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Improving Patients' Adherence to Physical Activity in Diabetes Mellitus: A Review
Shan-hu Qiu, Zi-lin Sun, Xue Cai, Lili Liu, Bingquan Yang
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(1):1-5.   Published online February 17, 2012
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  • 54 Download
  • 44 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Regular physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Participation in regular PA improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay T2DM and its complications, along with positively affecting lipids, blood pressure, cardiovascular events, mortality, and quality of life. However, most people with T2DM are not active and show poor adherence. This paper reviews the possible barriers to PA and strategies to improve the adherence to PA. Based on the currently available literature, it is concluded that self-efficacy and social support from family, friends, and health care providers play the important role in adoption and maintenance of regular PA. Here we also highlight some new modern and innovative interventions that facilitate exercise participation and improve the adherence.


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Original Articles
Factors Influencing Physical Activity Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action
Alireza Didarloo, Davoud Shojaeizadeh, Hassan Eftekhar Ardebili, Shamsaddin Niknami, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Mohammad Alizadeh
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(5):513-522.   Published online October 31, 2011
  • 28,799 View
  • 34 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Findings of most studies indicate that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating effects is through the continuous performance of self-care behaviors. Physical activity is a non-pharmacological method of diabetes treatment and because of its positive effects on diabetic patients, it is being increasingly considered by researchers and practitioners. This study aimed at determining factors influencing physical activity among diabetic women in Iran, using the extended theory of reasoned action in Iran.


A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the desired variables (knowledge of diabetes, personal beliefs, subjective norms, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral intention and physical activity behavior). The reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. Statistical analyses of the study were conducted by inferential statistical techniques (independent t-test, correlations and regressions) using the SPSS package.


The findings of this investigation indicated that among the constructs of the model, self efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes and both directly and indirectly affected physical activity. In addition to self efficacy, diabetic patients' physical activity also was influenced by other variables of the model and sociodemographic factors.


Our findings suggest that the high ability of the theory of reasoned action extended by self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining physical activity can be a base for educational intervention. Educational interventions based on the proposed model are necessary for improving diabetics' physical activity behavior and controlling disease.


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    Towhid Babazadeh, Yosef Lotfi, Soheila Ranjbaran
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Emergencies.2022; 8(4): 75.     CrossRef
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Effect of Diabetes Education Program on Glycemic Control and Self Management for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Ji Hyun Kim, Sang Ah Chang
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):518-525.   Published online December 1, 2009
  • 2,916 View
  • 107 Download
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease requiring continuous treatment and vigorous self-management. Reinforcement of effective self management and diabetes education are important factors in successful treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the current diabetes education program on blood glucose control, self-management, and self-efficacy of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 592 patients with newly diagnosed or uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited to the diabetes education program from January to December 2007. We surveyed 338 patients from April to July 2008. A total of 117 patients had biochemical examinations and completed a questionnaire about knowledge, self-management and self-efficacy of diabetes treatment (no education group (n = 23), education group (n = 94)). RESULTS: The total scores from the questionnaires and the results of laboratory data showed no differences between the two groups. However, there were significant reductions in hemoglobin A1c level in the education group, as compared with the no education group (P = 0.039). Although the score for knowledge about diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in the education group (P = 0.005), greater knowledge was not reflected in the self-management or self-efficacy of the patients. CONCLUSION: The current diabetes education program had no effect on the self-management or self-efficacy of patients with diabetes, although did show some degree of association with blood glucose control and diabetes knowledge level. We conclude that a more effective diabetes education program needs to be developed and applied to daily practice for the improvement ofself-efficacy in patients with diabetes mellitus.


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