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Original Article The Effect of Chronic High Glucose Concentration on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in INS-1 Cells.
Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Young Seo, Tae Sung Yun, Nam Kyung Kim, Yu Jin Hah, Yun Jung Kim, Ho Chan Cho, Young Yun Jang, Hye Soon Kim, Seong Yeol Ryu, In Kyu Lee, Keun Gyu Park
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal 2008;32(2):112-120
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.2.112
Published online: April 1, 2008
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1Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Korea.
2Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Korea.

BACKGROUND
The highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure is one of the characteristic features of pancreatic beta-cells. Recent study showed that ER stress causes beta-cell dysfunction. However, little is known about the effects of high glucose concentration on induction of ER stress in pancreatic beta-cells. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate whether exposure of high glucose concentration in rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1 cell induces ER stress and whether ER stress decreases insulin gene expression. METHODS: The effect of 30 mM glucose on insulin expression and secretion in INS-1 cells was evaluated by Northern blot analysis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Cell viability was evaluated by XTT assay. The effect of 30 mM glucose on phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and CHOP expression, which are markers of ER stress were evaluated by Western blot analysis. RT-PCR analysis was performed to determine whether high glucose concentration induces XBP-1 splicing. To investigate whether ER stress decreases insulin gene expression, the effect of tunicamycin on insulin mRNA expression was evaluated by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: The prolonged exposure of INS-1 cells with the 30 mM glucose concentration decreased insulin mRNA expression in a time dependent manner and impaired GSIS while did not influence on cell viability. 30 mM glucose increased phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, XBP-1 splicing and CHOP expression in INS-1 cells. Tunicamycin-treated INS-1 increased XBP-1 splicing and decreased insulin mRNA expression in a dose dependent manner. CONCLUSION: This study showed that prolonged exposure of INS-1 with high glucose concentration induces ER stress and ER stress decreases insulin gene expression. Further studies about underlying molecular mechanism by which ER stress induces beta-cell dysfunction are needed.

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    The Effect of Chronic High Glucose Concentration on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in INS-1 Cells.
    Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(2):112-120.   Published online April 1, 2008
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