Diabetes Metab J > Volume 30(6); 2006 > Article
Korean Diabetes Journal 2006;30(6):416-427.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.416    Published online November 1, 2006.
High Glucose Modulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Through Activation of PKC-sigma-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase.
Bo Hyun Kim, Chang Won Lee, Jung Lae Park, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
1Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Korea.
2Department of Internal Medicine, Busan St.Mary's Medical Center, Korea.
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the causative factors contributing to macrovascular complications in diabetes. However, the mechanisms of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications are poorly understood. We hypothesized that PKC-sigma isozyme contributes to ROS generation and determined their roles in the critical intermediary signaling events in high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. METHODS: We treated primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells for 72 hours with medium containing 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose (normal glucose), 30 mmol/L D-glucose (high glucose) or 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose plus 24.5 mmol/L mannitol (osmotic control). We then measured cell number, BrdU incorporation, cell cycle and superoxide production in VSM cells. Immunoblotting of PKC isozymes using phoshospecific antibodies was performed, and PKC activity was also measured. RESULTS: High glucose increased VSM cell number and BrdU incorporation and displayed significantly greater percentages of S and G2/M phases than compared to 5.5 mmol/L glucose and osmotic control. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) staining in high glucose-treated VSM cell was more prominent compared with normal glucose-treated VSM cell, which was significantly inhibited by DPI (10 micrometer), but not by inhibitors for other oxidases. High glucose also markedly increased activity of PKC-sigma isozyme. When VSM cells were treated with rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-sigma or transfected with PKC-sigma siRNA, NBT staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were significantly attenuated in the high glucose-treated VSM cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC-sigma markedly decreased VSM cell number by high glucose. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose-induced VSM cell proliferation is dependent upon activation of PKC-sigma, which may responsible for elevated intracellular ROS production in VSM cells, and this is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase.
Key Words: Diabetic vascular complication, High glucose, NAD(P)H oxidase, PKC-sigma, Vascular smooth muscle cell


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