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Glucagon-Like Peptide Receptor Agonist Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Proliferation and Migration in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Ameliorates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Calcification
Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Min-Jeong Kim, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):83-96.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0363
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), which is a therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system.
Methods
To examine the protective effects of GLP-1RAs on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), A-10 cells exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II) were treated with either exendin-4, liraglutide, or dulaglutide. To examine the effects of GLP-1RAs on vascular calcification, cells exposed to high concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) were treated with exendin-4, liraglutide, or dulaglutide.
Results
Ang II increased proliferation and migration of VSMCs, gene expression levels of Ang II receptors AT1 and AT2, proliferation marker of proliferation Ki-67 (Mki-67), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna), and cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), and the protein expression levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-Erk), phospho-c-JUN N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and phospho-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-Pi3k). Exendin-4, liraglutide, and dulaglutide significantly decreased the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, the gene expression levels of Pcna, and the protein expression levels of p-Erk and p-JNK in the Ang II-treated VSMCs. Erk inhibitor PD98059 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 decreased the protein expression levels of Pcna and Ccnd1 and proliferation of VSMCs. Inhibition of GLP-1R by siRNA reversed the reduction of the protein expression levels of p-Erk and p-JNK by exendin-4, liraglutide, and dulaglutide in the Ang II-treated VSMCs. Moreover, GLP-1 (9-36) amide also decreased the proliferation and migration of the Ang II-treated VSMCs. In addition, these GLP-1RAs decreased calcium deposition by inhibiting activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4) in Pi-treated VSMCs.
Conclusion
These data show that GLP-1RAs ameliorate aberrant proliferation and migration in VSMCs through both GLP-1Rdependent and independent pathways and inhibit Pi-induced vascular calcification.

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  • Incretin Hormone Secretion in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Roles of Obesity, Insulin Sensitivity and Treatment with Metformin and GLP-1s
    Andrea Etrusco, Mislav Mikuš, Antonio D’Amato, Fabio Barra, Petar Planinić, Trpimir Goluža, Giovanni Buzzaccarini, Jelena Marušić, Mara Tešanović, Antonio Simone Laganà
    Biomedicines.2024; 12(3): 653.     CrossRef
Review
The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Vascular Complications
Shuji Sasaki, Toyoshi Inoguchi
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(4):255-261.   Published online August 20, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.4.255
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Oxidative stress has been paid increasing attention to as an important causative factor for diabetic vascular complications. Among possible various sources, accumulating evidence has indicated that NAD(P)H oxidase may be the most important source for reactive oxygen species production in diabetic vascular tissues. The mechanisms underlying activation and up-regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase has been supposed to be mediated by high glucose-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation. In this review article, activation of local renin-angiotensin II system induced by chymase activation is also shown to amplify such a PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. Additionally, human evidence showing the beneficial effect of antioxidants on diabetic vascular complications. Bilirubin has been recognized as a strong endogenous antioxidant. Here markedly lower prevalence of vascular complications is shown in diabetic patients with Gilbert syndrome, a congenital hyperbilirubinemia, as well as reduced markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Lastly, statin, angiotensin II receptor blocker, chymase inhibitor, bilirubin and biliverdin, PKC β isoform inhibitor, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, are shown to serve as antioxidants and have some beneficial effect on diabetic vascular complications, via inhibiting PKC-NAD(P)H oxidase activation, supporting the notion that this mechanism may be an effective therapeutic target for preventing diabetic vascular complications.

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Original Articles
Angiotensin II Inhibits Insulin Binding to Endothelial Cells
Su-Jin Oh, Won-Chul Ha, Jee-In Lee, Tae-Seo Sohn, Ji-Hyun Kim, Jung-Min Lee, Sang-Ah Chang, Oak-Kee Hong, Hyun-Shik Son
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(3):243-247.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.243
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Insulin-mediated glucose uptake in insulin target tissues is correlated with interstitial insulin concentration, rather than plasma insulin concentration. Therefore, insulin delivery to the interstitium of target tissues is very important, and the endothelium may also play an important role in the development of insulin resistance.

Methods

After treating bovine aortic endothelial cells with angiotensin II (ATII), we observed the changes in insulin binding capacity and the amounts of insulin receptor (IR) on the cell membranes and in the cytosol.

Results

After treatment of 10-7M ATII, insulin binding was decreased progressively, up to 60% at 60 minutes (P<0.05). ATII receptor blocker (eprosartan) dose dependently improved the insulin binding capacity which was reduced by ATII (P<0.05). At 200 µM, eprosartan fully restored insulin binding capacity, althogh it resulted in only a 20% to 30% restoration at the therapeutic concentration. ATII did not affect the total amount of IR, but it did reduce the amount of IR on the plasma membrane and increased that in the cytosol.

Conclusion

ATII decreased the insulin binding capacity of the tested cells. ATII did not affect the total amount of IR but did decrease the amount of IR on the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that ATII decreases insulin binding by translocating IR from the plasma membrane to the cytosol. The binding of insulin to IR is important for insulin-induced vasodilation and transendothelial insulin transport. Therefore, ATII may cause insulin resistance through this endothelium-based mechanism.

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Effect of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-gamma Agonist, Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker and alpha-lipoic Acid on Renal VEGF Expression in Diabetic Nephropathy.
Jang Hyun Koh, Yeon Lee, Mi Jin Kim, Young Goo Shin, Eun Young Lee, Choon Hee Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):367-376.   Published online October 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications in diabetes mellitus, and it is the leading cause of end stage renal disease. It has been reported that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) reduces the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and so it plays an important role in reducing the renal damage. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonist is known to reduce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. In the previous study, PPAR-gamma agonist was shown to lower VEGF expression in the retina, but it increased the plasma VEGF level. Alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), which is an antioxidant, lowers the increased level of VEGF in retina as well. The precise role of PPAR-gamma agonist and alpha-LA on renal VEGF expression in diabetic nephropathy is still uncertain. We studied the effect of PPAR-gamma agonist, angiotensin II receptor blocker (ATIIRB) and alpha-LA on the renal VEGF expression in diabetic rats. METHODS: We used 60 Sprague-Dawley male rats, those were 8 weeks old and weighted about 300 g each as the study subjects. Among them, 48 rats were chosen and injected with streptozotocin (70 mg/kg) into peritoneal cavity to induce diabetes mellitus. The rast were than divided into 5 groups. Group I was a normal control group (n=12), group II was diabetic control group (n=12), group III was diabetic group that was given with PPAR-gamma agonist (n=12), group IV was the diabetic group that was given ATIIRB (n=12), and group V was the diabetic rats that were given alpha-LA (n=12). We measured their body weight, blood glucose levels, 24 hour urine protein and albumin levels at the baseline, the 8th and the 16th weeks of the experiment. On the 16th weeks of our experiment we extracted the kidneys to measure the glomerular volume, the optical density of the VEGF staining and VEGF mRNA expression. RESULTS: At the beginning of the study, the 5 groups all showed similar 24 hour urine albumin levels. At the 8th week, group II showed an increased urine albumin level of 143.4 +/- 117.2 mg/day; this was greater than that of group IV (60.7+/-30.6 mg/day) (p<0.05). The glomerular volume and optical densities of VEGF expression were significantly reduced in group III, IV and V compared to group II. For group IV and V, the renal VEGF mRNA expression was significantly lower than that of group II, but group III showed no significant difference. from group II. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin II receptor blocker delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PPAR-gamma agonist and alpha-lipoic acid did not have any protective effect against the progression of diabetic nephropathy in spite of the decreased VEGF expression noted in this study.
Effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade on VEGF Expression in Diabetic Nephropathy.
Myoungsook Shim, Mijin Kim, Munkyu Kim, Hyunjin Chang, Younggoo Shin, Junam Kim, Jaeman Song, Hosuk Kang, Eunyoung Lee, Kihak Song, Choonhee Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(2):106-114.   Published online April 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications of diabetes, and is the leading cause of chronic renal failure. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy, which can be blocked by ACE inhibitors, but its precise role in diabetic nephropathy is uncertain. METHODS: 32 eight week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were prepared, of which 16 were chosen for injection with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) into the peritoneal cavity, with the goal of inducing diabetes. One week later, the peripheral blood sugar, taken from the tail vein was checked. A glucose level exceeding 200 mg/dL was taken as evidence of diabetes. The rats were divided into 4 groups of 8. Group I served as a control. Group II was treated with angiotensin II receptor blockade (L-158,809, 5 mg/kg/day, in drinking water). Group III consisted of diabetic rats and group IV diabetic rats treated with the same angiotensin II receptor blockade (L-158,809). At the beginning of the experiment and on 8th and 12th weeks, 24-hour urine protein and body weight checks were performed. At the end of the study, I extracted kidney and the glomerular volumes and optical densities of the VEGF expression in the glomeruli compared. RESULTS: The basal characteristics were initially the same. However, on weeks 8 and 12 the amount of 24-hour urine protein had increased in groups III and IV (p<0.05). By week 12, it was noticeably greater in group III than in group IV (p<0.05). The glomerular volume was also greater in groups III and IV (p<0.05). Optical density of the VEGF in the glomeruli had increased more in group III than in groups I, II and IV (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: VEGF plays a precise role in diabetic nephropathy, and angiotensin II receptor blockade can reduce diabetic nephropathy by suppressing the expression of VEGF.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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