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Association of Vaspin with Metabolic Syndrome: The Pivotal Role of Insulin Resistance
Alireza Esteghamati, Sina Noshad, Mostafa Mousavizadeh, Ali Zandieh, Manouchehr Nakhjavani
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(2):143-149.   Published online April 18, 2014
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  • 23 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Previous studies evaluating the relationship between serum vaspin concentrations and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded contrasting results. Additionally, contribution of general and abdominal obesity, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance to this relationship remains unknown.


In a cross-sectional setting, we investigated the association between vaspin and MetS in 145 subjects ranging from normoglycemia to type 2 diabetes. Vaspin concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


Women had 29% higher vaspin concentrations compared with men. Subjects with MetS (51% of all participants) had higher vaspin concentrations (P=0.019 in women and P<0.001 in men). In logistic regression, vaspin significantly predicted raised fasting plasma glucose (P<0.001), and raised triglycerides (P<0.001) after controlling for age in both sexes. Moreover, vaspin was the significant predictor for reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and raised waist circumference in women and men, respectively. Considering MetS as a whole, vaspin predicted MetS even after adjustment for age, medications, diabetes, total cholesterol, and waist circumference in both sexes (odds ratio [OR], 3.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 11.05; P=0.011 for women; OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.28 to 7.78; P=0.012 for men). However, this relationship rendered nonsignificant after introducing homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in women (P=0.089) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P=0.073) or HOMA-IR in men (P=0.095).


Vaspin is associated with some but not all components of MetS. Vaspin is a predictor of MetS as a single entity, independent of obesity. This relationship is largely ascribed to the effects of insulin resistance and chronic inflammation.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of vaspin rs2236242 gene polymorphism with serum vaspin level, insulin resistance and diabetes in an Iranian diabetic/pre-diabetic population
    Maria Hosseini, Masoumeh Nezhadali, Mehdi Hedayati
    Journal of Medical Biochemistry.2021; 40(1): 33.     CrossRef
  • Adipokines in vascular calcification
    Xuan Xiao, Yi-Zhang Liu, Zhe-Bin Cheng, Jia-Xiang Sun, Yi-Duo Shao, Shun-Lin Qu, Liang Huang, Chi Zhang
    Clinica Chimica Acta.2021; 516: 15.     CrossRef
  • Vaspin in atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular risk in axial spondyloarthritis: a genetic and serological study
    Javier Rueda-Gotor, Raquel López-Mejías, Sara Remuzgo-Martínez, Verónica Pulito-Cueto, Alfonso Corrales, Leticia Lera-Gómez, Virginia Portilla, Íñigo González-Mazón, Ricardo Blanco, Rosa Expósito, Cristina Mata, Javier Llorca, Vanesa Hernández-Hernández,
    Arthritis Research & Therapy.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Review: Vaspin (SERPINA12) Expression and Function in Endocrine Cells
    Patrycja Kurowska, Ewa Mlyczyńska, Monika Dawid, Małgorzata Jurek, Dominika Klimczyk, Joelle Dupont, Agnieszka Rak
    Cells.2021; 10(7): 1710.     CrossRef
  • The Role of Anti-Inflammatory Adipokines in Cardiometabolic Disorders: Moving beyond Adiponectin
    Han Na Jung, Chang Hee Jung
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(24): 13529.     CrossRef
  • Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Unai Galicia-Garcia, Asier Benito-Vicente, Shifa Jebari, Asier Larrea-Sebal, Haziq Siddiqi, Kepa B. Uribe, Helena Ostolaza, César Martín
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2020; 21(17): 6275.     CrossRef
  • Associations between vaspin rs2236242 gene polymorphism, walking time and the risk of metabolic syndrome
    E Suliga, D Kozieł, E Cieśla, D Rębak, M Wawszczak, W Adamus-Białek, E Naszydłowska, A Piechowska, S Głuszek
    Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics.2019; 22(1): 41.     CrossRef
  • Vaspin promotes insulin sensitivity in elderly muscle and is upregulated in obesity
    Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, Kostas Tsintzas, Robert Jones, Leigh Breen, Edward T Davis, David J Baker, Simon W Jones
    Journal of Endocrinology.2019; 241(1): 31.     CrossRef
  • Anti-Atherogenic Effects of Vaspin on Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell/Macrophage Responses and Hyperlipidemic Mouse Plaque Phenotype
    Kengo Sato, Remina Shirai, Maho Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Koichiro Shibata, Taisuke Okano, Yusaku Mori, Taka-aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2018; 19(6): 1732.     CrossRef
  • Are Vaspin and Omentin-1 Related to Insulin Resistance, Blood Pressure and Inflammation in NAFLD Patients?
    Fereshteh Aliasghari, Azimeh Izadi, Masoumeh Jabbari, Bahareh Imani, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari, Foad Asjodi, Sara Ebrahimi
    Journal of Medical Biochemistry.2018; 37(4): 470.     CrossRef
  • Novel adipokines vaspin and irisin as risk biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Dalia H. El-Lebedy, Alshaymaa A. Ibrahim, Ingy O. Ashmawy
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2018; 12(5): 643.     CrossRef
  • Abdominal fat deposits determined by magnetic resonance imaging in relation to leptin and vaspin levels as well as insulin resistance in the general adult population
    F Genske, J-P Kühn, M Pietzner, G Homuth, W Rathmann, H J Grabe, H Völzke, H Wallaschofski, N Friedrich
    International Journal of Obesity.2018; 42(2): 183.     CrossRef
  • Obesity risk prediction among women of Upper Egypt: The impact of serum vaspin and vaspin rs2236242 gene polymorphism
    Soad M. Abdel Ghany, Ayat A. Sayed, Sahar E.M. El-Deek, Hala M. ElBadre, Marwa A. Dahpy, Medhat A. Saleh, Hanan Sharaf El-Deen, Mohamed H. Mustafa
    Gene.2017; 626: 140.     CrossRef
  • Circulating omentin-1 might be associated with metabolic health status in different phenotypes of body size
    Shahab Alizadeh, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Chonur Mohammadi, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Zhila Maghbooli
    Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2017; 61(6): 567.     CrossRef
  • Changes in four plasma adipokines before and after sleep in OSAS patients
    Ting Xu, Yong Lin, Siqing Sun, Qiang Zhang
    The Clinical Respiratory Journal.2017; 11(6): 968.     CrossRef
  • Association of circulating adipokines with metabolic dyslipidemia in obese versus non-obese individuals
    Mehran Rahimlou, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Arash Hossein-nezhad
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2016; 10(1): S60.     CrossRef
  • The levels of visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin, omentin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the gingival crevicular fluid of obese patients following periodontal therapy
    Umut Balli, Seyma Bozkurt Dogan, Figen Ongoz Dede, Erdim Sertoglu, Gonca Cayır Keles
    Journal of Oral Science.2016; 58(4): 465.     CrossRef
  • The Role of Vaspin in the Development of Metabolic and Glucose Tolerance Disorders and Atherosclerosis
    Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova
    BioMed Research International.2015; 2015: 1.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Association of Vaspin with Metabolic Syndrome: The Pivotal Role of Insulin Resistance (Diabetes Metab J2014;38:143-9)
    Sung Hee Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(3): 240.     CrossRef
  • Response: Association of Vaspin with Metabolic Syndrome: The Pivotal Role of Insulin Resistance (Diabetes Metab J2014;38:143-9)
    Alireza Esteghamati, Sina Noshad, Mostafa Mousavizadeh, Ali Zandieh, Manouchehr Nakhjavani
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(3): 242.     CrossRef
Increasing Trends of Metabolic Syndrome in Korea -Based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys-.
Soo Lim, Eun Jung Lee, Bo Kyeong Koo, Sung Il Cho, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Seong Yeon Kim, Hong Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):432-439.   Published online September 1, 2005
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BACKGOUND: The number of individuals with metabolic syndrome is increasing in Asian as well as in Western countries. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and patterns of metabolic syndrome as determined by the 1998 and 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys(KNHANES). METHODS: A total of 6,907 and 4,536 Koreans aged over 20 years participated in the KNHANES in 1998 and 2001, respectively. A stratified multistage probability sampling design and weighting adjustments were made to obtain a representative Korean population. The working definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III was used to define metabolic syndrome. The International Obesity Task Force criteria for the Asian-Pacific population were used to determine waist circumference criteria. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome significantly increased from 22.5 to 24.1% between 1998 and 2001(P<0.01). Of the five components composing metabolic syndrome, low HDL-cholesterolemia showed the highest increase(32.6%) over this period, followed by hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity, with 15.9% and 4.3% increases, respectively. In contrast, the number of subjects with high blood pressure or elevated fasting glucose levels were reduced(37.1-->33.1% and 18.9-->15.4%, respectively, both P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity were primarily responsible for the increase in metabolic syndrome in Korea over the period 1998 to 2001. Changes to diet patterns and a reduction in physical activity are likely to have contributed to the rapid increase in metabolic syndrome in Korea; therefore, national strategies will be needed to counteract this increase.
The Degree of Atherosclerosis and the Metabolic Characteristics according to the Abdominal Obesity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Ji Sun Nam, Dol Mi Kim, Soo Jee Yoon, Jae Hyun Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):377-391.   Published online October 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Many of the maturity-onset type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia in Korea are not associated with obesity. However, these patients are at risk for developing macrovascular complications such as atherosclerosis due to hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. The aims of this study were to compare the clinical and biochemical differences between the type 2 diabetic patients that are with and without abdominal obesity, and we also wished to investigate the degree of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in these patients. METHODS: Among 530 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, the percentages of under-weight (UW), normal-weight (NW), over-weight (OW) and obese (OB) (BMI <20, 20-25, 25-29.9 and > or =30, respectively) subjects were 8.9%, 62.1%, 25.1% and 3.9%, respectively. To evaluate the severity of their atherosclerosis, the coronary artery calcification (CAC) score was measured by electron beam computed tomography, and the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery and the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) were also measured. The Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was measured by the plasma glucose disappearance rate (kitt: %/min). RESULTS: 1. There were no differences in age, duration of DM and the HbA1c levels according to BMI for both the men and women, but the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly different among each group. Serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), fibrinogen, and fasting c-peptide levels, {excluding total cholesterol (TC)}, were also significantly different. The ISI, which is a marker for insulin resistance, as well correlated with the patients' BMI. Subjects having an with ISI above 2.5%/min were considered as having insulin resistance, and 28%, 60%, 68% and 75% of patients in the UW, NW, OW and OB groups, respectively, demonstrated insulin resistance. The visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area ratio and visceral fat area/thigh muscle area ratio also increased with BMI. 2. The median values of the WHR were 0.95 for the men and 0.91 for the women. There were no significant differences for age, BMI, duration of DM and HbA1c between patients with and without abdominal obesity, but the SBP, TG, HDL-C, FFA, fibrinogen and ISI were significantly different between those two groups. 3. For the OW group as well as the NW group, the carotid IMT, ABPI and CAC scores were significantly different between the patients with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were no differences between the NW group and the OW group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, those patients with abdominal obesity, regardless of their BMIs, have a higher prevalence for atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, compared to those patients without abdominal obesity. Therefore, it is important to screen for atherosclerosis and to manage it accordingly, for the patients with insulin resistance or abdominal obesity in order to decrease their risk of developing atherosclerotic events.
The Clinical Significance of Anthropometric Measurements of Obesity in Type 2 Diabetics.
Young Sun Choi, Si Hyung Park, Bo Wan Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(3):365-374.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It is well demonstrated that obesity is associated with many chronic disorders like type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. In Korea, there are numerous reports revealed the possible relationship between anthropometric indices of obesity and the aformentioned disorders in nondiabetic healthy population, but the reports in type 2 diabetics are limited. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the relationship among the anthropometric indices and fasting insulin, C-peptide, and serum lipid levels in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetics. METHOD: A total of 160 type 2 diabetics were recruited from the out-patient department of endocrinoloy of Kyungpook National University Hospital from March to June 1999. The following subjects were excluded from the study: duration of type 2 diabetes > 5year, receiving of insulin or lipid lowering agents. For all participants, body mass index, percent of body fat, waist and hip circumference were measured. Fasting plasma insulin, C-peptide, blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also assayed. Partial correlation analysis was used to test the relationships between anthropometric indices and laboratory data. RESULTS: 1) In male subjects, fasting plasma insulin level was not significantly correlated with any of the anthropometric variables. However, in female subjects, fasting plasma insulin level was significantly correlated with body mass index, percent of body fat, and waist circumference. 2) Fasting plasma C-peptide level significantly correlated to all of the anthropometric variables in female patients, but in males only significant association was seen between fasting plasma C-peptide level and waist circumference. 3) Total cholesterol level was significantly correlated with percent of body fat and waist/hip ratio in male andfemale subjects respectively. CONCLUSION: Anthropometric indices of abdominal obesity appear to be correlated with insulin production and lipid changes in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Waist circumference is a more useful predictor of hyperinsulinemia than waist/hip ratio in both sexes.

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