Diabetes Metab J > Volume 45(6); 2021 > Article
Basic Research
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal 2021;45(6):853-865.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0138    Published online November 22, 2021.
Mitochondrial TFAM as a Signaling Regulator between Cellular Organelles: A Perspective on Metabolic Diseases
Jin-Ho Koh1  , Yong-Woon Kim1, Dae-Yun Seo2, Tae-Seo Sohn3 
1Department of Physiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
2Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Smart Marine Therapeutic Center, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan, Korea
3Department of Internal Medicine, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence:  Jin-Ho Koh,
Email: jinhokoh@yu.ac.kr
Tae-Seo Sohn,
Email: imsts@catholic.ac.kr
Received: 28 June 2021   • Accepted: 24 October 2021
Abstract
Tissues actively involved in energy metabolism are more likely to face metabolic challenges from bioenergetic substrates and are susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to metabolic diseases. The mitochondria receive signals regarding the metabolic states in cells and transmit them to the nucleus or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) using calcium (Ca2+) for appropriate responses. Overflux of Ca2+ in the mitochondria or dysregulation of the signaling to the nucleus and ER could increase the incidence of metabolic diseases including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) may regulate Ca2+ flux via changing the mitochondrial membrane potential and signals to other organelles such as the nucleus and ER. Since Tfam is involved in metabolic function in the mitochondria, here, we discuss the contribution of Tfam in coordinating mitochondria-ER activities for Ca2+ flux and describe the mechanisms by which Tfam affects mitochondrial Ca2+ flux in response to metabolic challenges.
Key Words: Calcium, Cell nucleus, Diabetes mellitus, type 2, Endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, TFAM protein
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ORCID iDs

Jin-Ho Koh
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4777-4399

Tae-Seo Sohn
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5135-3290

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