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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal



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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Importance of Awareness and Treatment for Diabetes in Influenza Vaccination Coverage of Diabetic Patients under 65 Years: A Population-Based Study
Yu Mi Ko, Seung Hyun Ko, Kyoungdo Han, Yong-Moon Park, Joon Young Choi, Shin Young Kim, So Hyang Song, Chi Hong Kim, Sung Kyoung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):55-66.   Published online May 29, 2020
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  • 138 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

Influenza is a global public health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection, vaccination coverage is insufficient in people with chronic disease under 65 years, especially diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate influenza vaccination coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccination in Korean diabetic adults under 65 years.


Data were obtained from 24,821 subjects in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014 to 2017). Socioeconomic, health-related, and diabetic factors were investigated for their relations with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years using univariate and multivariate analyses.


Among 24,821 subjects, 1,185 were diabetic patients under 65 years and their influenza vaccination rate was 36.5%. Socioeconomic (older age, female gender, non-smoker, light alcohol drinker, lower educational level, and employed status), health-related factors (lower fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, good self-perceived health status, more comorbidities, recent health screening, more outpatient visits, and diet therapy), and diabetic factors (more awareness and getting treated) were associated with influenza vaccination. In multivariate analysis, more awareness and getting treated for diabetes were associated with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years (odds ratio, 1.496 and 1.413; 95% confidence interval, 1.022 to 2.188 and 1.018 to 2.054, respectively).


Influenza vaccination rate was low in diabetic patients under 65 years, especially in those with unawareness and not getting treated for diabetes. Active screening and treatment for diabetes may be helpful to improve the influenza vaccination rate in these patients.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes in southeast China: A population‐based study
    Xiangju Hu, Xin Fang, Minxia Wu
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Adherence to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in diabetes mellitus patients in Saudi Arabia: A multicenter retrospective study
    Saleh Fahad Alqifari, Aya K Esmail, Dalal M Alarifi, Ghalya Y Alsuliman, Maram M Alhati, May R Mutlaq, Mohammed Aldhaeefi, Shaden A Alshuaibi, Palanisamy Amirthalingam, Abrar Abdallah, Afaf S Wasel, Heba R Hamad, Shoroq Alamin, Tasneem H Atia, Tariq Alqah
    World Journal of Diabetes.2024; 15(3): 440.     CrossRef
    Vestnik.2023; (2(65)): 59.     CrossRef
  • Comorbidities associated with high-risk obstructive sleep apnea based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire: a nationwide population-based study
    Gene Huh, Kyoung do Han, Yong-Moon Park, Chan-Soon Park, Kyu-na Lee, Eun Young Lee, Jung-Hae Cho
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2023; 38(1): 80.     CrossRef
  • Influenza vaccination trend and related factors among patients with diabetes in Korea: Analysis using a nationwide database
    Dong-Hwa Lee, Bumhee Yang, Seonhye Gu, Eung-Gook Kim, Youlim Kim, Hyung Koo Kang, Yeong Hun Choe, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Seungyong Park, Hyun Lee
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with seasonal influenza immunization in people with chronic diseases
    Slađana Arsenović, Tatjana Gazibara
    Medicinski podmladak.2021; 72(2): 19.     CrossRef
Effect of Mouse Type and Human Type of CpG Oligonucleotide Vaccination on Development of Diabetes in NOD Mice.
Byong Jun Lee, Soo Kie Kim, Eon Sub Park, Hyun Jin Jang, Hyun Chul Cho, Myung Sook Shim, Mi Jin Kim, Young Goo Shin, Choon Hee Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(6):451-459.   Published online December 1, 2002
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  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Type 1 diabetes is autoimmune disease and the modulation of immune system could offer breakthrough to the disease. Unmethylated CpG motifs and their oligoneucleotide are potent immunostimulators that can rebalance autoimmune mechanism. To explore DNA based immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes, we vaccinated different types (mouse and human) of CpG ODN to NOD mice. METHODS: Forty 5 week-old female NOD mice were injected with 100 L (10 g) of mouse type CpG ODN or human type CpG ODN or 0.9% normal saline on inguinal area subcutaneously. Seven, 14, and 28 days later we injected to mice same dose of mouse type CpG ODN or human type CpG ODN or normal saline. Blood glucose was measured and mice were sacrificed when they were diabetic. Pancreata and serum were earned from sacrificed NOD mice to evaluate insulitis and insulin immunoassay. RESULTS: Though the final cumulative incidences of diabetes were not significantly different among groups, the tendency of delaying and suppressing the development of diabetes was observed in the early period of vaccination group of CpG ODN. Especially, mouse type CpG ODN was more effective for rodent species than human type CpG ODN. CONCLUSION: This result suggests that immunomodulation therapy using species- specific CpG motif may have a potential to control autoimmune process as well as dissecting T cell milieu in NOD mice.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal