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Volume 25(3); June 2001
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Review
Stem Cell and Diabetes.
Kyu Jeung Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):179-183.   Published online June 1, 2001
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No abstract available.
Editorial
Intrauterine Environment and Adult Disease.
Hak Chul Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):184-189.   Published online June 1, 2001
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No abstract available.
Original Articles
Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defense System in Offspring of Protein-Malnourished Rats.
Eun Young Cho, Hyeong Kyu Park, Hyeon Jeong Jeon, Suk Kyeong Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Chong Ho Lee, Seong Yeon Kim, Hong Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):190-199.   Published online June 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Free radical-mediated oxidative damage has been implicated in a variety of pathological processes such as diabetes mellitus, aging and atherosclerosis. The susceptibility of a given organism to oxidative damage is influenced by the overall balance between the degree of oxidative stress and antioxidative capabilities. Nutrition plays an important role in determining the cellular antioxidative defense mechanism. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of fetal protein malnutrition on oxidative stress and antioxidative capabilities. METHOD: Rats were fed a low-protein (8% casein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto either a control (18% casein) diet (group 2) or a low-protein diet (group 3). Offspring from rats fed a control diet were weaned onto a control diet (group 1). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances (TBARS) were determined at 10 and 15 wk in liver and skeletal muscle from offspring. RESULTS: SOD activities of liver in group 3 were significantly lower than those in group 1 at 10 wk (4.14+/-0.65 U/mg protein, 9.09+/-0.85 U/mg protein) and 15 wk (4.18+/-0.58 U/mg protein, 7.63+/-0.74 U/mg protein), respectively. But SOD activities of skeletal muscle were not different between groups. Whilst GPx activities of liver were not different at 10 wk, GPx activities in group 2 (1.80+/-0.16 U/mg protein) were significant higher than those in group 1 (1.24+/-0.15 U/mg protein) at 15 wk. GPx activities of skeletal muscle were not different between groups. The TBARS concentrations in liver or skeletal muscle were not different between groups at 10 and 15 wk. There was a significant negative correlation between SOD activities and TBARS concentrations in liver (r=-0.359). CONCLUSION: In offspring of rats fed a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation, the antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased, compared with offspring of rats fed a control diet. These alterations were not fully restored in low-protein offspring even when weaned onto a control diet. These results suggest that fetal protein malnutrition impair the antioxidative defense system.
Chronic Diabetic Complications in the Insulin- Treated Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Jee Won Park, Sung Kyu Lee, Hyo Jung Kim, Hae Lim Noh, Chang Young Hah, Su Jin Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee, Hyun Man Kim, Eun Ju Paek
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):200-210.   Published online June 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is a characterized by insulin resistance and impairment of beta cell function. OLETF male rat usually developed NIDDM and obesity at 20 weeks old spontaneously. It is a metabolically characterized by insulin resistance in onset of early disease. However, body weight and insulin secretory function was gradually reduced during the diabetes developed. These characteristics of disease is similar to Korean type 2 diabetic patients. NIDDM patients in Korea are thought to be different from traditional NIDDM in western countries. They are non obese type and also has reduced insulin secretory function compared to western countries. These patients are not easily managed on diet and/or oral hypoglycemic agent. Reduced C-peptide and insulin concentrations in these patients are similar to patients with IDDM. In these patients, insulin therapy is effective to control glucose level. Therefore, we investigated the effect of insulin and oral hypoglycemic therapy to glucose control and severity of chronic complications in OLETF male rats of 6weeks (42 weeks old) and 14 weeks (50 weeks old) treated groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The OLETF male rats which are 36 weeks old is diagnosed to NIDDM. A total of 20 rats were stratified into the three groups: control group (n=3), OHA's group; rats treated by OHA's (n=3) and insulin group; rats treated with insulin (n=4). We evaluated anthropometry, fasting glucose and 75 gram OGATT, nerve conduction studies, sclerotic degree of kidney and thickness of carotid arteries at 42 and 50 weeks old. RESULTS: In the 42 weeks old groups (6 weeks treated group), there was a significant difference in weight gain in group 3 but no differences were observed in kidney tissue pathology and thickness of carotid arteries. In the 50 weeks old groups (14 weeks treated group), there were also no changes in the kidneys and arteries, but weight gain and peak amplitude in NCV was significantly higher in insulin - treated group. CONCLUSIONS: OLETF male rats as NIDDM animal mocel, with late stage diabetic complications show weight loss and decreased insulin secretory capacity. Insulin treated group shows improved blood glucose control. Also it showed improved severity of diabetic neuropathy.
The Role of Chromium as an Insulin Sensitizer in Rats Receivieng Corticosteroid.
Dong Sun Kim, Chang Beom Lee, Yong Soo Park, You Hern Ahn, Tae Wha Kim, Ho Soon Choi, Il Kyu Park, Hyun Jin Shin, Ju Seop Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):211-217.   Published online June 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Chromium (Cr) has been known to be essential for the regulation of insulin action. Recently it has been reported that corticosteroid increases urinary loss of Cr, and that Cr supplementation recovers steroid induced diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Rats were daily treated with dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg, ip) for first 7 days and were further treated daily with dexamethasone plus either chromium picolinate (30 mg/kg) or a placebo for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: At the end of experiment (Day 21), the control rats treated only with dexamethasone weighed 320 gram (80% of initial weight) in average, but the Cr treated rats weighed 364 gram (91% of initial weight. p<0.05). An insulin sensitivity test [subcutaneous injection of insulin (5 U/kg) plus intraperitoneal injection of glucose (30 minutes after insulin injection)] were conducted. During the insulin sensitivity tests, the area under curves (AUC(0->120 min)) of the time-glucose concentrations curves in the Cr-treated group were decreased compared to those in the control group (5250 vs 15883 mg-min/dL, p<0.01). Fasting serum insulin levels in the Cr-treated rats were clearly decreased by 46.9% compared to those in the control group (2.98 vs 5.60 ng/mL, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that chromium supplementation reverse a catabolic state, and increase insulin sensitivity in dexamethasone treated rats.
Effect of Protein Kinase C Inhibitor on Glucose Transporter-1 (GLUT1) Expression in Cultured Rat Mesangial Cells.
Ie Byung Park, Dae Ryong Cha, Dong Rim Kim, Sin Gon Kim, Dong Hyun Shin, Kyung Mook Choi, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):218-229.   Published online June 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Recent studies have suggested that increased glucose uptake via GLUT1 may be a major determinant of glucose utilization and extracellular matrix formation in mesangial cells. This study was to evaluate the effect of protein kinase C inhibitor on glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) expression in cultured rat mesangial cells. METHODS: The GLUT1 expression was evaluated in mesangial cells exposed to various glucose concentrations of media (5.5 mM, 15 mM or 30 mM) and incubation times (6 hr, 24 hr or 72 hr) by semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The effect of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin C and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on GLUT1 expression was also evaluated under the same conditions. RESULTS: The GLUT1 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in MG (15 mM) and HG (30 mM) than those in NG (5.5 mM) with incubation of 6 hr, 24 hr and 72 hr, respectively. In HG media, the GLUT1 mRNA expression with incubation of 24 hr and 72 hr were significantly increased than that with incubation of 6 hr, respectively. In HG media, the GLUT1 mRNA expressions were significantly reduced in calphostin C and PMA treated groups compared with those in untreated groups. In western blot analysis of HG media, GLUT1 proteins were identified in PMA- or calphostin C-untreated group and PMA 6 hr treated group, but not identified in PMA 24 hr treated group and in calphostin C-treated groups with incubation of 6 hr and 24 hr. CONCLUSION: PKC inhibitors decrease glucose-induced GLUT1 expression under high glucose concentration in mesangial cells. These results suggest that PKC pathway may regulate GLUT1 expression under high glucose concentration in cultured rat mesangial cells.
Diastolic Dysfunction of Left Ventricle by Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Without Cardiovascular Symptom.
Duk Kyu Kim, Mi Kyoung Park, Do Young Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):230-239.   Published online June 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
We investigated the effect of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy for left ventricular function in cardiovascular symptom-free type 2 diabetic patients without other major risk factors known to cause cardiac dysfunction, especially diastolic dysfunction. METHODS: Forty seven patients (M:F=20:27, 53+/-10 years) with type 2 DM were enrolled in this study. None of the subjects had the macrovascular diabetic complications, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, alcoholic heart disease, congenital heart disease and older age (> 65 years). The patients were tested for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy using five non-invasive tests of autonomic function. The response to each test was graded as 0, 0.5, 1. A patient was classified as having definite cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy if total score was 2 or more. Using these criteria, 26 patients (Group A) were determined to have cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Others were 21 patients (Group B). Tc-99 m RBC gated blood pool scintigraphy was performed as routine standard protocol. RESULTS: The degree of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, level of insulin, C-peptide, fructosamine, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL, LDL, BUN, creatinine and incidence of retinopathy, microalbuminuria were not different between group A and B. Heart rate response to Valsalva maneuver, heart rate response to standing were different between Group A and B (p=0.008, p=0.001, respectively). Ejection fraction of left ventricle were normal (> 50%) in all of patients. Maximal filling rate, average filling rate, maximal ejection rate and average ejection rate were increased in patients with cardiac autonomic neuropathy (p=0.03, p=0.05, p=0.02, p=0.04, respectively). Total score of autonomic function was significantly correlated with maximal filling rate (r=0.38, p=0.01), with average filling rate (r=0.37, p=0.01) and with maximal ejection rate (r=0.37, p=0.01). Maximal filling rate was most correlated with resting pulse (r=0.58, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy as single factor may result in diastolic dysfunction of left ventricle in cardiovascular symptom-free type 2 diabetic patients without other major factor known to cause cardiac diastolic dysfunction.
The Relation of Diabetes Control to Stress Amounts Associated with Life Events in Diabetics.
Jung Won Lim, Hyung Joon Yoo, Kyung Ae Choi, Sung Hee Lim, Yoo Sun Chung, Sung O Seo, Chul Su Choi, Hyun Kyu Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Doo Man Kim, Moon Gi Choi, Sung Woo Park, Young Joong Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):240-249.   Published online June 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The life events which diabetic patients experience has an influence on conduct and communication pattern that is essential to control diabetes. The psychosocial life events which patients experienced in recently, as well as in the past has an important meanings in the process of the plan, implementation and evaluation of diabetic control. However, the most researches on this issues are scanty. Thus, we evaluated the relation of diabetic control to stress amounts associated with the life event which diabetic patients experience for the past one year. METHODS: In this study, 81 diabetic patients admitted to H hospital from March, 1999 to February 2000 were examined in stress amounts associated with life events, blood sugar, HbA1C, duration, complication, family history, treatment to inspect the hypothesis that stress experiences for recent 1 year are related to diabetic control. The 'Life Psychosocial Event Scale' invented by Lee was used. To examine the hypothesis that diabetic control may be influenced by the amount of stress, we investigated the difference of the means between the two groups (upper 30% of patients vs. lower 30% of patients) by T-test. RESULTS: The mean age was 56.9+/-15.1 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 8.9+/-7 years. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was 200.3+/-71.0 mg/dL, PP2 was 292.9+/-87.2 mg/dL, HbA1C was 10.5+/-2.6%, complication was 0.8+/-0.9. The age showed negative correlation with stress amounts. The other variables did not show significant correlation with stress amounts. Thus, our study indicated that the hypothesis that stress experiences for recent 1 year are related to diabetic control was rejected. However, considering the perception-phenomenological approach on stress, if we study the relationship between stress with diabetic control inclusively, it seems that we can recognize such relationship. CONCLUSION: To address relation between stress with diabetic control inclusively, we need to consider stress factors in diversified aspects more than only one. Therefore, we must investigate how do patients perceive and cope with stress inclusively, because the crisis of life is influenced on the stress coping skill of patients. The study on this issue must be continued to identified the key factors associated with stress in diabetes.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal