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Volume 26(5); October 2002
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Review
Perspectives of Diabetes Treatment using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Seok Won Park, Hyung Min Chung, Yong Wook Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):307-313.   Published online October 1, 2002
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No abstract available.
Editorial
Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity in Women with a Previous Gestational Diabetes: Understanding of Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes.
Hak Chul Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):314-318.   Published online October 1, 2002
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No abstract available.
Original Articles
Pospartum Assessment of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).
Eun Soon Hong, Hye Jin Lee, Young Sun Hong, Eon Ah Sung, Yeon Jin Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):319-327.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2~4% of all pregnant women. Women with a history of GDM are at high risk of developing type 2 DM, in the future; with a cumulative incidence is 40~60%. Therefore, the assessment of insulin secretion and sensitivity in women with a history of GDM should help in the elucidation of some of the underlying defects of insulin secretion or action in the evolution of type 2 DM. This study was performed to evaluate the characteristics of insulin secretory capacity and sensitivity in women with gestational diabetes following child birth. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out at 6~8 weeks postpartum in 22 women with a history of GDM, and 20 age and weight matched non- pregnant controls. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) were done at 10~14 weeks postpartm, and insulin secretion was measured as the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and insulin sensitivity as minimal model derived sensitivity index (SI). AIRg*SI was used as an index for beta-cell function because AIRg can be modulated by SI. RESULTS: According to the results of OGTT, the subjects with a history of GDM were classified into 2 groups, one of normal glucose tolerance (postpartum-NGT) (n=11) and the other of an impaired glucose tolerance (postpartum-IGT)(n=11). There were no significant differences in WHR (waist to hip ratio), blood pressure, and serum lipid concentrations among the controls, postpartum-NGT and postpartum-IGT group. The fasting glucose level was significantly higher in the postpartum-IGT group compared to the postpartum-NGT and control groups (p<0.05). The fasting serum insulin level was significantly lower in the postpartum-NGT and -IGT groups than in the control group (p<0.05). The AIRg and AIRg*SI were significantly lower in the postpartum-NGT and -IGT groups compared to the control group (p<0.05), however the SI was lower in the postpartum-NGT and -IGT groups compared to the control group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The percentage of parental with history of type 2 diabetes was significantly greater in the postpartum-IGT group compared to the postpartum-NGT group (p<0.05). No significant predictive factors for subsequent IGT were found inform a logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The insulin secretory capacity of women previously having suffered GDM was impaired, even though their glucose tolerance was restored to normal following child birth. Our results suggest that impaired insulin secretion may be a major path-ophysiological factor in the development of type 2 DM in women with a previous history of GDM.
Polymorphism of the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1alpha Gene in the Early-onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with a Strong Family History in Korea.
Eun Seok Kang, Si Hoon Lee, Zheng Shan Zhao, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kab Bum Huh, Young Soo Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):328-335.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a genetically heterogenous subtype of type 2 diabetes characterized by an early onset, usually before 25 years of age, autosomal dominant inheritance and a primary defect in insulin secretion. Mutation of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene is known to be a cause of MODY3. This study was carried out to reveal whether HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism is a common cause of early-onset type 2 diabetes and MODY in the Korean population. METHODS: Members of 12 pedigrees families with MODY and early-onset of type 2 diabetes were selected for the mutation detection. All of the families involved had at least two members with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before the age of 40 years, where the diabetes was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with at least 3 generations of diabetic subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole- blood samples. The 10 exons and the promotor of the HNF-1alpha gene were sequenced. RESULTS: In codon 17 of exon 1, 2 of the 10 control subjects and 5 of the 12 patients had nucleotide replacement where the CTC nucleotide was replaced by the CTG (p=0.381). This is a silent mutation where both the CTC and CTG code have the same amino acid leucine. In codon 27 of exon 1, 5 patients had a silent mutation, where the codon ATC is replaced by CTC and the amino acid changes from isoleucine to leucine, but no mutation was found in the control group (p=0.040). In codon 459 of exon 7, 2 of the controls and 3 of the patient group had a silent mutation (CTG -> TTG) that were both codon code leucine (p=1.000). Another missense mutation was observed in codon 487 of exon 7. Nucleotide AGC (serine) was replaced by AAC (asparagines). This mutation was observed in 5 control subjects and 10 patients (p=0.172). CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal a new HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism. We conclude that the HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism does not play a major role in the early-onset of type 2 diabetes with a strong family history in Korea.
The Effect of alpha-lipoic Acid on Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Intralipid Infusion in Healthy Volunteers.
Dong Wook Lee, Mi Jung Kim, Hye Soon Kim, Tae Sung Yun, Ho Chan Cho, Sang Jun Lee, Seung Ho Hur, Kyo Cheol Mun, Yong Won Cho, Jae Hoon Bae, In Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):336-346.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Endothelial dysfunciton has been proposed as an early manifestation of atherogenesis. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that hypertriglyceridemia and elevated free fatty acid are important risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis, probably through an increased oxidative stress. To clarify the hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on the endothelial dysfunction induced by intralipid infusion in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Hypertriglyceridemia and elevated free fatty acids was induced by infusion of intralipid. FMD (Flow-mediated dilation) of the brachial artery was investigated noninvasively by a high-resolution ultrasound technique in 13 young, healthy men without risk factors for coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Plasma triglyceride, free fatty acid and the superoxide anion were increased from 61.7+/-28.8 to 332.6+/-202.5 mg/dL, from 330.7+/-131.1 to 1267.0+/-486.2 microEq/L and from 6.6+/-2.2 to 8.7+/-1.5 X 10(-7)nmol/10(6)cells/30min (vs. basal p<0.001), respectively, following infusion of the intralipid. The FMD was decreased from 10.1+/-3.3 to 7.7+/-3.7% (vs. basal p<0.01) following infusion of the intralipid. After treatment with ALA, the increase in the FMD and the decrease in superoxide anion were significant. CONCLUSION: Acute hypertriglyceridemia, induced by intralipid infusion, is implicated in endothelial dysfunction. This endothelial dysfunction was reversed by treatment with ALA. These results suggest that chronic and repeated hypertriglyceridemia may play important roles in the development of atherosclerosis probably by increasing oxidative stress.
Impairment of Insulin Secretion by Fat Overload in Rat Pancreatic Islets and Effects of Antioxidants.
Chul Hee Kim, Chan Hee Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Kyo Il Suh, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):347-356.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
It has recently been suggested that fat overload on pancreatic beta cells is responsible for the abnormal pattern of insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant treatment was reported to preserve beta cell function in animal models of diabetes. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of various free fatty acids and triglyceride on insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreatic islets. In addition, we examined the effects of antioxidants. METHODS: Pancreatic islets of normal Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by intraductal injection of collagenase and Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The islets were treated with palmitat0e (C16:0), oleate (C18:1), linoleate (C18:2), and triglyceride emulsions (intralipid) for 72hours. Basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretions were measured. The effects of the antioxidants, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, and N-acetyl cysteine, were examined on the fat-induced change of insulin secretion. RESULTS: All of the free fatty acids and the triglyceride increased the basal insulin secretion. In contrast, insulin secretion stimulated by 27 mM glucose was significantly decreased after the treatment with free fatty acids or triglycerides. The antioxidant could not prevent the fat-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: These results show that various free fatty acids and triglyceride commonly cause defects in insulin secretion. However, we could not confirm the the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin secretory defect associated with fat overload.
Effect of Melatonin on the Diabetes Mellitus Induced by Streptozotocin in Rats.
Ri Ra Lee, You Hee Kim, Chun Sik Kwak, Mi Young Yeo, Kyo Cheol Mun
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):357-365.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Oxygen free radicals are related to the pathogenesis and development of diabetes mellitus. The effect of melatonin, a known powerful antioxidant, was studied diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at 65 mg per kg of body weight. To know the effects of melatonin, two doses of 10 mg of melatonin per kg of body weight were administered intraperitoneally, the first simultaneously with the streptozotocin, and the second after a further 72 hours. The rats were then sacrificed at the 7th day after the first injection. The parameters including the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzymes were analysed to evaluate the diabetic state and the degree of lipid peroxidation by oxygen free radicals. RESULTS: The injection of streptozotocin caused significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C and malondialdehyde. The injection of melatonin significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose and malondialdehyde. CONCLUSION: These results suggest melatonin may have a protective effect on the oxidative damage in the diabetes induced by streptozotocin.
The Effect of Chronic Alcohol Intake on Insulin Secretion in NIDDM Rats.
Mi Jin Kim, Myoung Sook Shim, Mun Kyu Kim, Dong Gu Kang, Hyung Suk Park, Sang Man Chung, Tae Sun Hwang, Young Goo Shin, Choon Jo Chin, Choon Hee Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):366-376.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
The effect of alcohol on glucose metabolism is dependent on the daily amount of alcohol ingestion and the timing of intake. Heavy alcohol consumption in the fasting state may lead to serious hypoglycemia, whereas an excessive alcohol intake during meals may lead to hyperglycemia. In Korea, AIDDM (atypical insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) which shows firstly similar to the NIDDM and progresses slowly into IDDM is related to heavy alcohol drinking. So we studied that the effect of chronic alcohol intake on insulin secretion of beta cell in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced non-insulin dependent diabetic Sprangue- Dawley rats. METHODS: 40 male newborn (12 hours old) Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) and 20 male newborn (12 hours old) Sprague-Dawley rats were injected by citrate buffer solution. At 14 weeks old, diabetic group were confirmed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (30% D/W, 2 g/kg). After that, diabetic group were divided into two groups. One group were fed on 5% ethanol and the other group were fed on water for 8 weeks. Control groups were divided into two groups. One group were fed on 5% ethanol and the other group were fed on water for 8 weeks. All rats were divided into 4 groups; group I: diabetic and 5% ethanol, group II: non- diabetic and 5% ethanol, group III: diabetic and water, group IV: non-diabetic and water. At the age of 22 weeks, we determined insulin level among 4 groups. After we extracted pancreas, determined the ratio of area of beta cell to islet cell. RESULTS: 1) There was no difference of weight among 4 groups in 22 week old rats. 2) Group I freely ingested 2.08g (5.50 g/kg/day) ethanol daily and group II ingested 2.04g (4.89g/kg/day) ethanol daily. 3) Plasma insulin levels of group I were lower than those of group III but not significant. 4) Plasma insulin levels of group II were higher than those of group IV but not significant. 5) In the light microscopic findings of pancreas, the ratios of area of beta cells to islet cells in group I were the lowest but not significant. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that chronic moderate alcohol ingestion in NIDDM rats didn't impair insulin secretion and morphology of pancreatic beta cells.
Clinical Characteristics of S20G Mutation of Amylin Gene in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Young Min Cho, Min Kim, Yun Yong Lee, Min Kyong Moon, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Hong Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):377-382.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Islet amyloid deposition, which is mainly composed of amylin, is a characteristic pathological finding in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A missense mutation of amylin at amino acid 20, from Serine to Glycine (S20G), has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes in Japanese. In this study, we examined the frequency and clinical characteristics of the S20G mutation in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We studied 364 unrelated patients with type 2 diabetes from Seoul National University Hospital and compared them with 70 non-diabetic subjects. We measured their weight, height, blood pressure and the circumferences of their waist and hips, in order to obtain their prediabetic maximal body weight. Their Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured. To detect the S20G mutation, we used the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The clinical features of the patients with the S20G mutation were compared with those without the mutation. RESULTS: The S20G mutation was found in 7 of the 364 diabetic patients (1.9 %) and in 1 of the 70 non-diabetic control subjects (1.4 %). The body mass index (BMI) of the patients with the S20G mutation was lower than in those with wild type (21.2+/-1.8 vs. 24.3+/-3.0 kg/m2; p<0.01). The prediabetic maximal BMI was also lower in the patients with S20G mutation (22.4+/-2.3 vs. 26.4+/-3.2 kg/m2; p<0.01) than in those with the wild type. The patients with the S20G mutation had a higher HbA1c level compared to those with the wild type (9.3+/-1.4 vs. 7.7+/-1.3%; p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The frequency of the S20G mutation of the amylin gene was 1.9% in the unrelated type 2 diabetic Korean patients. The S20G mutation is associated with a lower BMI and poor glycemic control.
3-Dimensional Long Term Culture of Monolayer Cultured Dispersed Neonatal Porcine Pancreas Cells (NPCC).
Sun Hee Suh, Kun Ho Yoon, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Ok Ki Hong, Jung Min Lee, Ki Ho Song, Soon Jib Yoo, Hyun Sik Son, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):383-395.   Published online October 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We have reported porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters (NPCCs) to be useful clinical alternative due to their growth potential and convenience. However, to apply the porcine NPCCs in human islet transplantation, there is a need to achieve in vitro maturation of porcine pancreas duct cells for the immediate cure of diabetes, and to escape hyperacute rejection. We have established a long-term 3D culture system of porcine pancreas duct cells for their in vitro induction in differentiated beta-cells. METHOD: For making NPCCs, pancreata from 1~3 days old pigs were minced, digested and cultured for 8 days. After 8 days, the cells were layered with Matrigel. After 50 days, the 3 dimensional cultures, the components of the reconstructed cell clusters were confirmed by three approaches: immunofluorescent staining, mea-surement of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and semiquantitative RT-PCR. RESULT: The monolayers of epithelial cells formed three-dimensional structures of cysts from which 50~200 micro meter diameter islet-like clusters of pancreas cells budded. The insulin and DNA contents, and the ratio of insulin/DNA, did not change significantly, even after 50 days of culturinge. The levels of insulin and galactosyl transferase mRNA showed a tendency to increase in the monolayer culture of the duct cells until day 8, after which the levels significantly decreased. However, the level of glucagon mRNA was maintained until day 50. Compared with their basal secretion at 5mM glucose, the cysts/cultivated porcine islet buds exposed to stimulatory 20mM glucose did not show difference in insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: We have shown the expansion of dispersed porcine neonatal pancreas cells in vitro, and the reconstruction of a three-dimensional structure, following Matrigel overlaying, but were unable to observe the transition of duct cells to beta cells, as observed in human duct cells. Further studies will be required to elucidate this difference.
Effect and Mechanism of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Aortic Endothelial Cells.
Soon Hee Lee, Jung Guk Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Woo Ha, Bo Wan Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):396-404.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a soluble angiogenic factor produced by many tumor and normal cells, is a potent angiogenic and vascular permeability factor. VEGF plays a key role in both pathological and physiological angiogenesis. There are many recent findings regarding the role of VEGF in diabetic microvascular and macrovascular diseases. Many approaches with VEGF-related therapies begin to treat and prevent these complications and have been used for the treatment of microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, whereas VEGF agonists have been used to treat macrovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and peripheral limb ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to mediate many physiological and pathological functions, including modulation of vascular tone, permeability, and capillary growth. Recent reports indicate that NO may play an intimate role in VEGF signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression of eNOS may be regulated by VEGF. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether VEGF up-regulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells and to elucidate the mechanism that mediate this response. METHODS: Endothelial cells were isolated from bovine aortae. The expression of eNOS was assessed by Northern blotting analysis. To evaluate the mechanism of VEGF-induced eNOS expression, endothelial cells were conditioned with VEGF and pretreated with phorbol-12-myristate acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, or GF109203X (GFX), a PKC inhibitor. The changes of eNOS gene expression. RESULTS: VEGF significantly increased the expression of eNOS mRNA in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in time and dose dependent manners. PMA increased the expression of eNOS mRNA, as well as the VEGF-induced expression of eNOS mRNA in endothelial cells, while inhibition of the PKC activity, with the GFX blocked the upregulation of the VEGF-induced eNOS mRNA. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that VEGF upregulates eNOS gene expression in aortic endothelial cells, by a PKC dependent pathway and, eNOS may be important in the development of VEGF-induced angiopathy.
Multicenter Study
Effects of Nateglinide on the Control of Mealtime Glucose Excursions in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Hyeon Man Kim, Yoon Seok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Dong Rim Kim, Dong Seop Choi, Eun Sook Oh, Moo Il Kang, Kwang Woo Lee, Chul Young Park, In Myung Yang, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim, Hyong Gi Jung
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):405-415.   Published online October 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Nateglinide belong to a new family of insulin secretagogues that stimulate the early phase of insulin secretion. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effect of nateglinide in Korean type 2 diabetes patients, whose diabetes were inadequately controlled by medical nutrition therapy, focusing on the changes in mealtime glucose excursion (PBG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma insulin. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This multicentered open-label trial was conducted on 66 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects comprised of 36 males and 30 females, with a mean age, and duration of diabetes of 53.9+/-9.6(34~69) years and 39.5+/-44.0 months, respectively. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) FBG and PBG before the trial of 6.7~11.1 mmol/l and above 11.1 mmol/l, respectively, 2) changes of FBG and PBG during the 2-week-diet treatment of less than 1.7 mmol/l. PBG, FGB, HbA1c and plasma insulin levels were measured at weeks -2, 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12. Any adverse effects were noted during the study. The data were analyzed by the intent-to treat (ITT) and the per protocol (PP) methods. RESULTS: Nineteen cases were excluded due to protocol violation or withdrawal. The PBG level was significantly decreased during the study 13.7 2.6 mmol/l, before the trail to 9.6 2.8 mmol/l after (p=0.001) which was particularly marked during the first 2 weeks. The FBG, HbA1c and fasting plasma insulin levels were also significantly decreased, from 9.0+/-1.2 to 8.2+/-2.0 mmol/l, p=0.0063), from 8.0+/-1.3% to 7.0+/-1.1% (p=0.0001) and from 9.8 7.2 to 8.0 5.5 pmol/l (p<0.05), respectively. Three adverse events suggested the nateglinide-related diabetes was not serious. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that nateglinide could be used as an effective glucose-lowering agent, especially for the control of mealtime glucose excursion in Korean type 2 diabetes patients who were inadequately controlled by diet alone.
Original Articles
Factors Determining Circadian Blood Pressure Rhythm in Normotensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Jae Hong Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Mi Jung Eun, Si Hyung Lee, Kyeong Cheol Shin, Kyu Chang Won, Ihn Ho Cho, Hyoung Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):416-430.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Within healthy subjects, there exists the so-called 'dipper phenomenon', where the circadian blood pressure rhythm, that is the systolic and diastolic blood pressures values, are lower at night than during the day. The loss of nocturnal dipping in BP has prognostic value with regard to end-organ damage and vascular events in both hypertension and diabetic patients. A blunted nocturnal decrease in BP has been described in diabetic patients, and has been associated with autonomic neuropathy or nephropathy, but much controversy relating to this still exists. This study was designed to evaluate the factors that influence abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm. METHODS: 24hr blood pressure monitoring was applied to 99 normotensive type 2 diabetes patients,comprising of 55 males and 44 females, with a mean age: 56 3 years, who visited our hospital between March 2000 and February 2002 for measurement of 24hr systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The control groups was 21 white coat hypertension type 2 diabetic patients, comprising of 15 males and 6 females, with a mean age of 53 4 years. The controls were subgrouped according to their standard cardiovascular autonomic function test(CAN) or nephropathy stage. All patients divided dipper, mean(day time night time) systolic BP/mean(day time-night time) diastolic BP above 10mmHg/5mmHg, and non-dipper groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-dipper phenomenon was much greater in the type 2 diabetes patients than in the control groups(p<0.05). There was a significant difference between the dipper and non-dipper groups in the 24hr total urine protein and CAN(p<0.05). In the type 2 diabetes patients, sub-grouped according to their nephropathy stage, there was a significant difference between the microalbuminuric and proteinuric groups relating to the prevalence of the non-dipper phenomenon (p<0.05). The circadian blood pressure, according to the nephropathy stage, the CAN in the normoalbuminuria group, the albumin excretion in the microalbuminuria group, CAN and 24hr total urine protein in the proteinuric group, may useful in determining abnormal circadian rhythm (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the dipper and non-dipper groups with regard to neuropathy and retinopathy (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: In the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, autonomic dysfunction may have a relatively dominant influence on abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm. Nephropathy was progressed in diabetic patients: therefore diabetic nephropathy may itself have an influence on abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm.
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome according to the New Criteria for Obesity.
Hae Won Chung, Dae Jung Kim, He Dong Jin, Seung Hee Choi, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):431-442.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
The prevalence of obesity is known to be lower in Asian population than that in Europe. But, the health risks associated with obesity occur at a lower body mass index (BMI) in Asian. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Korean adult population according to the new criteria for obesity proposed in Asia-Pacific Perspective. METHODS: From individuls, who participated in medical check-up of Korean Association of Health (KAH), 1,230 individuals were included in the analysis. In patients with type 2 diabetes (n=131), subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (n=84), or individuals who have insulin-resistance but show normal fasting glucose (NFG) (n=1015), the metabolic syndrome was defined as presence of at least two of the following components; hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was present in 19% of men and 16% of women. In detail, about 10% in NFG, 50% in IFG, and 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes fulfilled the criteria of metabolic syndrome. In comparison with the lowest tertile of waist circumference and BMI, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased about 13 fold in subjects with the highest tertile. Using a multiple regression analysis, HOMA-IR was associated with an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome (RR=2.23, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: The metabolic syndrome, according to the new criteria for obesity in Asian-Pacific Perspective in Korean adult population, is seen as much as Western countries. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can be suggested as the main causes of the metabolic syndrome.

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