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Volume 38(1); February 2014
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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Women: Similarities and Differences from Other Racial/Ethnic Groups
Catherine Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):1-12.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.1
  • 3,557 View
  • 33 Download
  • 20 Web of Science
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reflects defects in insulin secretion in response to the metabolic demands of pregnancy. While GDM is increasingly common worldwide due in large part to the obesity epidemic, its frequency is relatively low in Korean women. In this report, the prevalence and risk factors for GDM, perinatal outcomes, and postpartum course are compared in non-Korean and Korean women. While Koreans and non-Koreans with GDM share pathophysiology and complications, there may be differences in the role of obesity and thus the effectiveness of interventions targeting obesity in GDM women. Further investigations of the effectiveness of weight loss interventions and pharmacotherapy specifically among Korean women are needed. Dietary and other lifestyle data from Korean populations could inform prevention and treatment strategies in other countries which suffer from significantly higher prevalences of GDM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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  • Pregnancy Outcomes of Women Additionally Diagnosed as Gestational Diabetes by the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Criteria
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  • The MC4R genotype is associated with postpartum weight reduction and glycemic changes among women with prior gestational diabetes: longitudinal analysis
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    Joon Ho Moon, Soo Heon Kwak, Hak C. Jang
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(1): 26.     CrossRef
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    Fei Teng, Jinfang Wu, Min Wei, Yongxiu Yang
    Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Comparison of the performance of screening test for gestational diabetes in singleton versus twin pregnancies
    Yun Ji Jung, Ja Young Kwon, Hee Young Cho, Yong-Won Park, Young-Han Kim
    Obstetrics & Gynecology Science.2015; 58(6): 439.     CrossRef
  • Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies
    Qi-Tao Huang, Qiong Huang, Wei Luo, Fei Li, Li-Lin Hang, Yan-Hong Yu, Mei Zhong
    Gynecological Endocrinology.2015; 31(5): 337.     CrossRef
  • Transition of maternal and child nutrition in Asia
    Pattanee Winichagoon
    Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care.2015; 18(3): 312.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes in Asians
    Eun-Jung Rhee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2015; 30(3): 263.     CrossRef
  • The rs2237892 Polymorphism in KCNQ1 Influences Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Levels: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis
    Deng Ao, Hai-jun Wang, Li-fang Wang, Jie-yun Song, Hui-xia Yang, Yan Wang, Marta Letizia Hribal
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  • Late Preterm Infants' Outcome Born from Mothers with Positive Screening but Negative Diagnostic Test for Gestational Diabetes
    Jeong Min Lee, Bo Seon Seo, Eun Sun Kim
    Korean Journal of Perinatology.2015; 26(3): 200.     CrossRef
The Hijacking of Cellular Signaling and the Diabetes Epidemic: Mechanisms of Environmental Disruption of Insulin Action and Glucose Homeostasis
Robert M. Sargis
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):13-24.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.13
  • 4,121 View
  • 46 Download
  • 40 Web of Science
  • 39 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The burgeoning epidemic of metabolic disease causes significant societal and individual morbidity and threatens the stability of health care systems around the globe. Efforts to understand the factors that contribute to metabolic derangements are critical for reversing these troubling trends. While excess caloric consumption and physical inactivity superimposed on a susceptible genetic background are central drivers of this crisis, these factors alone fail to fully account for the magnitude and rapidity with which metabolic diseases have increased in prevalence worldwide. Recent epidemiological evidence implicates endocrine disrupting chemicals in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. These compounds represent a diverse array of chemicals to which humans are exposed via multiple routes in adulthood and during development. Furthermore, a growing ensemble of animal- and cell-based studies provides preclinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that environmental contaminants contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Herein are reviewed studies linking specific endocrine disruptors to impairments in glucose homeostasis as well as tying these compounds to disturbances in insulin secretion and impairments in insulin signal transduction. While the data remains somewhat incomplete, the current body of evidence supports the hypothesis that our chemically polluted environment may play a contributing role in the current metabolic crisis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Current Status of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Korea: Report of a Hospital-Based Study of Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Korea by the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Jong Chul Won, Sang Soo Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Bong-Yun Cha
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):25-31.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.25
  • 3,927 View
  • 52 Download
  • 28 Web of Science
  • 27 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication associated with diabetes. DPN can present as a loss of sensation, may lead to neuropathic ulcers, and is a leading cause of amputation. Reported estimates of the prevalence of DPN vary due to differences in study populations and diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of DPN in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not as well understood as those of other complications of diabetes such as retinal and renal disease. Recently, the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) conducted a study investigating the impact of DPN on disease burden and quality of life in patients with T2DM and has published some data that are representative of the nation. This review investigated the prevalence and associated clinical implications of DPN in Korean patients with diabetes based on the KDA study.

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Editorial
Statin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Bo Kyung Koo
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):32-34.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.32
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  • 31 Download
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Original Articles
Prevalence, Awareness, and Management of Obesity in Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2011)
Chul Sik Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Nan Hee Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Soo Lim, Sung Hee Choi, Kee-Ho Song, Jong Chul Won, Dae Jung Kim, Bong-Yun Cha
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):35-43.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.35
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and several cardiovascular diseases. This study was to investigate the trends in the prevalence, awareness, and management status of obesity among the Korean population for recent 13 years.

Methods

The prevalence, subjective awareness, and management of obesity were investigated in adults aged ≥19 years by using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 1998 to 2011.

Results

The number of participants was 8,117, 5,826, 5,500, 3,025, 6,756, 7,506, 6,255, and 6,155 in the KNHANES in years 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 26.9%, 29.2%, 32.9%, 32.5%, 32.0%, 32.6%, 32.0%, and 32.0% in 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively, while the overall prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity increased by 1.19-fold and 1.24-fold respectively in 2011 compared against 2001. In general, a gradual increase in the prevalence of severe obesity has been observed as years go by. Furthermore, trends of improvements in obesity awareness and management rates were visible over the period of surveys.

Conclusion

Although the management status of obesity has improved during the recent years, more effective strategy to control obesity is needed.

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    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(3): 177.     CrossRef
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Plasma Glucose Regulation and Mortality in Korea: A Pooled Analysis of Three Community-Based Cohort Studies
Nan Hee Kim, Dong-Jun Kim, Seok Won Park, Jee-Young Oh, Joong-Yeol Park, Chol Shin, Hong Kyu Lee, Yongsoo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):44-50.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.44
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Although diabetes is a well-known risk factor for death, its impact on cancer death is not clearly understood. Furthermore, it remains controversial whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are associated with increased risk of mortality. We investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose tolerance categories on all cause and cause-specific mortality.

Methods

Mortality analysis was conducted in three population-based cohort studies of 3,801 participants, divided according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (normal; stage 1 IFG [5.6≤FPG<6.1 mmol/L]; stage 2 IFG [6.1≤FPG<7.0 mmol/L]; diabetes mellitus [DM]-FPG); or 2-hour glucose after 75 g glucose loading (2hPG) (normal; IGT; DM-2hPG), or a combination of FPG and 2hPG criteria.

Results

During a median follow-up of 11.0 years, 474 subjects died from all causes. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all cause death were higher in those with diabetes as defined by either FPG or 2hPG criteria than their normal counterparts (HR, 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 2.9 for DM-FPG; HR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.7 for DM-2hPG). Similarly, diabetes defined by either FPG or 2hPG was associated with cancer death (HR, 2.9, 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.0; and HR, 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.9, respectively). Although neither IFG nor IGT conferred higher risk for death, when combining stage 2 IFG and/or IGT, the risk of all cause death was higher than in subjects with normal glucose regulation (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6).

Conclusion

Diabetes is associated with higher risk of death from all causes and cancer. In subjects without diabetes, stage 2 IFG and/or IGT confers increased risk for mortality.

Citations

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    Richard Brandon Stacey, Janice Zgibor, Paul E. Leaverton, Douglas D. Schocken, Jennifer A. Peregoy, Mary F. Lyles, Alain G. Bertoni, Gregory L. Burke
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    Miranda M. Priya, Anandakumar Amutha, T.A. Pramodkumar, Harish Ranjani, Saravanan Jebarani, Kuppan Gokulakrishnan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan
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    Yu Jeong Kim, Ja Young Jeon, Seung Jin Han, Hae Jin Kim, Kwan Woo Lee, Dae Jung Kim
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    Chang Hee Jung, Gi Hyeon Seo, Sunghwan Suh, Ji Cheol Bae, Mee Kyoung Kim, You-Cheol Hwang, Jae Hyeon Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Xian Wu Cheng
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Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011
Seung-Hyun Ko, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Dae Jung Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Chul Sik Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Jong Chul Won, Soo Lim, Sung Hee Choi, Kyungdo Han, Yong-Moon Park, Bong-Yun Cha
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):51-57.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.51
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.

Methods

Using data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM]), 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM), and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM), we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication) and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg).

Results

The prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) compared with non-DM adults (26.2%). Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001) and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020) rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%), compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001) and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004). Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%), compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001) and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001).

Conclusion

Higher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

Citations

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  • Comorbidities of diabetes and hypertension in Vietnam: current burden, trends over time, and correlated factors
    Thi Hoang Lan Vu, Thi Tu Quyen Bui, Quoc Bao Tran, Quynh Nga Pham, Duc Truong Lai, Tu Hoang Le, Van Minh Hoang
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    Chan-Hee Jung, Jang Won Son, Shinae Kang, Won Jun Kim, Hun-Sung Kim, Hae Soon Kim, Mihae Seo, Hye-Jung Shin, Seong-Su Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Yongin Cho, Seung Jin Han, Hyang Mi Jang, Mira Rho, Shinbi Lee, Mihyun Koo, Been Yoo, Jung-Wha Moon, Hye Young Lee, Ja
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    Yixuan Li, Xiaomin Sun, Junxiang Wei, Jing Wu, Youfa Wang
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Assessment of the Association between Mean Hemoglobin A1c Levels for 5 Years and Coronary Artery Disease by Coronary Angiography in Nondiabetic Patients
Jae-Joon Kim, Ji-Hoon Kang, Ja-Jun Goo, Kyoung-Nyoun Kim, Ja-Young Lee, Mi-kyung Kim, Tae Ik Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):58-63.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.58
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The effects of glucose on cardiovascular events or mortality in nondiabetic patients has been recently reported. However, since atherosclerosis can be formed over a long period of time, it is necessary to devote several years to unveil the relationship between the two factors. Here, we attempted to find out the relationship between the mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and HbA1c variability for 5 years and coronary artery disease (CAD) by using coronary angiography (CAG) to assess nondiabetic patients.

Methods

We reviewed patients who performed CAG who were followed up for at least 5 years after the initial diagnosis. The fasting blood test was performed annually for glucose and HbA1c level. CAD was defined as more than 50% of luminal narrowing. The severity of CAD was divided into two groups depending on whether no vessels were involved or one more vessel were involved (CAD(-) or CAD(+), respectively).

Results

The patients in CAD(+) group had higher mean HbA1c level for 5 years than CAD(-) group (5.71±0.40 vs. 5.86±0.68; P=0.04). Mean HbA1c was a significant predictor for CAD in multiple regression (odds ratio, 2.224; P=0.028). The percentage of patients with CAD was significantly higher in patients with >6.2% of mean HbA1c levels compared to patients with <6.2% of mean HbA1c levels (P<0.019).

Conclusion

When the mean HbA1c levels were above 6.2%, the risk of CAD was higher. Also this study shows that HbA1c level can be one of the predictors for CAD even if the patients do not have diabetes.

Citations

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  • Impact of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programme versus coronary revascularisation in patients with stable angina pectoris: study protocol for the PRO-FIT randomised controlled trial
    Joyce M. Heutinck, Iris A. De Koning, Tom Vromen, Robert-Jan M. Van Geuns, Dick H.J. Thijssen, Hareld M.C. Kemps, Eddy M. Adang, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Pieter van Gorp, Arnoud W. J. van ‘t Hof, Veronica R. Janssen, Harald T. Jorstad, Roderik A. Kraaijenhag
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    Denis Monneret
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Statin Discontinuation after Achieving a Target Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Study
Seung-Hwan Lee, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Yong-Moon Park, Seung-Hyun Ko, Yoon-Hee Choi, Kun-Ho Yoon, Yu-Bae Ahn
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):64-73.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.64
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study investigated the rate of relapse of dyslipidemia and the factors which could predict relapse following a short-term statin discontinuation after achieving a target low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in type 2 diabetic patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods

Ninety-nine subjects on rosuvastatin treatment and whose LDL-C level was lower than 100 mg/dL were randomly assigned to discontinue or maintain statin treatment at a 2:1 ratio. The subjects were followed-up after 10 weeks. A relapse of dyslipidemia was defined as a reascent of LDL-C level to greater than 100 mg/dL.

Results

The statin discontinuation group had a significant rate of relapse compared to the maintenance group (79% vs. 3%, respectively). Pretreatment and baseline lipid levels, their ratios, and hemoglobin A1c level were significantly different between the relapse and nonrelapse groups. The pretreatment and baseline lipid profiles and their ratios were independently associated with relapse. The pretreatment LDL-C level was the most useful parameter for predicting a relapse, with a cutoff of 123 mg/dL. During the follow-up period, no CVD event was noted.

Conclusion

The relapse rate of dyslipidemia was high when statins were discontinued in type 2 diabetic patients without CVD. Statin discontinuation should be considered carefully based on the pretreatment lipid profiles of patients.

Citations

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Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010
Su Kyoung Kwon
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):74-80.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.74
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Many epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR) at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population.

Methods

Data from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely).

Results

The mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015). The mean body mass index (BMI) of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001). The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012).

Conclusion

Korean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men.

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