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Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(3):273-281.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.273
  • 65,535 View
  • 37 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Koreans eat rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effect of a meal plan using small rice bowls on the total energy intake (TEI) and the marcronutrient intake in Korean men with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A total of 62 men with type 2 diabetes were divided by body mass index (BMI) (normal weight [NW], BMI<23 kg/m2; overweight [OW], 23≤BMI<25 kg/m2; obese [OB], BMI≥25 kg/m2) and proportions of carbohydrate intake to TEI (PCI) (low carbohydrate intake [LC], <55%; recommended carbohydrate intake [RC], ≥55% and ≤60%; high carbohydrate intake [HC], >60%). The 3-day dietary records were analyzed for TEI and proportions of macronutrients, before and 2 weeks after a small-sized (300 mL) rice bowl based education was given.

Results

There were no significant differences in the age and BMI within the sub-groups by BMI and PCI groups. In baseline, the ratio of TEI to recommended total energy intake (RTR) of OW and OB were higher than that of NW. The PCI of HC was higher than that of LC and alcohol intake of HC was lower than that of LC. After education, the reduction of RTREI in OB was higher than that in OW and NW. The reduction of PCI in HC was higher than that of LC.

Conclusion

A small rice bowl based meal plan was effective for the reduction of energy intake and control of marcronutrient intake in Korean obese men with type 2 diabetes consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comprehensive Understanding for Application in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus of the Consensus Statement on Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets by Korean Diabetes Association, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, and Korean Society of Hyperte
    Jong Han Choi, Jee-Hyun Kang, Suk Chon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 377.     CrossRef
  • The association between measurement sites of visceral adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk factors after caloric restriction in obese Korean women
    Hye-Ok Lee, Jung-Eun Yim, Jeong-Sook Lee, Young-Seol Kim, Ryowon Choue
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2013; 7(1): 43.     CrossRef
  • Daily Rice Intake Strongly Influences the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Men Aged 40-59 Years
    Yoko Watanabe, Isao Saito, Yasuhiko Asada, Taro Kishida, Tatsuhiro Matsuo, Masamitsu Yamaizumi, Tadahiro Kato
    Journal of Rural Medicine.2013; 8(1): 161.     CrossRef
The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(6):340-349.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.6.340
  • 3,332 View
  • 34 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The typical Korean diet includes rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effects of a meal plan using rice bowls of varying sizes on dietary energy intake (EI), body weight (BW), and blood glucose levels.

Methods

Forty-two obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to use either a 200 mL small rice bowl (SB), a 380 mL regular rice bowl (RB), or to a control group (C). Both intervention groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks and simple instructions for using the assigned bowl were provided. Dietary EI and proportion of macronutrients (PMN) were estimated from 3-day dietary records.

Results

Reduction of EI was more prominent in the SB group compared to the RB and C group, although EI decreased significantly from baseline in all groups. Carbohydrate and fat intakes of the SB group were decreased greater than those of the RB and C group. However, changes in PMN were not significant across the 3 groups. Reduction of BW and HbA1c levels in the SB group was more prominent compared to the C group. Although, BW and HbA1c were decreased significantly from baseline in both bowl groups. There was no statistical difference between the two groups.

Conclusion

The small rice bowl-based meal plan was effective at reducing EI, BW, and blood glucose levels, and the observed reductions in EI, carbohydrate, and fat intake were greater than those of the regular rice bowl-based meal plan.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of Portion Control Tools on Portion Size Awareness, Choice and Intake: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    M. Angeles Vargas-Alvarez, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Luigi Palla, J. Alfredo Martínez, Eva Almiron-Roig
    Nutrients.2021; 13(6): 1978.     CrossRef
  • Do adults draw differently-sized meals on larger or smaller plates? Examining plate size in a community sample
    David Sharp, Jeffery Sobal, Elaine Wethington
    Food Quality and Preference.2019; 74: 72.     CrossRef
  • Use and effectiveness of behavioural economics in interventions for lifestyle risk factors of non-communicable diseases: a systematic review with policy implications
    Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
    Perspectives in Public Health.2018; 138(2): 100.     CrossRef
  • Whether Smaller Plates Reduce Consumption Depends on Who's Serving and Who's Looking: A Meta-Analysis
    Stephen S. Holden, Natalina Zlatevska, Chris Dubelaar
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco
    Gareth J Hollands, Ian Shemilt, Theresa M Marteau, Susan A Jebb, Hannah B Lewis, Yinghui Wei, Julian P T Higgins, David Ogilvie
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Effects of Small Sized Rice Bowl on Carbohydrate Intake and Dietary Patterns in Women with Type 2 Diabetes
Hee-Jung Ahn, Yu-Kyung Eom, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Hyun Jin Kim, Kang Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(3):166-173.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.3.166
  • 3,435 View
  • 29 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The main source of carbohydrate in the Korean diet is rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. This study investigated the impact of a meal plan using smaller rice bowls on dietary energy intake and macronutrient composition in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

A total of 67 women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in our study. We divided these participants into three groups: a normal-weight group (NW; body mass index [BMI] < 23 kg/m2; n = 17), an overweight group (OW; 23 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m2; n = 24) and an obese group (OB; BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; n = 26). Three-day dietary records were analyzed for total energy intake (TEI) and macronutrient composition both before enrollment and two weeks after patients received instruction in a dietary plan based on using a small (200 mL) rice bowl.

Results

After the intervention, TEI decreased in the OW and OB groups. Decreased carbohydrate (NW, -4 ± 5%; OW, -4 ± 5%; OB, -3 ± 6%) and increased fat intakes were found in all three groups, which complies with Korean Diabetes Association recommendations. The protein proportion of TEI significantly increased only in the OW group. Body weight decreased both in the OW and OB groups.

Conclusion

A short-term, small-rice-bowl-based meal plan was effective for body weight control and macronutrient balance in overweight or obese women in Korea with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diet Therapy Using a Small Rice Bowl among Japanese Men with Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Misa Shimpo, Shiori Toga-Sato, Takahiro Tosaki
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2022; 31(4): 345.     CrossRef
  • A traditional Asian diet modified to meet nutritional requirements of diabetes, has anything changed? A cross-sectional dietary survey
    Arjuna Medagama, Heshan Widanapathirana
    BMC Nutrition.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship between Milk and Calcium Intake and Lipid Metabolism in Female Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    JaeHee Kim, Ji-Yun Hwang, Ki Nam Kim, Young-Ju Choi, Namsoo Chang, Kap-Bum Huh
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2013; 54(3): 626.     CrossRef
  • The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 340.     CrossRef
Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Weight, Glucose and Lipid Control in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Hee-Jung Ahn, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Bo-Kyung Koo, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):86-94.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.86
  • 3,311 View
  • 28 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys reported 65% of daily energy intake (EI) as carbohydrate (CHO) in the Korean population and main source of CHO was cooked rice. We used a standardized-small sized rice bowl for diet education and investigated its effectiveness on body weight, glucose and lipid, compared to the conventional food exchange system in type 2 diabetes obese women.

Methods

Type 2 diabetic women with body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to small rice bowl-based meal plan (BM) and food exchange-based meal plan (ExM) group. Both groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks. The macronutrient composition was instructed: 55 to 60% of EI as CHO, 15 to 20% as protein, and 20 to 25% as fat. BM group received only a simple instruction for application of the rice bowl. Nutrient intake was estimated with the 3-day dietary records.

Results

Finally, 44 subjects finished the study. The percent reduction of body weight was significant both BM group (-5.1 ± 2.6%) and ExM group (-4.8 ± 2.8%) after 12 weeks (P < 0.001) but there was no difference between the groups. There was no difference in the proportional change of CHO, protein and fat in EI between the groups. Additionally, the change of HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusion

The BM group was as effective as ExM for body weight and glucose control in type 2 diabetes obese women.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Development of a Sport Food Exchange List for Dietetic Practice in Sport Nutrition
    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Susana Menal-Puey, Isabel Sospedra, Giuseppe Russolillo, Aurora Norte, Iva Marques-Lopes
    Nutrients.2020; 12(8): 2403.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Combined Therapy with Fenugreek and Nutrition Training Based on Iranian Traditional Medicine on FBS, HgA1c, BMI, and Waist Circumference in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: a Randomized Double Blinded Clinical Trial
    Seyyedeh Seddigheh Hassani, Arezodar Fallahi, Seyyed Saeid Esmaeili, Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki
    Journal of Advances in Medical and Biomedical Research.2019; 27(120): 37.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Spanish Food Exchange List: Application of Statistical Criteria to a Rationale Procedure
    Iva Marques-Lopes, Susana Menal-Puey, J. Alfredo Martínez, Giuseppe Russolillo
    Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.2018; 118(7): 1161.     CrossRef
  • A Practical Approach to the Management of Micronutrients and Other Nutrients of Concern in Food Exchange Lists for Meal Planning
    Giuseppe Russolillo-Femenías, Susana Menal-Puey, J. Alfredo Martínez, Iva Marques-Lopes
    Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.2018; 118(11): 2029.     CrossRef
  • Anemia is inversely associated with serum C-peptide concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes
    Jin Ook Chung, Seon-Young Park, Dong Hyeok Cho, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
    Medicine.2018; 97(32): e11783.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between serum C-peptide level and diabetic retinopathy according to estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Jin Ook Chung, Dong Hyeok Cho, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2015; 29(3): 350.     CrossRef
  • Serum bilirubin concentrations are positively associated with serum C‐peptide levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes
    J. O. Chung, D. H. Cho, D. J. Chung, M. Y. Chung
    Diabetic Medicine.2014; 31(11): 1316.     CrossRef
  • Association between serum C-peptide levels and chronic microvascular complications in Korean type 2 diabetic patients
    Bo-Yeon Kim, Chan-Hee Jung, Ji-Oh Mok, Sung-Koo Kang, Chul-Hee Kim
    Acta Diabetologica.2012; 49(1): 9.     CrossRef
  • Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(3): 273.     CrossRef
  • The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 340.     CrossRef
Association Between Volume of Bowls and the Dietary Intakes in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.
Hee Jung Ahn, Bo Kyung Koo, Ji Yeon Jung, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Mi Yeon Chung, Yun Hyi Ku, Jin Taek Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(4):335-343.   Published online August 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.4.335
  • 2,614 View
  • 24 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The results of previous studies suggest that portion size is a major factor dictating dietary energy intake. We investigated the relationship between frequencies of rice meals, bowl volumes, and dietary energy intake in a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 203 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in the study. A one-week food diary was collected from each patient and used to assess the types of meal consumed as well as the context of consumption. The volumes of the eating vessels (rice, soup and side dish bowls) used by each patient were obtained by comparisons to measuring cylinders, and dietary energy and macronutrient intake were estimated for each patient by consulting three-day dietary records. RESULTS: The mean age of the 203 subjects (male: 76, female: 127) was 53.9 +/- 9.1 years and the average body mass index (BMI) was 25.6 +/- 4.2 kg/m2. Among the subjects who ate three times per day, 96.4% consumed rice more than twice out of three meals. The median volume of rice bowls used by patients was 350 cc, of soup bowls was 530 cc and of side dish bowls was 260 cc. Portion size, as estimated by rice bowl volume, was not associated with BMI. Male subjects tended to eat out of larger rice and soup bowls (P < 0.001). Portion size was correlated with energy intake from rice (P = 0.021), but not with total energy intake (kcal/kg/day), especially in male subjects. CONCLUSION: Portion size of rice bowl was correlated with energy intake from rice, but not with total energy intake in male subjects with type 2 diabetes. To design effective meal planning methods for patients with type 2 diabetes, further prospective studies are warranted to investigate causative relationships between portion size andmetabolic conditions as well as variation by gender.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Trends in adherence to dietary recommendations among Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
    Kyong Park
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2015; 9(6): 658.     CrossRef
  • Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(3): 273.     CrossRef
  • Nutrients and Dish Intake by Fasting Blood Glucose Level
    Jihyun Choi, Hyun-Kyung Moon
    The Korean Journal of Nutrition.2010; 43(5): 463.     CrossRef
  • Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Weight, Glucose and Lipid Control in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Hee-Jung Ahn, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Bo-Kyung Koo, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 86.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Small Sized Rice Bowl on Carbohydrate Intake and Dietary Patterns in Women with Type 2 Diabetes
    Hee-Jung Ahn, Yu-Kyung Eom, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Hyun Jin Kim, Kang Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(3): 166.     CrossRef
  • The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 340.     CrossRef
Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Dietary Intake Control in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Hee Jung Ahn, Boo Kyung Koo, Ji Yeon Jung, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Hyun Jin Kim, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(2):155-163.   Published online April 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.2.155
  • 2,400 View
  • 29 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The food exchange-based meal plan is effective in controlling dietary energy intake with a macronutrient balance. However, it is difficult to practice for relatively low-literacy patients. As an alternative, we developed a system employing a standardized-sized bowl and investigated its effectiveness on achieving proper energy intake and macronutrient composition and patient compliance, compared to the conventional food exchange system in Korean type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Eighty subjects with type 2 diabetes were assigned to both the novel bowl-based meal plan group (BG) and the food exchange-based meal plan group (ExG). BG received limited simple instructions for the plan. Time spent for plan instruction was 10 min for BG and 40 min for ExG. Dietary energy and macronutrient intake were estimated with 3-day dietary records and patient comprehension of the plan was estimated with a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, dietary energy compliance showed no difference between the groups (BG: 103 +/- 10%, ExG: 101 +/- 17%). Both groups showed significant reduction in carbohydrate and protein intake and there was no difference in the proportion of carbohydrate, protein and fat in energy intake between the groups despite the shorter instruction time for BG. Following the instruction period, there was no difference in the understanding score between the groups. CONCLUSION: This bowl-based plan was equally effective as the food exchange-based plan in controlling dietary energy intake and macronutrient composition, as well as patient comprehension and compliance. Our novel plan may allow for more cost-effective methods in terms of time needed for plan instruction.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Practical Diet Education for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Tips for Physicians
    Choong Hee Kim, Jun Sung Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(4): 253.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Nutrition Education and Personalized Lunch Service Program for Elderly at Senior Welfare Center in Jeonju
    Jeong-Sook Bae, Mi-Hyun Kim, Sook-Bae Kim
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2013; 18(1): 65.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Chronic Disease Management Based on Clinics for Blood Pressure or Glycemic Control in Patients with Hypertension or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Won Cheong, Jun Yim, Dae-Kyu Oh, Jeong-Soo Im, Kwang Pil Ko, Yun Mi Kim
    Journal of agricultural medicine and community health.2013; 38(2): 108.     CrossRef
  • Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Weight, Glucose and Lipid Control in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Hee-Jung Ahn, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Bo-Kyung Koo, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 86.     CrossRef
  • Nutrients and Dish Intake by Fasting Blood Glucose Level
    Jihyun Choi, Hyun-Kyung Moon
    The Korean Journal of Nutrition.2010; 43(5): 463.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Small Sized Rice Bowl on Carbohydrate Intake and Dietary Patterns in Women with Type 2 Diabetes
    Hee-Jung Ahn, Yu-Kyung Eom, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Hyun Jin Kim, Kang Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(3): 166.     CrossRef

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