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3 "Carcinoma, hepatocellular"
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Original Article
Basic Research
DGAT2 Plays a Crucial Role to Control ESRRAPROX1 Transcriptional Network to Maintain Hepatic Mitochondrial Sustainability
Yoseob Lee, Yeseong Hwang, Minki Kim, Hyeonuk Jeon, Seyeon Joo, Sungsoon Fang, Jae-Woo Kim
Received October 13, 2023  Accepted December 11, 2023  Published online April 22, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0368    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) synthesizes triacylglycerol (TG) from diacylglycerol; therefore, DGAT2 is considered as a therapeutic target for steatosis. However, the consequence of inhibiting DGAT2 is not fully investigated due to side effects including lethality and lipotoxicity. In this article, we observed the role of DGAT2 in hepatocarcinoma.
Methods
The role of DGAT2 is analyzed via loss-of-function assay. DGAT2 knockdown (KD) and inhibitor treatment on HepG2 cell line was analyzed. Cumulative analysis of cell metabolism with bioinformatic data were assessed, and further compared with different cohorts of liver cancer patients and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients to elucidate how DGAT2 is regulating cancer metabolism.
Results
Mitochondrial function is suppressed in DGAT2 KD HepG2 cell along with the decreased lipid droplets. In the aspect of the cancer, DGAT2 KD upregulates cell proliferation. Analyzing transcriptome of NAFLD and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients highlights negatively correlating expression patterns of 73 lipid-associated genes including DGAT2. Cancer patients with the lower DGAT2 expression face lower survival rate. DGAT2 KD cell and patients’ transcriptome show downregulation in estrogen- related receptor alpha (ESRRA) via integrated system for motif activity response analysis (ISMARA), with increased dimerization with corepressor prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1).
Conclusion
DGAT2 sustains the stability of mitochondria in hepatoma via suppressing ESRRA-PROX1 transcriptional network and hinders HCC from shifting towards glycolytic metabolism, which lowers cell proliferation.
Review
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Hepatic Fibrosis and Cancer: The Silent Threats of Metabolic Syndrome
Scott L. Friedman
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(2):161-169.   Published online January 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0240
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic (fatty) liver disease (MASLD), previously termed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is a worldwide epidemic that can lead to hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The disease is typically a component of the metabolic syndrome that accompanies obesity, and is often overlooked because the liver manifestations are clinically silent until late-stage disease is present (i.e., cirrhosis). Moreover, Asian populations, including Koreans, have a higher fraction of patients who are lean, yet their illness has the same prognosis or worse than those who are obese. Nonetheless, ongoing injury can lead to hepatic inflammation and ballooning of hepatocytes as classic features. Over time, fibrosis develops following activation of hepatic stellate cells, the liver’s main fibrogenic cell type. The disease is usually more advanced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, indicating that all diabetic patients should be screened for liver disease. Although there has been substantial progress in clarifying pathways of injury and fibrosis, there no approved therapies yet, but current research seeks to uncover the pathways driving hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, in hopes of identifying new therapeutic targets. Emerging molecular methods, especially single cell sequencing technologies, are revolutionizing our ability to clarify mechanisms underlying MASLD-associated fibrosis and HCC.
Original Article
Complications
Impact of Hyperglycemia on Complication and Mortality after Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Sun Joon Moon, Chang Ho Ahn, Yun Bin Lee, Young Min Cho
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(2):302-311.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0255
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Current guidelines regarding periprocedural glycemic control to prevent complications after nonsurgical invasive procedures are insufficient. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely used treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to investigate the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) per se and the degree of hyperglycemia with postprocedural complications after TACE.
Methods
A total of 22,159 TACE procedures performed at Seoul National University Hospital from 2005 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The associations between DM, preprocedural glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and periprocedural average glucose with postprocedural adverse outcomes were evaluated. The primary outcome was occurrence of postprocedural bacteremia. Secondary outcomes were acute kidney injury (AKI), delayed discharge and death within 14 days. Periprocedural glucose was averaged over 3 days: the day of, before, and after the TACE procedures. Propensity score matching was applied for procedures between patients with or without DM.
Results
Periprocedural average glucose was significantly associated with bacteremia (adjusted odds ratio per 50 mg/dL of glucose, 1.233; 95% confidence interval, 1.071 to 1.420; P=0.004), AKI, delayed discharge, and death within 14 days. DM per se was only associated with bacteremia and AKI. Preprocedural HbA1c was associated with delayed discharge. Average glucose levels above 202 and 181 mg/dL were associated with a significantly higher risk of bacteremia and AKI, respectively, than glucose levels of 126 mg/dL or lower.
Conclusion
Periprocedural average glucose, but not HbA1c, was associated with adverse outcomes after TACE, which is a nonsurgical invasive procedure. This suggests the importance of periprocedural glycemic control to reduce postprocedural complications.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal