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Volume 35(6); December 2011
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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea
Sang Woo Oh
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):561-566.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.561
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

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Costs of Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
Kwan Woo Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):567-570.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.567
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Outcome research focusing on the economics of the medical field began in the mid-1990s and has included studies about costs, cost effectiveness, and policies. According to the American Diabetes Association, the total estimated cost of diabetes in 2007 was $174 billion. The economic burden of patients with diabetes in Canada is expected to be about $12.2 billion in 2010. Recent Korean studies have analyzed the expenses associated with type 2 diabetes for patients in selected general hospitals. Type 2 diabetic patients without complications cost approximately 1,184,563 won (the equivalent of US $1,184) per patient for healthcare annually. In contrast, patients with microvascular disease due to diabetic complications cost up to 4.7 times that amount, and patients with macrovascular disease incur up to 10.7 times the annual costs for patients without diabetic complications. Diabetic complications ultimately impact the quality of life for patients and patient mortality, and are associated with higher direct medical expenses for patients. To avoid increased medical costs, appropriate management techniques must be implemented to ensure timely care for patients with diabetes.

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Epidemiology of Micro- and Macrovascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes in Korea
Jung Hee Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Sung Hee Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):571-577.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.571
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The prevalence of diabetes in Korea has increased six- to sevenfold over the past 40 years with its complications becoming major causes of morbidity and mortality. The rate of death among patients with diabetes is about twice as high as that among persons without diabetes and the most common cause of death is cardiovascular disease (30.6%). Despite the seriousness of diabetic complications, 30 to 70% of patients receive inadequate care, and only 40% of treated diabetic patients achieve the optimal control with HbA1c level <7% in Korea. In 2006, over 30 to 40% of patients with diabetes have microvascular complications and around 10% of them have macrovascular complications from our national data. Despite there are some debates about intensive glycemic control resulting in the deterioration of macrovascular complication, multifactorial treatment approaches including proper glycemic control are important to prevent diabetic complications. There have been needs for finding proper biomarkers for predicting diabetic complications properly but we still need more longitudinal studies to find this correlation with causal relationship. In this article, we wanted to review the recent status of micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes in Korea from integration of many epidemiologic studies.

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Editorial
Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Goal Attainment Rate in Korean Patients with Diabetes
Eun Hae Lee, Chul Woo Ahn
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):578-579.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.578
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  • Trends in the management levels of metabolic risk factors in middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998–2014
    Sukyung Cho, Haeun Jang, Kyong Park, Stefan Kiechl
    PLOS ONE.2017; 12(12): e0189361.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Effect on Glycemic, Blood Pressure, and Lipid Control according to Education Types
Mi-Ju Choi, Seung-Hyun Yoo, Kum-Rae Kim, Yoo-Mi Bae, Sun-Hee Ahn, Seong-Shin Kim, Seong-Ah Min, Jin-Sun Choi, Seung-Eun Lee, Yeo-Jin Moon, Eun Jung Rhee, Cheol-Young Park, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Sun Woo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):580-586.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.580
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Diabetes self-management education and reinforcement are important for effective management of the disease. We investigated the effectiveness of interactive small-group education on glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid levels.

Methods

For this study, 207 type 2 diabetes patients with suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c levels >6.5%) were enrolled. The conventional education group received an existing education program from April to November in 2006, and the interactive education group received a new small-group education program from December 2006 to July 2007. The two groups were comparatively analyzed for changes in blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, lipid, and blood pressure at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months and the proportion of patients achieving target goals at 12 months.

Results

After 12 months of follow-up, HbA1c levels in the interactive education group were significantly lower than in the conventional education group (6.7% vs. 6.4%, P<0.001). Fasting and 2 hour postprandial glucose concentrations, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in the interactive education group than in the conventional education group. The proportion of patients that achieved target goals was significantly higher in the interactive education group.

Conclusion

The small-group educational method improved and re-established the existing group educational method. This finding suggests that the importance of education appears to be related to the method by which it is received rather than the education itself. Thus, the use of small-group educational methods to supplement existing educational methods established for diverse age levels should be considered in the future.

Citations

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  • The Effectiveness of Multidisciplinary Team-Based Education in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
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The Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009)
Yong Jun Choi, Min Suk Lee, So Yeon An, Tae Ho Kim, Seung Jin Han, Hae Jin Kim, Yoon-Sok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):587-594.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.587
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Diabetes is a major health problem in Korea. However, interest in the quality of life in patients with diabetes is low. We examined the effects of diabetes on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compared it with HRQoL in the general Korean population using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) (2007-2009).

Methods

Using KNHANES IV data, we compared EuroQol (EQ)-5D and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for sociodemographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities (hypertension, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and chronic renal disease). Logistic regressions were used to explore determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales in the diabetes group.

Results

The mean age of the 14,441 enrolled subjects (6,129 men and 8,312 women) was 52.5±14.5 years. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the diabetes group (EQ-5D. 0.87; EQ-VAS, 71.94) than in the non-diabetes group (EQ-5D, 0.94; EQ-VAS, 77.40) (P<0.001). Self-reported depressive symptom had a significant effect on lowering the EQ-VAS (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.6) in the diabetes group. Stress level had a significant effect in lowering both the EQ-5D (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.9) and the EQ-VAS (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.9). HbA1c, diabetes duration, and treatment modalities had no significant effect on lowering HRQoL.

Conclusion

Diabetes was clearly associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the non-diabetic population regardless of comorbidities. Therapeutic approaches should focus much more on the subjective perception of health in patients with diabetes.

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The Relationship among Homocysteine, Bilirubin, and Diabetic Retinopathy
Ho Chan Cho
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):595-601.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.595
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  • 42 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the leading cause of blindness in adults. Homocysteine, a risk factor with toxic effects on vascular endothelial cells, and bilirubin, a protectant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on the vasculature, have been reported to be linked to vaso-occlusive disorders. Therefore, the author of the present study investigated the association between the levels of plasma homocysteine and serum total bilirubin and the incidence of diabetic retinopathy as a chronic microvascular complication in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

A total of 102 patients with T2DM who visited our hospital from January 2009 to January 2010 were assessed.

Results

Of the 102 patients, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 67 cases (65.7%) according to clinical ophthalmic examination. The duration of DM (P<0.001), age (P=0.003), fasting blood glucose (P=0.045) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (P=0.015) in univariate analysis and plasma homocysteine level (P=0.038), duration of DM (P=0.001), and total bilirubin level (P=0.012) in multiple logistic regression analysis were statistically significantly associated with the incidence of diabetic retinopathy.

Conclusion

The present study indicates that homocysteine and bilirubin may be useful biomarkers for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy since retinopathy in patients with T2DM was linked to higher plasma homocysteine level and decreased serum total bilirubin level.

Citations

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  • Plasma homocysteine is associated with nonproliferative retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes without renal disease
    Martina Tomić, Romano Vrabec, Spomenka Ljubić, Tomislav Bulum, Dario Rahelić
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2022; 16(1): 102355.     CrossRef
  • Blood Viscosity in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Roles of Hyperglycemia and Elevated Plasma Fibrinogen
    Jiehui Sun, Keqin Han, Miao Xu, Lujuan Li, Jin Qian, Li Li, Xuejin Li
    Frontiers in Physiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Biliverdin/Bilirubin Redox Pair Protects Lens Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress in Age-Related Cataract by Regulating NF-κB/iNOS and Nrf2/HO-1 Pathways
    Yang Huang, Jinglan Li, Wenzhe Li, Nanping Ai, Haiying Jin, Recep Liman
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Homocysteine and diabetes: Role in macrovascular and microvascular complications
    Emir Muzurović, Ivana Kraljević, Mirsala Solak, Siniša Dragnić, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2021; 35(3): 107834.     CrossRef
  • Quantifying Fibrinogen-Dependent Aggregation of Red Blood Cells in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Yixiang Deng, Dimitrios P. Papageorgiou, Xuejin Li, Nikolaos Perakakis, Christos S. Mantzoros, Ming Dao, George Em Karniadakis
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    Dan Zhang, Wei Zhang, Shi Jin, Wei Wang, Dan Guo, Lu Wang
    International Journal of Endocrinology.2018; 2018: 1.     CrossRef
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    Tomislav Bulum, Martina Tomić, Lea Duvnjak
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    Fei Mao, Xiaoming Zhu, Bin Lu, Yiming Li
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  • Homocysteine and Its Relationship to Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis in a Chinese Community Population
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    Silvia Gazzin, Libor Vitek, Jon Watchko, Steven M. Shapiro, Claudio Tiribelli
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    Bo Zhu, Xiaomei Wu, Kang Ning, Feng Jiang, Lu Zhang, Demetrios G. Vavvas
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    Tomislav Bulum, Kristina Blaslov, Lea Duvnjak
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    Chong Xu, Yan Wu, Guodong Liu, Xiaoqiang Liu, Fang Wang, Jing Yu
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    Amany Tawfik, Shanu Markand, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Jamie N. Mayo, Jason Reynolds, Shawn E. Bearden, Vadivel Ganapathy, Sylvia B. Smith
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    Rui-Yan Li, Zhi-Gang Cao, Ji-Rong Zhang, Ying Li, Rui-Tao Wang
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    Atsunori Nakao, Keisuke Kohama, Taihei Yamada, Noritomo Fujisaki, Norichika Yoshie, Takahiro Ueda, Takeshi Nishimura, Joji Kotani
    Nihon Kyukyu Igakukai Zasshi.2014; 25(6): 239.     CrossRef
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    Syeda Sadia Najam, Jichao Sun, Jie Zhang, Min Xu, Jieli Lu, Kan Sun, Mian Li, Tiange Wang, Yufang Bi, Guang Ning
    Journal of Diabetes.2014; 6(3): 221.     CrossRef
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    Giulia Malaguarnera, Caterina Gagliano, Maria Giordano, Salvatore Salomone, Marco Vacante, Claudio Bucolo, Filippo Caraci, Michele Reibaldi, Filippo Drago, Teresio Avitabile, Massimo Motta
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Serum Cystatin C Reflects the Progress of Albuminuria
Jeong Seon Yoo, Young Mi Lee, Eun Hae Lee, Ji Woon Kim, Shin Young Lee, Ki-Cheon Jeong, Shin Ae Kang, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Young Duk Song, Kyung Rae Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):602-609.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.602
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Research on the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and serum cystatin C in diabetes is restricted to cross-sectional studies. In this study, we investigated how well serial measurements of serum cystatin C level reflect changes in the urinary albumin excretion rate.

Methods

We enrolled and retrospectively collected data on 1,058 participants with type 2 diabetes who were older than 18 years and who had more than 3 years of follow-up with serial measurements of albuminuria and serum cystatin C at an outpatient clinic.

Results

With the use of a linear mixed model, we found that the albuminuria level for each patient over time corresponded with the annual change in serum cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (cysC-eGFR) but did not correspond with the creatinine-based eGFR calculated by the modification of diet in renal disease formula (MDRD-eGFR). The discrepancy in the direction of the trend was smaller with cysC-eGFR than with MDRD-eGFR.

Conclusion

Serum cystatin C level reflects the trend in albuminuria level more accurately than serum creatinine level in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Citations

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  • Assessment of Cystatin C and Microalbumin as Biomarkers for Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Bhuneshwar Yadav, Shashidhar K.N, Raveesha A, Muninarayana C.
    Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences.2021; 10(25): 1866.     CrossRef
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    Eugene Han, Mi Kyung Kim, Byoung Kuk Jang, Hye Soon Kim
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    Eugene Han, Nan Hee Cho, Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Soon Kim
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    Caroline Pereira Domingueti, Rodrigo Bastos Fóscolo, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Luci Maria S. Dusse, Janice Sepúlveda Reis, Maria das Graças Carvalho, Ana Paula Fernandes, Karina Braga Gomes
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Associations between Fatness, Fitness, IGF and IMT among Obese Korean Male Adolescents
Eun Sung Kim, Ji-Hye Park, Mi Kyung Lee, Dong Hoon Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Hyun Chul Lee, Yoonsuk Jekal, Justin Y. Jeon
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):610-618.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.610
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  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between obesity, fitness levels and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors, and to identify the correlation between of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in Korean adolescents.

Methods

A total of 225 high school males with a mean age of 16.96±0.23 years participated in this study, and their fatness and fitness levels, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood lipids, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IMT were measured.

Results

The results showed that total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels were significantly higher in the most obese group than in the other two groups (tertiles). Muscular and cardiopulmonary fitness were negatively associated with weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, body fat, waist circumference (WC), fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and IMT. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were correlated with WC, hip circumference (HC), fasting glucose, TG, HDL-C, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. IMT levels were significantly associated with weight, BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, percent body fat, WC, HC, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Conclusion

There was a significant association between increased obesity and decreased fitness and HOMA-IR, IGF, and IMT among adolescents.

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    Marina Jaksic, Milica Martinovic, Najdana Gligorovic-Barhanovic, Tanja Antunovic, Mirjana Nedovic-Vukovic
    Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 34(3): 301.     CrossRef
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Cardiovascular Risk Assessment with Vascular Function, Carotid Atherosclerosis and the UKPDS Risk Engine in Korean Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes
Choon Sik Seon, Kyung Wan Min, Seung Yup Lee, Kyoung Woo Nho, Se Hwan Park, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyung Ah Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):619-627.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.619
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk simultaneously using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine and non-invasive vascular tests in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Participants (n=380; aged 20 to 81 years) with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of CVD. The 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risks were calculated for each patient using the UKPDS risk engine. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), flow mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) were measured. The correlations between the UKPDS risk engine and the non-invasive vascular tests were assessed using partial correlation analysis, after adjusting for age, and multiple regression analysis.

Results

The mean 10-year CHD and 10-year stroke risks were 14.92±11.53% and 4.03±3.95%, respectively. The 10-year CHD risk correlated with CIMT (P<0.001), FMD (P=0.017), and PWV (P=0.35) after adjusting for age. The 10-year stroke risk correlated only with the mean CIMT (P<0.001) after adjusting for age. FMD correlated with age (P<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (P=0.09). CIMT correlated with age (P<0.01), HbA1c (P=0.05), and gender (P<0.01).

Conclusion

The CVD risk is increased at the onset of type 2 diabetes. CIMT, FMD, and PWV along with the UKPDS risk engine should be considered to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

Citations

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Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Goal Attainment Rate and Physician Perceptions about Target Goal Achievement in Korean Patients with Diabetes
Jenie Yoonoo Hwang, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee, Cheol Young Park, Sung Rae Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon, Moon Kyu Lee, Sung Woo Park, Joong-Yeol Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):628-636.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.628
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study aims to investigate the discrepancy between clinicians' perceptions and actual achievement rates of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Korean patients with diabetes according to updated American Diabetes Association (ADA)/American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACC) recommendations.

Methods

This is a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional, observational study. Diabetic patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had been diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or were receiving a lipid-lowering therapy between May 2010 and August 2010. The information was obtained by reviewing medical records and using a self-completed questionnaire to examine physician perceptions.

Results

A total of 2,591 subjects who satisfied the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Highest-risk and high-risk patients accounted for 61.9% and 38.1% of the patients, respectively. Although most (96.3%) underwent a statin monotherapy or a statin-based combination therapy, just 47.4% of patients attained the LDL-C target. However, the physicians' perceptions on target achievement rate (70.6%) were different from the actual results (47.4%). Many patients (65.3%) remained on the starting doses of statins, despite evidence of poor achievement of lipid goals.

Conclusion

Only less than half of patients with diabetes attained the LDL-C goal. The surveys showed that poor physician performance might be due to the lack of recognition on ADA/ACC consensus causing a low LDL-C target attainment rate. Therefore, changes in doctor perception are needed to attain target LDL-C level and reduce cardiovascular risk in Korean patients with diabetes.

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Letter
Response
Response: Association between Diabetic Polyneuropathy and Chronic Complications in Type 2 Diabetic Patients (Diabetes Metab J 2011;35:390-6)
Jin Ook Chung, Dong Hyeok Cho, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):640-641.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.640
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Erratums
Erratum: Author's Name Correction
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):642-642.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.642
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Erratum: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):643-643.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.643
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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal