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Comparison of Insulin-Treated Patients with Ambiguous Diabetes Type with Definite Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Subjects: A Clinical Perspective
Insa Laspe, Juris J. Meier, Michael A. Nauck
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):140-146.   Published online March 22, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
In clinical practice, the distinction between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be challenging, leaving patients with “ambiguous” diabetes type. Insulin-treated patients (n=115) previously diagnosed with T2DM had to be re-classified based on clinical phenotype and laboratory results, and were operationally defined as having an ambiguous diabetes type. They were compared against patients with definite T1DM and T2DM regarding 12 clinical and laboratory features typically different between diabetes types. Characteristics of patients with ambiguous diabetes type, representing approximately 6% of all patients with T1DM or T2DM seen at our specialized clinic, fell in between those of patients with definite T1DM and T2DM, both regarding individual features and with respect to a novel classification based on multi-variable regression analysis (P<0.0001). In conclusion, a substantial proportion of diabetes patients in a tertiary care centre presented with an “ambiguous” diabetes type. Their clinical characteristics fall in between those of definite T1DM or T2DM patients.
Original Article
Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibody Detection by Electrochemiluminescence Assay Identifies Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults with Poor Islet Function
Yuxiao Zhu, Li Qian, Qing Liu, Jing Zou, Ying Zhou, Tao Yang, Gan Huang, Zhiguang Zhou, Yu Liu
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):260-266.   Published online November 12, 2019
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  • 131 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The detection of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) autoantibodies is essential for the prediction and diagnosis of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). The aim of the current study was to compare a newly developed electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-GAD65 antibody assay with the established radiobinding assay, and to explore whether the new assay could be used to define LADA more precisely.


Serum samples were harvested from 141 patients with LADA, 95 with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and 99 with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and tested for GAD65 autoantibodies using both the radiobinding assay and ECL assay. A glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) competition assay was also performed to assess antibody affinity. Furthermore, the clinical features of these patients were compared.


Eighty-eight out of 141 serum samples (62.4%) from LADA patients were GAD65 antibody-positive by ECL assay. Compared with ECL-GAD65 antibody-negative patients, ECL-GAD65 antibody-positive patients were leaner (P<0.0001), had poorer β-cell function (P<0.05), and were more likely to have other diabetes-associated autoantibodies. The β-cell function of ECL-GAD65 antibody-positive patients was similar to that of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, whereas ECL-GAD65 antibody-negative patients were more similar to type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.


Patients with ECL-GAD65 antibody-negative share a similar phenotype with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, whereas patients with ECL-GAD65 antibody-positive resemble those with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Thus, the detection of GADA using ECL may help to identify the subtype of LADA.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults: A Review on Clinical Implications and Management
Silvia Pieralice, Paolo Pozzilli
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):451-464.   Published online December 17, 2018
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  • 525 Download
  • 51 Web of Science
  • 60 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by a less intensive autoimmune process and a broad clinical phenotype compared to classical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), sharing features with both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and T1DM. Since patients affected by LADA are initially insulin independent and recognizable only by testing for islet-cell autoantibodies, it could be difficult to identify LADA in clinical setting and a high misdiagnosis rate still remains among patients with T2DM. Ideally, islet-cell autoantibodies screening should be performed in subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM, ensuring a closer monitoring of those resulted positive and avoiding treatment of hyperglycaemia which might increase the rate of β-cells loss. Thus, since the autoimmune process in LADA seems to be slower than in classical T1DM, there is a wider window for new therapeutic interventions that may slow down β-cell failure. This review summarizes the current understanding of LADA, by evaluating data from most recent studies, the actual gaps in diagnosis and management. Finally, we critically highlight and discuss novel findings and future perspectives on the therapeutic approach in LADA.


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