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Technology/Device
Present and Future of Digital Health in Diabetes and Metabolic Disease
Sang Youl Rhee, Chiweon Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Steven R. Steinhubl
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(6):819-827.   Published online December 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0088
  • 8,944 View
  • 260 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in medical and healthcare services goes beyond everyday life. Expectations of a new medical environment, not previously experienced by ICT, exist in the near future. In particular, chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity, have a high prevalence and high social and economic burden. In addition, the continuous evaluation and monitoring of daily life is important for effective treatment and management. Therefore, the wide use of ICTbased digital health systems is required for the treatment and management of these diseases. In this article, we compiled a variety of digital health technologies introduced to date in the field of diabetes and metabolic diseases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Digital Health in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
    Dorothy Avoke, Abdallah Elshafeey, Robert Weinstein, Chang H. Kim, Seth S. Martin
    Endocrine Research.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Weight Management Health Note, a Mobile Health Platform for Obesity Management Developed by the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity
    Yujung Lee, Hyunji Sang, Sunyoung Kim, Doo Ah Choi, Sang Youl Rhee
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2024; 33(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • A data-driven approach to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus through digital health: The Klivo Intervention Program protocol (KIPDM)
    Camila Maciel de Oliveira, Luiza Borcony Bolognese, Mercedes Balcells, Davi Casale Aragon, Roberto Luis Zagury, Clemente Nobrega, Chunyu Liu, Dured Dardari
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(2): e0281844.     CrossRef
  • Public Health Framework for Smart Cities within the Comprehensive Approach to Sustainability in Europe: Case Study of Diabetes
    Luís Velez Lapão, Jorge César Correia, Marija Jevtic
    Sustainability.2023; 15(5): 4269.     CrossRef
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    Leona Kosowicz, Kham Tran, Toan Tran Khanh, Thu Ha Dang, Van An Pham, Hue Ta Thi Kim, Hoang Thi Bach Duong, Tran Dong Nguyen, Anh Tuyet Phuong, Trong Hieu Le, Van Anh Ta, Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Penelope Schofield, John Zelcer, Tuan Pham Le, Tuan Anh Nguy
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2023; 25: e43224.     CrossRef
  • Digital health, cardiometabolic disease and ethnicity: an analysis of United Kingdom government policies from 2010 to 2022
    Zareen Thorlu-Bangura, Lydia Poole, Harpreet Sood, Nushrat Khan, Fiona Stevenson, Kamlesh Khunti, Paramjit Gill, Madiha Sajid, Wasim Hanif, Neeraj Bhala, Shivali Modha, Kiran Patel, Ann Blandford, Amitava Banerjee, Mel Ramasawmy
    Journal of Public Health Policy.2023; 44(2): 179.     CrossRef
  • Digital Behavior Change Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Promote Physical Activity in Adults with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    Xiaoyan Zhang, Xue Qiao, Ke Peng, Shan Gao, Yufang Hao
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Exploring the underlying mechanisms of obesity and diabetes and the potential of Traditional Chinese Medicine: an overview of the literature
    Yan-kun Chen, Ting-ting Liu, Farah Khameis Farag Teia, Meng-zhou Xie
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Boram Sim, Jin Han Ju, Byungsoo Kim, Jin Yong Lee
    JMIR mHealth and uHealth.2023; 11: e47407.     CrossRef
  • Research Trends in Motivation and Weight Loss: A Bibliometric-Based Review
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    Healthcare.2023; 11(23): 3086.     CrossRef
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    Hong-Yan Sun, Xiao-Yan Lin
    World Journal of Diabetes.2023; 14(12): 1721.     CrossRef
  • Psychoeducational Interventions in Children and Adolescents with Type-1 Diabetes: A Systematic Review
    Bárbara Luque, Joaquín Villaécija, Rosario Castillo-Mayén, Esther Cuadrado, Sebastián Rubio, Carmen Tabernero
    Clínica y Salud.2022; 33(1): 35.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Hyperuricemia Among Chinese Adults: Findings From Two Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Surveys in 2015–16 and 2018–19
    Mei Zhang, Xiaoxia Zhu, Jing Wu, Zhengjing Huang, Zhenping Zhao, Xiao Zhang, Yu Xue, Weiguo Wan, Chun Li, Wenrong Zhang, Linhong Wang, Maigeng Zhou, Hejian Zou, Limin Wang
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  • Blood Pressure Monitoring as a Digital Health Tool for Improving Diabetes Clinical Outcomes: Retrospective Real-world Study
    ‪Yifat Fundoiano-Hershcovitz, Dror Bacher, Marilyn D Ritholz, David L Horwitz, Omar Manejwala, Pavel Goldstein
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(2): e32923.     CrossRef
  • The effectiveness of a structured group education programme for people with established type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in primary care: A cluster randomised trial
    Helen Dallosso, Panna Mandalia, Laura J. Gray, Yogini V. Chudasama, Sopna Choudhury, Shahrad Taheri, Naina Patel, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J. Davies
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2022; 32(6): 1549.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of Personalized Diabetes Self-care Using an Electronic Medical Record–Integrated Mobile App in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial
    Eun Young Lee, Seon-Ah Cha, Jae-Seung Yun, Sun-Young Lim, Jin-Hee Lee, Yu-Bae Ahn, Kun-Ho Yoon, Min Kyung Hyun, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(7): e37430.     CrossRef
  • Qatar Diabetes Mobile Application Trial (QDMAT): an open-label randomised controlled trial to examine the impact of using a mobile application to improve diabetes care in type 2 diabetes mellitus—a study protocol
    Noor Suleiman, Meis Alkasem, Zaina Al Amer, Obada Salameh, Noora Al-Thani, Mohammad Khair Hamad, Khaled Baagar, Ibrahem Abdalhakam, Manal Othman, Ragae Dughmosh, Dabia Al-Mohanadi, Ali Al Sanousi, Mohammed Bashir, Odette Chagoury, Shahrad Taheri, Abdul-Ba
    Trials.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Digital environment: An evolutionary component in environmental health
    Afiqah Syamimi Masrani, Nik Rosmawati Nik Husain
    Journal of Public Health Research.2022; 11(2): 227990362211031.     CrossRef
  • Innovations in Cardio-oncology Resulting from the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Lavanya Kondapalli, Garima Arora, Riem Hawi, Efstathia Andrikopoulou, Courtney Estes, Nirav Patel, Carrie G. Lenneman
    Current Treatment Options in Oncology.2022; 23(9): 1288.     CrossRef
  • Effects of peer support and mobile application-based walking programme on physical activity and physical function in rural older adults: a cluster randomized controlled trial
    Xue Cai, Shanhu Qiu, Dan Luo, Ruxue Li, Chengyu Liu, Yanhui Lu, Cuirong Xu, Mingzi Li
    European Geriatric Medicine.2022; 13(5): 1187.     CrossRef
Original Article
Clinical Care/Education
Depressive Symptoms Are Negatively Associated with Glucose Testing and Eating Meals on Time among Individuals with Diabetes in Zambia
Given Hapunda, Amina Abubakar, Frans Pouwer, Fons van de Vijver
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(6):440-448.   Published online November 17, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.6.440
  • 3,504 View
  • 36 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Depression is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality among individuals living with diabetes, and impaired self-care behaviors may play a mediating role. In Africa, this association is not very well known. In this study, we examined the associations between depressive symptoms and different aspects of diabetes self-care in Zambian individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Methods

A total of 157 individuals with diabetes mellitus participated. The sample was drawn from four city hospitals in Zambia. Diabetes self-care was assessed using the diabetes self-care inventory, and depression was assessed using the major depression inventory.

Results

Fifty-nine percent of the sample had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Variations in self-care activities and behaviors were reported as least adhered to by individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in adolescent and adult patients. Regression analysis indicated that there was no association between total diabetes self-care and the depression total score. However, depression was associated with poor glucose testing and not eating meals on time by patients with diabetes.

Conclusion

Some variance on poor self-care was explained by demographic characteristics, specifically age, body mass index, and to some extent, socioeconomic status. Recognition and successful treatment of depression in patients with diabetes might help to optimize self-care behaviors, especially glucose testing and eating meals on time. However, this hypothesis needs further testing.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Self-management practices for preventing complications of type II diabetes mellitus in low and middle-income countries: A scoping review
    Pauline Muthoni Maina, Melanie Pienaar, Marianne Reid
    International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances.2023; 5: 100136.     CrossRef
  • Patient-reported outcomes for diabetes and hypertension care in low- and middle-income countries: A scoping review
    Sarah Masyuko, Carrie J. Ngongo, Carole Smith, Rachel Nugent, Cesario Bianchi
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(1): e0245269.     CrossRef
  • Peripheral and Central Metabolites Affecting Depression, Anxiety, Suicidal Ideation, and Anger in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients Using a Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Pilot Study
    Ye-Ha Jung, Hyeonjin Kim, So Yeon Jeon, Jeong Min Kwon, Won Joon Lee, Joon Hwan Jang, Dasom Lee, Yoonji Lee, Do-Hyung Kang
    Psychiatry Investigation.2018; 15(9): 891.     CrossRef
Review
Clinical Care/Education
A Clinical Practice Guideline to Guide a System Approach to Diabetes Care in Hong Kong
Ip Tim Lau
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(2):81-88.   Published online April 14, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.2.81
  • 3,693 View
  • 54 Download
  • 33 Web of Science
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The Hospital Authority of Hong Kong is a statutory body that manages all the public medical care institutions in Hong Kong. There are currently around 400,000 diabetic patients under its care at 17 hospitals (providing secondary care for 40%) and 73 General Outpatient Clinics (providing primary care for 60%). The patient population has been growing at 6% to 8% per year over the past 5 years, estimated to include over 95% of all diagnosed patients in Hong Kong. In order to provide equitable and a minimal level of care within resources and local system factors constraints, a Clinical Practice Guideline on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus was drawn in 2013 to guide a system approach to providing diabetes care. There is an algorithm for the use of various hypoglycemic agents. An organizational drug formulary governs that less expansive options have to be used first. A number of clinical care and patient empowerment programs have been set up to support structured and systematic diabetes care. With such a system approach, there have been overall improvements in diabetes care with the percentage of patients with glycosylated hemoglobin <7% rising from 40% in 2010 to 52% in 2015.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Kailu Wang, Shi Zhao, Eric Kam-Pui Lee, Susan Zi-May Yau, Yushan Wu, Chi-Tim Hung, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
    JAMA Network Open.2024; 7(2): e2355733.     CrossRef
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    Qiao Jin, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam, Eric Yuk Fai Wan
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 205: 110924.     CrossRef
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    Diabetes Care.2022; 45(5): 1162.     CrossRef
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    Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Weng Yee Chin, Florence Ting Yan Ng, Shu Ming Cheryl Chia, Ian Chi Kei Wong, Esther Wai Yin Chan, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2020; 22(8): 1316.     CrossRef
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    Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Weng Yee Chin, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Ian Chi Kei Wong, Esther Wai Yin Chan, Shirley Xue Li, Nico Kwan Lok Cheung, Yuan Wang, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
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    Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Weng Yee Chin, Ian Chi Kei Wong, Esther Wai Yin Chan, Shiqi Chen, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Ivy H.Y. Ng, Kitty K.T. Cheung, Tiffany T.L. Yau, Elaine Chow, Risa Ozaki, Juliana C.N. Chan
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    E.Y.F. Wan, E.Y.T. Yu, C.S.C. Fung, W.Y. Chin, D.Y.T. Fong, A.K.C. Chan, C.L.K. Lam
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  • Five-Year Effectiveness of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme–Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on Diabetes-Related Complications and Health Service Uses—A Population-Based and Propensity-Matched Cohort Study
    Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Fang Fang Jiao, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Weng Yee Chin, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Carlos King Ho Wong, Anca Ka Chun Chan, Karina Hiu Yen Chan, Ruby Lai Ping Kwok, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
    Diabetes Care.2018; 41(1): 49.     CrossRef
  • Do We Need a Patient-Centered Target for Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?
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Original Articles
Clinical Care/Education
Clinical Evaluation of OneTouch Diabetes Management Software System in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Jung Min Kim, Hey Jean Lee, Keum Ok Kim, Jong Chul Won, Kyung Soo Ko, Byung Doo Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):129-139.   Published online April 5, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.129
  • 4,121 View
  • 35 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

OneTouch Diabetes Management Software (OTDMS) is an efficient way to track and monitor the blood glucose level. It is possible to download data from the OneTouch Ultra via the meter's data port, and to transform the numbers of the blood glucose level into a graph, a chart, or statistics. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the use of OTDMS in consultation hours would improve patients' knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM), compliance, satisfaction with doctor and medical treatment, doctor-patient reliability, and glucose control.

Methods

All patients were randomized into either the OTDMS group using OneTouch Ultra or the control groups not using it. Both groups had conventional DM education and only the OTDMS group used data from OTDMS as explanation materials during consultation hours. At enrollment and after 6 months, we performed a questionnaire survey consisting of the diabetes knowledge test, items for compliance of treatment, patient's satisfaction, doctor-patient reliability, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c).

Results

We analyzed 6-month follow-up data from 92 patients (OTDMS 42 vs. control 50). Both groups showed significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes knowledge, compliance, reliability, and satisfaction after 6 months. However, there were no significant differences between OTDMS and control groups overall. Only "weekly frequency of checking blood glucose level" of compliance and "trying to follow doctor's order" of reliability showed better results in the OTDMS group.

Conclusion

Using the OTDMS system for explanation during consultation hours seems to be more helpful to improve patient's compliance and reliability, especially for checking blood glucose level and trying to follow the doctor's order.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Quality improvement strategies for diabetes care: Effects on outcomes for adults living with diabetes
    Kristin J Konnyu, Sharlini Yogasingam, Johanie Lépine, Katrina Sullivan, Mostafa Alabousi, Alun Edwards, Michael Hillmer, Sathya Karunananthan, John N Lavis, Stefanie Linklater, Braden J Manns, David Moher, Sameh Mortazhejri, Samir Nazarali, P. Alison Pap
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    Nirali A. Shah, Carol J. Levy
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    Borami Kang, Jae Hyoung Cho
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A Smartphone Application Significantly Improved Diabetes Self-Care Activities with High User Satisfaction
Yu Jin Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Jong Kyu Byun, So Young Park, Soo Min Hong, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(3):207-217.   Published online April 22, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.3.207
  • 9,785 View
  • 63 Download
  • 37 Web of Science
  • 48 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We developed for the first time a smartphone application designed for diabetes self-management in Korea and registered a patent for the relevant algorithm. We also investigated the user satisfaction with the application and the change in diabetes related self-care activities after using the application.

Methods

We conducted a questionnaire survey on volunteers with diabetes who were using the application. Ninety subjects responded to the questionnaire between June 2012 and March 2013. A modified version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) was used in this study.

Results

The survey results exhibited a mean subject age of 44.0 years old, and males accounted for 78.9% of the subjects. Fifty percent of the subjects had diabetes for less than 3 years. The majority of respondents experienced positive changes in their clinical course after using the application (83.1%) and were satisfied with the structure and completeness of the application (86.7%). Additionally, the respondents' answers indicated that the application was easy to use (96.7%) and recommendable to others (97.7%) and that they would continue using the application to manage their diabetes (96.7%). After using the Diabetes Notepad application, diabetes related self-care activities assessed by SDSCA displayed statistically significant improvements (P<0.05), except for the number of days of drinking.

Conclusion

This smartphone-based application can be a useful tool leading to positive changes in diabetes related self-care activities and increase user satisfaction.

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Education as Prescription for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Compliance and Efficacy in Clinical Practice
Mi Yeon Kim, Sunghwan Suh, Sang-Man Jin, Se Won Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Sung Hye Kim, Mi Yong Rha, Young Yun Cho, Myung-Shik Lee, Moon Kyu Lee, Kwang-Won Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(6):452-459.   Published online December 12, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.6.452
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Diabetes self-management education has an important role in diabetes management. The efficacy of education has been proven in several randomized trials. However, the status of diabetes education programs in real Korean clinical practice has not yet been evaluated in terms of patient compliance with the education prescription.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed clinical and laboratory data from all patients who were ordered to undergo diabetes education during 2009 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea (n=2,291). After excluding ineligible subjects, 588 patients were included in the analysis.

Results

Among the 588 patients, 433 received education. The overall compliance rate was 73.6%, which was significantly higher in the subjects with a short duration or living in a rural area compared to those with a long duration (85.0% vs. 65.1%, respectively; P<0.001) or living in an urban area (78.2% vs. 70.4%, respectively; P=0.037). The hemoglobin A1c decreased greater in the compliant group (from 7.84±1.54 at baseline to 6.79±1.06 at 3 months and 6.97±1.20 at 12 months after prescription in the compliant group vs. from 7.74±1.25 to 7.14±1.02 and 7.24±1.24 in the non-compliant group; P=0.001). The decrease in hemoglobin A1c was greater in the subjects with a short duration (P=0.032).

Conclusion

In our study a large percent of patients refuse to get education despite having a prescription from their physician. This refusal rate was higher in the patients with long-standing diabetes or in urban residence. Furthermore, education was more effective in patients with a short duration of diabetes in clinical practice.

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Effect of Diabetes Education Program on Glycemic Control and Self Management for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Ji Hyun Kim, Sang Ah Chang
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):518-525.   Published online December 1, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease requiring continuous treatment and vigorous self-management. Reinforcement of effective self management and diabetes education are important factors in successful treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the current diabetes education program on blood glucose control, self-management, and self-efficacy of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 592 patients with newly diagnosed or uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited to the diabetes education program from January to December 2007. We surveyed 338 patients from April to July 2008. A total of 117 patients had biochemical examinations and completed a questionnaire about knowledge, self-management and self-efficacy of diabetes treatment (no education group (n = 23), education group (n = 94)). RESULTS: The total scores from the questionnaires and the results of laboratory data showed no differences between the two groups. However, there were significant reductions in hemoglobin A1c level in the education group, as compared with the no education group (P = 0.039). Although the score for knowledge about diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in the education group (P = 0.005), greater knowledge was not reflected in the self-management or self-efficacy of the patients. CONCLUSION: The current diabetes education program had no effect on the self-management or self-efficacy of patients with diabetes, although did show some degree of association with blood glucose control and diabetes knowledge level. We conclude that a more effective diabetes education program needs to be developed and applied to daily practice for the improvement ofself-efficacy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

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Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(4):344-352.   Published online August 1, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Given the nature and chronicity of diabetes mellitus (DM), the role of self care and adequate patient education, in addition to the support of medical professional, is essential in its management. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of positive messages and negative messages in DM education and to identify the superior method of motivation for self care behaviors. METHODS: A total of 99 DM patients (50 positive message group: 49 negative message group) at Gyeongsang National University Hospital participated in the study. The collected data were analyzed by Chi square and t-test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the attitude of messages and in the attitude of self care behaviors between the positive and negative message group, though the negative message group had a significantly higher intention of self care behaviors than did the positive message group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the negative messages are more effective than positive messages for increasing the intention of self care behaviors in patients with DM.

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Effects of 'Ubiquitous Healthcare' on the Ability of Self-Management in Elderly Diabetic Patients.
Sung Hoon Yu, Sun Hee Kim, So Yeon Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Yoon Seok Chang, Hak Jong Lee, Young Joo Park, Hak Chul Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(1):58-64.   Published online February 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.1.58
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The need for a new healthcare system is growing due to the paradigm shift from health supervision to health maintenance. Previously, we performed a pilot study that examined the effectiveness of a ubiquitous healthcare (U-healthcare) diabetes management program which consists of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and mobile phone services for elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the effect of a diabetes management program using U-healthcare based on the self-care skills of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: From July to October 2005, 17 patients were recruited and provided with a blood glucometer with the ZigBee module and a mobile phone. In addition, the patients' understanding of diabetes self-care skills was examined at the beginning and end of the study. At the end of the study, we determined the level of patient satisfaction regarding U-healthcare services. RESULTS: The patients' test scores on their understanding of diabetes mellitus improved from 57.2 +/- 20.7 to 72.7 +/- 13.4%. Specifically, patient knowledge of the basic principles for a proper diabetic diet (52.9% vs. 82.4%, P = 0.046), foods that influence blood sugar level (41.2% vs. 76.5%, P = 0.007) and the influence of beverage choice (41.2% vs. 64.7%, P = 0.007), all increased. In addition, a significant increase in knowledge of living standards regarding diabetes mellitus was observed (64.7% vs. 88.2%, P = 0.0032). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the U-healthcare incorporating SMBG could be promising, as it improves self-management skills of diabetes mellitus patients, as well as their understanding of the disease.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal