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Original Article
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Asian Subpopulations May Exhibit Greater Cardiovascular Benefit from Long-Acting Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists: A Meta-Analysis of Cardiovascular Outcome Trials
Yu Mi Kang, Yun Kyung Cho, Jiwoo Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Woo Je Lee, Joong-Yeol Park, Ye-Jee Kim, Chang Hee Jung, Michael A. Nauck
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):410-421.   Published online December 27, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0070
  • 6,535 View
  • 137 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Based on reported results of three large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), we aimed to investigate the overall effect of GLP-1 RAs on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and to identify subpopulations exhibiting the greatest cardiovascular (CV) benefit.

Methods

Three CVOTs reporting effects of long-acting GLP-1 RAs were included: LEADER (liraglutide), SUSTAIN-6 (semaglutide), and EXSCEL (exenatide once weekly). In all studies, the primary endpoint was three-point MACE, comprising CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. Overall effect estimates were calculated as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model; subgroup analyses reported in the original studies were similarly analyzed.

Results

Overall, statistically significant risk reductions in MACE and CV death were observed. Subgroup analysis indicated a significant racial difference with respect to CV benefit (P for interaction <0.001), and more substantial risk reductions were observed in subjects of African origin (relative risk [RR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.99) and in Asians (RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.32). However, post hoc analysis (Bonferroni method) revealed that only Asians exhibited a significantly greater CV benefit from treatment, compared with white subjects (P<0.0001).

Conclusion

Long-acting GLP-1 RAs reduced risks of MACE and CV deaths in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our findings of a particularly effective reduction in CV events with GLP-1 RA in Asian populations merits further exploration and dedicated trials in specific populations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Reviews
Islet Studies and Transplantation
An Update on the Effect of Incretin-Based Therapies on β-Cell Function and Mass
Suk Chon, Jean-François Gautier
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):99-114.   Published online April 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.99
  • 5,102 View
  • 112 Download
  • 43 Web of Science
  • 42 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease with a complex and progressive pathogenesis. The two primary mechanisms of T2DM pathogenesis are pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is recognized to be a prerequisite for the development of T2DM. Therapeutic modalities that improve β-cell function are considered critical to T2DM management; however, blood glucose control remains a challenge for many patients due to suboptimal treatment efficacy and the progressive nature of T2DM. Incretin-based therapies are now the most frequently prescribed antidiabetic drugs in Korea. Incretin-based therapies are a favorable class of drugs due to their ability to reduce blood glucose by targeting the incretin hormone system and, most notably, their potential to improve pancreatic β-cell function. This review outlines the current understanding of the incretin hormone system in T2DM and summarizes recent updates on the effect of incretin-based therapies on β-cell function and β-cell mass in animals and humans.

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Understanding the Cardiovascular Effects of Incretin
Ji Sung Yoon, Hyoung Woo Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(5):437-443.   Published online October 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.5.437
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  • 43 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus, has several pathogenic mechanisms that are well established. However, the traditional hypoglycemic agents do not have proven positive effects on macrovascular disease. Novel therapeutic agents target the incretin pathway including the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. The glucose-regulatory actions of these agents function by increasing insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon. They also act to increase weight loss not only by inhibiting gastric emptying, but also by reducing appetite. Although GLP-1 and GLP-1R agonists have demonstrated beneficial effects on myocardium and vascular endothelium including coronary and peripheral mouse vessels, they also have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic actions. These agents also have positive effects on the lipid profile and blood pressure. Although these cardioprotective actions seem to be beyond the effects of glucose control and weight loss, they are mediated through GLP-1R- or GLP-1R-independent actions of cleaved GLP-1 (9-36). Larger randomized controlled trials are necessary to elucidate the clinical promise of these beneficial CVD effects.

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The Incretins and Pancreatic β-Cells: Use of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide to Cure Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Mi-Hyun Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):2-9.   Published online February 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.2
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The complications associated with T2DM result in increased mortality and financial cost for those affected. T2DM has long been known to be associated with insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and a relative degree of insulin deficiency. However, the concept that insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are not linked through a hyperbolic relationship in T2DM has continuously been demonstrated in many clinical trials. Thus, in order to prevent and treat T2DM, it is necessary to identify the substance(s) that will improve the function and survival of the pancreatic β-cells in both normal and pathologic conditions, so that production and secretion of insulin can be enhanced. Incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), have been shown to lower the postprandial and fasting glucose and the glycated hemoglobin levels, suppress the elevated glucagon level, and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin synthesis and secretion. In this report, we will review the biological actions and mechanisms associated with the actions of incretin hormones, GLP-1 and GIP, on β-cell health and compare the differences between GLP-1 and GIP.

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