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Volume 34(2); April 2010
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Reviews
Functional and Mechanistic Integration of Infection and the Metabolic Syndrome
Peter Sommer, Gary Sweeney
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):71-76.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.71
  • 3,095 View
  • 28 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The metabolic syndrome refers to a well defined group of risk factors, including central obesity and inflammation, for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, many studies have recently led to the emergence of somewhat unexpected relationships between several infectious diseases and various aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interactions is also rapidly developing and some of these are summarized in this article. We will focus first on bacterial infection, and most notably the role of gut microbiota in regulaton of both obesity and inflammation. In particular, we focus on the role of inflammasomes and propose that understanding the role of Toll-like receptors and Nod-like receptors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders with or without infection may provide novel targets for prevention and/or treatment of associated diseases. Secondly, chronic bacterial or viral infection and emerging links with metabolism will be reviewed. Finally, consideratons of biomarkers for metabolic syndrome, in particular lipocalin-2, and their link with infection will be discussed.

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    Timea Claudia Ghitea, Amina El-Kharoubi, Mariana Ganea, Erika Bimbo-Szuhai, Tiberiu Sebastian Nemeth, Gabriela Ciavoi, Monica Foghis, Luciana Dobjanschi, Annamaria Pallag, Otilia Micle
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    Open Medicine.2021; 16(1): 591.     CrossRef
  • Iron Reshapes the Gut Microbiome and Host Metabolism
    Amy Botta, Nicole G. Barra, Nhat Hung Lam, Samantha Chow, Kostas Pantopoulos, Jonathan D. Schertzer, Gary Sweeney
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2021; 10(2): 160.     CrossRef
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    mBio.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Precision and Future Medicine.2020; 4(3): 83.     CrossRef
  • Holo-lipocalin-2–derived siderophores increase mitochondrial ROS and impair oxidative phosphorylation in rat cardiomyocytes
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.2018; 115(7): 1576.     CrossRef
  • Tuberculosis of the Breast: An Initial Presentation of the Metabolic Syndrome with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Young Nigerian Woman
    M. A. Adeiza, R. Yusuf, A. A. Liman, P. Abur, F. Bello, A. A. Abba
    Case Reports in Infectious Diseases.2016; 2016: 1.     CrossRef
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    GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology.2015; 22(6): 240.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2015; 12(9): 11396.     CrossRef
  • Regulation of Iron and Its Significance in Obesity and Complications
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    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2014; 23(4): 222.     CrossRef
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    Min Park, Gary Sweeney
    Heart Failure Reviews.2013; 18(5): 631.     CrossRef
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    Dler Faieeq Darweesh Mahmood, Amna Abderrazak, Khadija El Hadri, Thomas Simmet, Mustapha Rouis
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling.2013; 19(11): 1266.     CrossRef
  • Immunoglobulin E and mast cell proteases are potential risk factors of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in humans
    Zhen Wang, Hong Zhang, Xu-Hui Shen, Kui-Li Jin, Guo-fen Ye, Wei Qiu, Li Qian, Bo Li, Yong-Hong Zhang, Guo-Ping Shi
    Annals of Medicine.2013; 45(3): 220.     CrossRef
  • Immunoglobulin E and Mast Cell Proteases Are Potential Risk Factors of Human Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes Mellitus
    Zhen Wang, Hong Zhang, Xu-Hui Shen, Kui-Li Jin, Guo-fen Ye, Li Qian, Bo Li, Yong-Hong Zhang, Guo-Ping Shi, Yiqing Song
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Cell Replacement and Regeneration Therapy for Diabetes
Hee-Sook Jun
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):77-83.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.77
  • 2,143 View
  • 26 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Reduction of beta cell function and a beta cell mass is observed in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, restoration of this deficiency might be a therapeutic option for treatment of diabetes. Islet transplantation has benefits, such as reduced incidence of hypoglycemia and achievement of insulin independence. However, the major drawback is an insufficient supply of islet donors. Transplantation of cells differentiated in vitro or in vivo regeneration of insulin-producing cells are possible approaches for beta cell/islet regenerative therapy. Embryonic and adult stem cells, pancreatic ductal progenitor cells, acinar cells, and other endocrine cells have been shown to differentiate into pancreatic beta cells. Formation of fully functional beta cells and the safety of these cells are critical issues for successful clinical application.

Citations

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  • Direct Reprogramming of Mice Skin Fibroblasts into Insulin-Producing CellsIn Vitro
    Israa S. Salman, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari, Mukhtar Khamis Haba
    Cellular Reprogramming.2022; 24(5): 271.     CrossRef
  • Effects of β-like cell autotransplantation through hepatic arterial intervention on diabetic dogs
    Yongxu Mu, Zhiming Hao, Junfeng He, Ruiqiang Yan, Haiyan Liu, Lei Zhang, Heming Liu, Xiaoyan Hu, Qiming Li
    Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology.2016; 44(5): 1333.     CrossRef
  • Meeting the Need for Regenerative Therapies I: Target-Based Incidence and Its Relationship to U.S. Spending, Productivity, and Innovation
    Nancy Parenteau, Janet Hardin-Young, William Shannon, Patrick Cantini, Alan Russell
    Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews.2012; 18(2): 139.     CrossRef
  • Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of various mesenchymal stem cells after insulin-producing cell differentiation
    Su-Jung Kim, Yong-Soo Choi, Eun-Sun Ko, Sang-Min Lim, Chang-Woo Lee, Dong-Il Kim
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering.2012; 113(6): 771.     CrossRef
Editorial
Serum Cystatin C as a Biomarker for Predicting Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetes
Jee-Young Oh
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):84-85.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.84
  • 2,364 View
  • 31 Download
  • 5 Crossref
PDFPubReader   

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  • Cardiovascular Biomarkers: Lessons of the Past and Prospects for the Future
    Farah Omran, Ioannis Kyrou, Faizel Osman, Ven Gee Lim, Harpal Singh Randeva, Kamaljit Chatha
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(10): 5680.     CrossRef
  • Biochemical changes in oxidative stress markers following endurance training and consumption of purslane seed in rats with hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity
    Rahman Soori, Valiollah Shahedi, Ali Akbarnejad, Siroos Choobineh
    Sport Sciences for Health.2019; 15(1): 133.     CrossRef
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    Phytotherapy Research.2019; 33(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) Seed Consumption And Aerobic Training Improves Biomarkers Associated with Atherosclerosis in Women with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D)
    Firouzeh Dehghan, Rahman Soori, Khadijeh Gholami, Mitra Abolmaesoomi, Ashril Yusof, Sekaran Muniandy, Sara Heidarzadeh, Parvin Farzanegi, Mohammad Ali azarbayjani
    Scientific Reports.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Diler Aslan
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Original Articles
Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Weight, Glucose and Lipid Control in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Hee-Jung Ahn, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Bo-Kyung Koo, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):86-94.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.86
  • 3,099 View
  • 28 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys reported 65% of daily energy intake (EI) as carbohydrate (CHO) in the Korean population and main source of CHO was cooked rice. We used a standardized-small sized rice bowl for diet education and investigated its effectiveness on body weight, glucose and lipid, compared to the conventional food exchange system in type 2 diabetes obese women.

Methods

Type 2 diabetic women with body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to small rice bowl-based meal plan (BM) and food exchange-based meal plan (ExM) group. Both groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks. The macronutrient composition was instructed: 55 to 60% of EI as CHO, 15 to 20% as protein, and 20 to 25% as fat. BM group received only a simple instruction for application of the rice bowl. Nutrient intake was estimated with the 3-day dietary records.

Results

Finally, 44 subjects finished the study. The percent reduction of body weight was significant both BM group (-5.1 ± 2.6%) and ExM group (-4.8 ± 2.8%) after 12 weeks (P < 0.001) but there was no difference between the groups. There was no difference in the proportional change of CHO, protein and fat in EI between the groups. Additionally, the change of HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusion

The BM group was as effective as ExM for body weight and glucose control in type 2 diabetes obese women.

Citations

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  • Development of a Sport Food Exchange List for Dietetic Practice in Sport Nutrition
    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Susana Menal-Puey, Isabel Sospedra, Giuseppe Russolillo, Aurora Norte, Iva Marques-Lopes
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  • Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
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  • The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min
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Lack of Association between Serum Cystatin C Levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetic Patients
Eun Hee Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Sang Ah Lee, Eui Young Kim, Won Gu Kim, Seung Hun Lee, Eun Hee Cho, Eun Hee Koh, Woo Je Lee, Min-Seon Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Ki-Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):95-100.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.95
  • 4,301 View
  • 31 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Serum cystatin C level is a more sensitive marker of renal dysfunction than serum creatinine level. Serum cystatin C level was recently reported to predict the development of cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to evaluate whether the cystatin C level is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), independent of diabetic nephropathy.

Methods

We conducted a case-control study to assess the relationship between serum cystatin C level and coronary artery disease in diabetic patients. Among 460 diabetic patients, 38 diabetic patients had CAD. The control group consisted of 38 diabetic patients who were matched to cases by age, sex, and presence/absence of diabetic nephropathy. Serum cystatin C level was measured in stored samples.

Results

Serum cystatin C level was significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy, both in CAD and non-CAD patients. However, serum cystatin C level did not differ between CAD and non-CAD patients, regardless of diabetic nephropathy.

Conclusion

Serum cystatin C level is a marker of renal dysfunction, but not coronary artery disease, in diabetic patients.

Citations

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  • Higher Levels of Cystatin C in HIV/AIDS Patients with Metabolic Syndrome
    Gordana Dragović, Danica Srdić, Khawla Al Musalhi, Ivan Soldatović, Jovana Kušić, Djordje Jevtović, Devaki Nair
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  • Response: Lack of Association between Serum Cystatin C Levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetic Patients (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:95-100)
    Eun Hee Kim, Ki-Up Lee
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(3): 209.     CrossRef
  • Serum Cystatin C as a Biomarker for Predicting Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetes
    Jee-Young Oh
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 84.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Lack of Association between Serum Cystatin C Levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetic Patients (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:95-100)
    Kyu-Chang Won
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(3): 207.     CrossRef
The Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle and Body Fat Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Women
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo-Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):101-110.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.101
  • 4,606 View
  • 71 Download
  • 54 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Our goal was to investigate the effects of low intensity resistance training on body fat, muscle mass and strength, cardiovascular fitness, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Twenty-eight overweight women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a resistance training group (RG, n = 13) or a control group (CG, n = 15). RG performed resistance training using elastic bands, of which strength was equal to 40 to 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM), for three days per week. Each exercise consisted of three sets for 60 minutes. We assessed abdominal fat using computed tomography, muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength using Keiser's chest and leg press. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the insulin tolerance test, and aerobic capacity was expressed as oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (AT-VO2) before and after the 12-week exercise program.

Results

The age of participants was 56.4 ± 7.1 years, duration of diabetes was 5.9 ± 5.5 years, and BMI was 27.4 ± 2.5 kg/m2, without significant differences between two groups. During intervention, a greater increase in muscle mass and greater decreases in both total fat mass and abdominal fat were observed in RG compared to those of CG (P = 0.015, P = 0.011, P = 0.010, respectively). Increase in 1RM of upper and lower extremities was observed in the RG (P = 0.004, P = 0.040, respectively), without changes in AT-VO2 and insulin resistance in either group.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the low intensity resistance training was effective in increasing muscle mass and strength and reducing total fat mass without change of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.

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The Association between Serum GGT Concentration and Diabetic Peripheral Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Ho Chan Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):111-118.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.111
  • 3,970 View
  • 38 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPP) is one of the common complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and can lead to foot ulcers or amputation. The pathophysiology of DPP includes several factors such as metabolic, vascular, autoimmune, oxidative stress and neurohormonal growth-factor deficiency and recent studies have suggested the use of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) as an early marker of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated whether serum GGT may be useful in predicting DPP.

Methods

We assessed 90 patients with type 2 DM who were evaluated for the presence of DPP using clnical neurologic examinations including nerve conduction velocity studies. We evaluated the association between serum GGT and the presence of DPP.

Results

The prevalence of DPP was 40% (36 cases) according to clinical neurological examinations. The serum GGT concentration was significantly elevated in type 2 diabetic patients with DPP compared to patients without DPP (P < 0.01). There were other factors significantly associated with DPP including smoking (P = 0.019), retinopathy (P = 0.014), blood pressure (P < 0.05), aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.022), C-reactive protein (P = 0.036) and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (P = 0.004). Serum GGT was independently related with DPP according to multiple logistic analysis (P < 0.01).

Conclusion

This study shows that increased levels of serum GGT may have important clinical implications in the presence of DPP in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

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The Clinical Characteristics of the Newly Diagnosed Early Onset (< 40 Years Old) Diabetes in Outpatients' Clinic
Kyung-Soo Kim, Hyun-Ju Oh, Ji-Woon Kim, Yeo-Kyung Lee, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seok-Won Park, Yoo-Lee Kim, Won-Keun Park, Yong-Wook Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):119-125.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.119
  • 3,886 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in young adults and adolescents has increased in the last decade according to the increasing obese population. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus before the age of 40 years as compared with patients diagnosed at older ages.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study using data from 350 diabetic patients who were diagnosed with diabetes in an outpatient setting between January 2005 and December 2007. Patients were diagnosed according to the criteria set forth by the American Diabetes Association. We examined the clinical characteristics and laboratory data of the patients through review of medical records and compared the early-onset diabetic patients (< 40 years old) and the usual-onset diabetic patients (≥ 40 years old).

Results

The frequency of early-onset diabetes and usual-onset diabetes were 31.1% (n=109) and 68.9% (n=241), respectively. The early-onset diabetic patients more often had a positive family history of diabetes; higher HbA1c, fasting glucose, and postprandial glucose levels; experienced typical symptoms more frequently; had microalbuminuria more frequently; and required insulin therapy as initial treatment more frequently as compared to usual-onset diabetic patients, and these differences were significant. Conversely, hypertension was significantly more common in the usual-onset diabetic patients.

Conclusion

It could be concluded that we should control early onset diabetes more strictly to prevent its complication because early onset diabetic patients represented more severe hyperglycemia and had more prevalent microalbuminuria.

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The Relationship between the Level of Fatness and Fitness during Adolescence and the Risk Factors of Metabolic Disorders in Adulthood
Yoonsuk Jekal, Ji Eun Yun, Sang Wook Park, Sun Ha Jee, Justin Y Jeon
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):126-134.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.126
  • 3,042 View
  • 26 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between the level of obesity and physical fitness (PF) during adolescence and the risk factors of metabolic disorders during adulthood.

Methods

In the current analysis, 3,993 Korean adults (mean age, 38.70 ± 1.69 years) were recruited. The level of body index (BI) and PF were examined during adolescence through high school record, and their health examination data, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG), total cholesterol (TC), and current body mass index (BMI) were obtained from National Health Insurance Corporation Data. Gender-specific analyses were administered to compare health exam data across the level of BI, the level of PF, and a mixed level of BI and PF.

Results

Most obese males during high school had statistically higher SBP, DBP, FG, and BMI in adulthood, and most obese females had higher BMI, as compared to most lean males or females. Least fit males during high school had statistically higher BMI in adulthood, and least fit females had statistically higher SBP, DBP, FG, TC, and BMI, as compared to most fit males or females. There was a significant relationship between the mixed level of BI and PF and SBP, DBP, TC and current BMI in both genders.

Conclusion

Maintaining a healthy level of body weight and PF during adolescence is recommended to prevent the development of metabolic diseases in adulthood.

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Letter

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal