGs) and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are established as diabetic risks for nondiabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among TG, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, and early-phase insulin secretion in normoglycemic and prediabetic subjects.

Methods

We evaluated 663 Japanese subjects who underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. On the basis of these results, the subjects were divided into four groups: those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=341), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG; n=211), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT; n=71), and combined IFG and IGT (IFG+IGT; n=40). Insulin secretion was estimated by the insulinogenic index (IGI) (Δinsulin/Δglucose [30 to 0 minutes]) and disposition index (DI) (IGI/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance).

Results

In prediabetic subjects (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG+IGT), linear regression analyses revealed that IGI and DI were positively correlated with HDL-C levels. Moreover, in subjects with i-IGT and (IFG+IGT), but not with i-IFG, the indices of insulin secretion were negatively correlated with the log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. In both the subjects with i-IGT, multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that DI was positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively with log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. On the other hand, in subjects with NGT, there was no association between insulin secretion and lipid profiles.

Conclusion

These results revealed that serum TG and HDL-C levels have different impacts on early-phase insulin secretion on the basis of their glucose tolerance status.

Citations

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Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes
Seo Hee Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Hee Kwan Won, Jae Hoon Moon, Kwang Joon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):404-410.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.404
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Recent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG) had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.

Methods

In a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100) after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein).

Results

Fasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001) in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide) in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.

Conclusion

Postprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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The Clinical Characteristics of Anemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Without Overt Nephropathy.
Eun Young Ko, Se In Kim, Yong Bum Jang, Kyoung Hun Min, Sung Hun Kim, Kyu Sun Lee, So Ri Kim, Eun Kyoung Choi, Ji Hyun Park, Tae Sun Park, Hong Sun Paek
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):425-431.   Published online October 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It is well known that anemia occurs early in diabetic patients before they reach to end stage renal failure. This anemia is considered to be due to the reduced endogenous erythropoietin synthesis, tubulointerstitial damage, autonomic dysfunction, and to the use of angiotensin-converting- enzyme inhibitors. Because anemia has a significant impact on the quality of life for diabetic patients, we examined the clinical characteristics of anemia in those diabetic patients who did not have overt nephropathy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 200 type 2 diabetic patients with anemia who had been followed up from 1998 to 2002 by Chonbuk University Medical School Hospital. We measured the total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and the presence of complications (retinopathy or neuropathy) for about 90 diabetic patients who were under the age of 65, they were without other underlying disease and they had a hemoglobin concentration 110g/L, GFR 1.0 mL/s. We excluded the causes of anemia as being from malignancy, liver disease, coexisting iron deficiency, chronic inflammatory disease and chronic infection. RESULTS: The clinical characteristics of the patients are as follows; the mean age was 59.6 +/- 8.4 years, the mean HbA1C was 9.4 +/- 2.3%, and the mean Hb concentration was 96 +/- 12 g/L. Our results showed that an inverse relation existeds between Hb concentration and total cholesterol (p<0.04), LDL cholesterol (p<0.05), age (p<0.02), and the duration of diabetes (p<0.01).Our results also showed that a linear relation existed between the Hb concentration, HDL cholesterol (p<0.02), and the GFR (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Diabrtic patients with anemia are in need of intensive management for the lipid and GFR that causes thair anemia.

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