Korean Diabetes Journal 1999;23(3):315-325.
Published online January 1, 2001.
Solyble ICAM-1 and BCAM-1 in Patients with NIDDM.
Young Min Kim, Yong Gi Kim, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Seok Dong Yoo, Young Keun Choi, Chang Won Lee, Jun Hyup Ahn
1Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea.
2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Dong Kook University, Kyung Joo, Korea.
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The development of vascular complications in diabetic patients changess their quality of life, as well as shortens their life expectancy. It has been recently discovered that the expressions of the cell adhesion molecules initiate vascular complications and have major effects on the progress of atherosclerosis. We measured soluble forms of intercelluar adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), the immunoglobulin superfamily members of the cell adhesion molecules concerning firm adhesion and transendothelial migration during leukocyte- endothelial cell interactions to clarify their concentrations and their relation with glycemic control and plasma lipoproteins as well as differences in concentration according to the presence of diabetic microvascular complcations in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. METHODS: Serum sICAM-1and sVCAM-1 levels were measured by commercial ELISA kits in 35 NIDDM patients without overt macrovascular complications of diabetes or acute inflammation and 10 normal controls matched with body mass index and plasma lipoprotein levels. The mean age of the patient group and control group was 55.82+3.43 years and 46.30+15.15 years, respectively. Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters such as fasting plasma glucose, HbAplasma lipoproteins and status of diabetic microvascular complications were evaluated and their relations with the levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were analyzed. RESULTS: 1) The level of sICAM-1 in NIDDM patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls (15.79+6.21 ng/mL vs. 11.98+2.35, p<0.05). sVCAM-1 showed the trend in elevation in NIDDM patients, but had no statistical significance (p=0.053). 2) The level of soluble ICAM-1 was positively correlated with HbAlc>, and plasma triglyceride levels (r=0.38, p<0.05, r=0.36, p<0.05, respectively) and negatively correlated with HDL (r=-0.44, p<0.01) in the patient group. There were no differences in their age, sex, and the presence of hypertension with the levels of sICAM-1 and no relation between sICAM-1 level and body mass index, plasma total cholesterol, Lp (a), fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma C-peptide levels. Plasma LDL was partially correlated with the level of sICAM-1, but failed to reveal statistical significance. sVCAM-1 level was not correlated with any parameters discussed above, but had a tendency of correlation with HbAlc level (r=0.31, p=0.06). 3) No significant correlation was noted between the levels of sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1 and the duration of diabetes. 4) Both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy when compared to patients without nephropathy (21.58+7.11 ng/mL vs. 14.06+4.84 ng/mL, p<0.05, 37.51+16.91 ng/mL vs. 22.26+8.89 ng/mL, p<0.05, respectively, but such differences were not noted when patients were classifed according to the presence of retinopathy or neuropathy. 5) Both sICAM-1and sVCAM-1 levels did not correlate in the patient group or in the normal control group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that enhanced expression of the the endothelial cell adhesion molecules in diabetic patients can be explained by endothelial dysfunction caused by persistent hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, it can be suggested that endothelial dysfunction may be initiated by diabetes itself and can be deteriorated by combined dyslipidemia. From the result of the elevated concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in patients with diabetic nephropathy, we can suggest that the elevation of these cell adhesion molecules may be useful as markers in diabetic nephropathy. More selective and prospective studies are necessary in order to reveal thesignificance of these cell adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications.
Key Words: Key Words, NIDDM, Endothelial dysfunction, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, Diabetic nephropathy


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