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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Novel Asian-Specific Visceral Adiposity Indices Are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Korean Adults
Jonghwa Jin, Hyein Woo, Youngeun Jang, Won-Ki Lee, Jung-Guk Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(3):426-436.   Published online March 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0099
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and new visceral adiposity index (NVAI) are novel indices of visceral adiposity used to predict metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations. However, the relationships of CVAI and NVAI with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been investigated. We aimed to characterize the relationships of CVAI and NVAI with the prevalence of CKD in Korean adults.
Methods
A total of 14,068 participants in the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (6,182 men and 7,886 women) were included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were employed to compare the associations between indices of adiposity and CKD, and a logistic regression model was used to characterize the relationships of CVAI and NVAI with CKD prevalence.
Results
The areas under the ROC curves for CVAI and NVAI were significantly larger than for the other indices, including the visceral adiposity index and lipid accumulation product, in both men and women (all P<0.001). In addition, high CVAI or NVAI was significantly associated with a high CKD prevalence in both men (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 3.48 in CVAI and OR, 6.47; 95% CI, 2.91 to 14.38 in NVAI, P<0.05) and women (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 1.85 to 12.79 in CVAI and OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.35 to 6.82 in NVAI, P<0.05); this association remained significant after adjustment for multiple confounding factors in men and women.
Conclusion
CVAI and NVAI are positively associated with CKD prevalence in a Korean population. CVAI and NVAI may be useful for the identification of CKD in Asian populations, including in Korea.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between Chinese visceral adiposity index and risk of stroke incidence in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population: evidence from a large national cohort study
    Zenglei Zhang, Lin Zhao, Yiting Lu, Xu Meng, Xianliang Zhou
    Journal of Translational Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Sex Differences of Visceral Fat Area and Visceral-to-Subcutaneous Fat Ratio for the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Eun Hee Kim, Hong-Kyu Kim, Min Jung Lee, Sung-Jin Bae, Jaewon Choe, Chang Hee Jung, Chul-Hee Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Woo Je Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):486-498.   Published online November 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0095
  • 9,045 View
  • 360 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to determine the optimal cut-off values of visceral fat area (VFA) and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) for predicting incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
A total of 10,882 individuals (6,835 men; 4,047 women) free of T2DM at baseline aged between 30 and 79 years who underwent abdominal computed tomography scan between 2012 and 2013 as a part of routine health check-ups were included and followed. VFA, subcutaneous fat area, and VSR on L3 vertebral level were measured at baseline.
Results
During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 730 (8.1% for men; 4.3% for women) incident cases of T2DM were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off values of VFA and VSR for predicting incident T2DM were 130.03 cm2 and 1.08 in men, respectively, and 85.7 cm2 and 0.48 in women, respectively. Regardless of sex, higher VFA and VSR were significantly associated with a higher risk of incident T2DM. Compared with the lowest quartiles of VFA and VSR, the highest quartiles had adjusted odds ratios of 2.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 3.97) and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.14 to 2.11) in men, respectively, and 32.49 (95% CI, 7.42 to 142.02) and 11.07 (95% CI, 3.89 to 31.50) in women, respectively.
Conclusion
Higher VFA and VSR at baseline were independent risk factors for the development of T2DM. Sex-specific reference values for visceral fat obesity (VFA ≥130 cm2 or VSR ≥1.0 in men; VFA ≥85 cm2 or VSR ≥0.5 in women) are proposed for the prediction of incident T2DM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Severity of adipose tissue dysfunction is associated with progression of pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes: the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
    Mohammad Jalali, Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi, Farhad Hosseinpanah
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Asghar Ghasemi
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    Yu‐Hsuan Chang, Chin‐Sung Chang, Chieh‐Yu Liu, Yin‐Fan Chang, Shiow‐Ching Shun
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  • Body Composition and Metabolic Dysfunction Really Matter for the Achievement of Better Outcomes in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer
    Mauricio A. Cuello, Fernán Gómez, Ignacio Wichmann, Felipe Suárez, Sumie Kato, Elisa Orlandini, Jorge Brañes, Carolina Ibañez
    Cancers.2023; 15(4): 1156.     CrossRef
  • MEDICINAL BIOMAGNETISM FOR THE TREATMENT OF OBESITY
    Ana Vergínia Campagnollo Bueno, Michelli Gonçalves Seneda, Ângela Mara Rambo, Ana Clara Campagnolo Gonçalves Toledo, Caroline Cabral de Azevedo, Adriane Viapiana Bossa
    Health and Society.2023; 3(01): 411.     CrossRef
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    Min-Kyung Lee, Jae-Hyuk Lee, Seo Young Sohn, Jiyeon Ahn, Oak-Kee Hong, Mee-Kyoung Kim, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Haiyan Lin, Jun Zhu, Chen Zheng, Xiaoming Xu, Shandong Ye
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2023; 37(11): 108521.     CrossRef
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    Hyun-Jin Kim, Byungmi Kim, Seyoung Kim, Hyuktae Kwon, Jae Moon Yun, Belong Cho, Jin-Ho Park
    European Journal of Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Visceral Fat Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Myosteatosis with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease without Obesity
    Hong-Kyu Kim, Sung-Jin Bae, Min Jung Lee, Eun Hee Kim, Hana Park, Hwi Seung Kim, Yun Kyung Cho, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee, Jaewon Choe
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2023; 29(4): 987.     CrossRef
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    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sang Hyeon Ju, Hyon-Seung Yi
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  • The Demographic Specific Abdominal Fat Composition and Distribution Trends in US Adults from 2011 to 2018
    Furong Xu, Jacob E. Earp, Bryan J. Blissmer, Ingrid E. Lofgren, Matthew J. Delmonico, Geoffrey W. Greene
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  • Visceral Obesity Is a More Important Factor for Colorectal Adenomas than Skeletal Muscle or Body Fat
    Ji Yeon Seo, Yoo Min Han, Su Jin Chung, Seon Hee Lim, Jung Ho Bae, Goh Eun Chung
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  • Recent Advances in Visceral Obesity and Related Diseases
    佳佳 魏
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2022; 12(12): 11686.     CrossRef
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    Pingping Yu, Huachao Yang, Xiaoya Qi, Ruixue Bai, Shouqin Zhang, Jianping Gong, Ying Mei, Peng Hu
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Age- and Sex-Related Differential Associations between Body Composition and Diabetes Mellitus
Eun Roh, Soon Young Hwang, Jung A Kim, You-Bin Lee, So-hyeon Hong, Nam Hoon Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(2):183-194.   Published online June 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0171
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  • 3 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

The age- and sex-related differences on the impacts of body composition on diabetes mellitus (DM) remain uncertain.

Methods

The fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included 15,586 subjects over 30 years of age who completed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether muscle mass index (MMI), defined as appendicular skeletal muscle divided by body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI), defined as trunk fat mass divided by BMI, were differently associated with DM according to age and sex.

Results

In multivariate logistic regression, the risk for DM significantly increased across quartiles of FMI in men aged ≥70. Meanwhile, MMI showed a protective association with DM in men of the same age. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of FMI and MMI were 3.116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.405 to 6.914) and 0.295 (95% CI, 0.157 to 0.554), respectively. In women, the ORs of DM was significantly different across FMI quartiles in those over age 50. The highest quartile of FMI exhibited increased ORs of DM in subjects aged 50 to 69 (OR, 1.891; 95% CI, 1.229 to 2.908) and ≥70 (OR, 2.275; 95% CI, 1.103 to 4.69) compared to lowest quartile. However, MMI was not significantly associated with DM in women of all age groups.

Conclusion

Both FMI and MMI were independent risk factors for DM in men aged 70 years or more. In women over 50 years, FMI was independently associated with DM. There was no significant association between MMI and DM in women.

Citations

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  • Research Progress on Correlation between Body Composition Changes and Disease Pro-gression of Type 2 Diabetes
    敏 张
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2024; 14(03): 936.     CrossRef
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    Ji Eun Jun, Seung-Eun Lee, You-Bin Lee, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hwan Jee, Jae Hyeon Kim
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 108(5): 1173.     CrossRef
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    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Yang Yuan, Bo Xie, Zilin Sun, Tongzhi Wu
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2022; 189: 109939.     CrossRef
  • Whole and segmental body composition changes during mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in recreationally active young women
    Şükran Nazan Koşar, Yasemin Güzel, Mehmet Gören Köse, Ayşe Kin İşler, Tahir Hazır
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    Hye Jin Yoo
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Intra-Abdominal Fat and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Are Associated in a Non-Linear Pattern in Japanese-Americans
Sun Ok Song, You-Cheol Hwang, Steven E. Kahn, Donna L. Leonetti, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Edward J. Boyko
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):277-285.   Published online March 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0008
  • 4,610 View
  • 63 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We describe the association between high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and computed tomography (CT)-measured fat depots.

Methods

We examined the cross-sectional associations between HDL-C concentration and intra-abdominal (IAF), abdominal subcutaneous (SCF), and thigh fat (TF) areas in 641 Japanese-American men and women. IAF, SCF, and TF were measured by CT at the level of the umbilicus and mid-thigh. The associations between fat area measurements and HDL-C were examined using multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diabetes family history, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index (BMI). Non-linearity was assessed using fractional polynomials.

Results

Mean±standard deviation of HDL-C concentration and IAF in men and women were 1.30±0.34 mg/dL, 105±55.3 cm2, and 1.67±0.43 mg/dL, 74.4±46.6 cm2 and differed significantly by gender for both comparisons (P<0.001). In univariate analysis, HDL-C concentration was significantly associated with CT-measured fat depots. In multivariate analysis, IAF was significantly and non-linearly associated with HDL-C concentration adjusted for age, sex, BMI, HOMA-IR, SCF, and TF (IAF: β=−0.1012, P<0.001; IAF2: β=0.0008, P<0.001). SCF was also negatively and linearly associated with HDL-C (β=−0.4919, P=0.001).

Conclusion

HDL-C does not linearly decline with increasing IAF in Japanese-Americans. A more complex pattern better fits this association.

Citations

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    Yansu Wang, Yiting Xu, Tingting Hu, Yunfeng Xiao, Yufei Wang, Xiaojing Ma, Haoyong Yu, Yuqian Bao
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2024; Volume 17: 121.     CrossRef
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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Association between Blood Mercury Level and Visceral Adiposity in Adults
Jong Suk Park, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Ka He, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(2):113-120.   Published online December 21, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.2.113
  • 4,771 View
  • 45 Download
  • 38 Web of Science
  • 39 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Few studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations and indices of obesity in adults.

Methods

A total of 200 healthy subjects, aged 30 to 64 years, who had no history of cardiovascular or malignant disease, were examined. Anthropometric and various biochemical profiles were measured. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

Results

All subjects were divided into three groups according to blood mercury concentrations. Compared with the subjects in the lowest tertile of mercury, those in the highest tertile were more likely to be male; were current alcohol drinkers and smokers; had a higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and VAT; had higher levels of blood pressure, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance; and consumed more fish. The blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with anthropometric parameters, showing relationships with BMI, WC, and VAT. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for high mercury concentration was significantly higher in the highest VAT tertile than in the lowest VAT tertile (OR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 6.62; P<0.05).

Conclusion

The blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with VAT in healthy adults. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

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    Ky Young Cho
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Arterial Stiffness by Aerobic Exercise Is Related with Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Total Fat but not with Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Female Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Ji Yeon Jung, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Ah Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(6):439-448.   Published online December 15, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.6.439
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Arterial stiffness is an important factor in atherosclerosis. Thus we examined whether aerobic exercise could reduce arterial stiffness in obese women with type 2 diabetes without diabetic complication.

Methods

A total of 35 women with type 2 diabetes (body mass index, 26.6±2.8 kg/m2; age, 56.4±1.9 years; duration of diabetes, 4.7±4.8 years) were assigned to aerobic exercise group (AEG) or control group (CG). AEG completed a 12-week exercise program (3.6 to 5.2 metabolic equivalents, 3 day/week, 60 min/day), with their exercise activities monitored by accelerometers. We measured abdominal total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) by computed tomography, insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance test (KITT), and augmentation index (AIx) by SphygmoCor at baseline and at the end of the 12-week program.

Results

The AIx was improved in the AEG compared with the CG (P<0.001). The percent change of AIx had significant correlation with the improvement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), aerobic capacity, TFA, and SFA (r=-0.416, P=0.013; r=0.560, P<0.001; r=0.489, P=0.003; r=0.531, P=0.001, respectively), but not with insulin sensitivity, energy intake, or VFA.

Conclusion

Improvement in aortic stiffness by aerobic exercise is related with the improvement of aerobic capacity, PAEE, and total fat but not with insulin sensitivity or energy intake in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

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The Role of Skeletal Muscle in Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Jun Sung Moon, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):278-285.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.278
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely correlated with abnormal accumulation of visceral fat, but the role of skeletal muscle remains unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of skeletal muscle in development of NAFLD.

Methods

Among 11,116 subjects (6,242 males), we examined the effects of skeletal muscle mass and visceral fat area (VFA, by bioelectric impedance analysis) on NAFLD using by the fatty liver index (FLI).

Results

Of the total subjects (9,565 total, 5,293 males) included, 1,848 were classified as having NALFD (FLI ≥60). Body mass index, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM), hypertension (HTN), and metabolic syndrome were higher in males than females, but FLI showed no significant difference. The low FLI group showed the lowest VFA and highest skeletal muscle mass of all the groups. Skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR) and skeletal muscle index had inverse correlations with FLI, when adjusted for age and gender. In multivariate regression analysis, SVR was negatively associated with FLI. Among SVR quartiles, the highest quartile showed very low risk of NAFLD when adjusted for age, gender, lipid profile, DM, HTN, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein from the lowest quartiles (odds ratio, 0.037; 95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 0.049).

Conclusion

Skeletal muscle mass was inversely associated with visceral fat area, and higher skeletal muscle mass may have a beneficial effect in preventing NAFLD. These results suggest that further studies are needed to ameliorate or slow the progression of sarcopenia.

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Review
Effects of Exercise Alone on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Youth
SoJung Lee, YoonMyung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):225-232.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.225
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

As with the dramatic increases in childhood obesity over the past decades, the incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased among children and adolescents in the United States. Insulin resistance is a common feature of childhood obesity and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherogenic lipoprotein profile in obese youth. Although cross-sectional studies report beneficial effects of physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness on insulin sensitivity, the role of regular exercise alone (e.g., no calorie restriction) as a strategy to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes is unclear in obese children and adolescents. In this mini review, we examined the independent effects of various exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese youth.

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Original Articles
Influence of Visceral Adiposity on Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Eun-Hee Jang, Na-Young Kim, Yong-Moon Park, Mee-Kyoung Kim, Ki Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Kwang Woo Lee, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(4):285-292.   Published online August 20, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.4.285
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of visceral adiposity on cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

Two hundred eleven patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured, and the visceral fat area was assessed using computed tomography. CAN was diagnosed using a cardiovascular reflex test. We analyzed the correlation between the visceral fat area and each parameter in this test.

Results

The mean age, body mass index (BMI), and duration of diabetes of the study population were 60±14 years (mean±standard deviation), 25.1±4.2 kg/m2, and 12.3±8.9 years, respectively. The visceral fat area showed positive correlations with age, BMI, waist circumference, and subcutaneous fat area. There was no statistically significant difference in the cardiovascular reflex test outcome between genders. Univariate linear regression analysis showed that an increased visceral fat area diminished good heart rate response to a Valsalva maneuver (R2=4.9%, P=0.013 in an unadjusted model), but only in women. This statistical association was preserved after adjusting for age and BMI (R2=9.8%, P=0.0072).

Conclusion

The results of this study suggest that visceral adiposity contributes to an autonomic imbalance to some degree, as demonstrated by the impaired cardiovascular reflex test among women with type 2 diabetes.

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Effects of Aerobic Exercise Intensity on Abdominal and Thigh Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Attenuation in Overweight Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Ji Yeon Jung, Kyung Ah Han, Hee Jung Ahn, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(3):211-221.   Published online June 14, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.3.211
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We investigated the effects of exercise intensity on abdominal and mid-thigh adipose tissue, attenuation of skeletal muscle, and insulin sensitivity in overweight women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

Twenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to control (CG, n=12), moderate intensity exercise (MEG, n=8), or vigorous intensity exercise (VEG, n=8) group. Subjects in both exercise groups completed a 12-week exercise program (MEG, 3.6 to 5.2 METs; VEG, ≥5.2 METs) that was monitored by accelerometers. We assessed body mass index (BMI), total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), mid-thigh intramuscular adipose tissue (TIMAT), total skeletal muscle (TTM), low density skeletal muscle (TLDM), and normal density skeletal muscle (TNDM) using computed tomography, and measured insulin sensitivity with an insulin tolerance test (KITT), before and after the intervention.

Results

At baseline, the mean age was 53.8±7.9 years, duration of diabetes was 3.8±2.3 years, and BMI was 26.6±2.6 kg/m2. After 12 weeks, the percent change (%C) in BMI, TIMAT, and TLDM were not different among three groups. However, %C in TFA and VFA were significantly reduced in MEG compared to CG (P=0.026 and P=0.008, respectively). %C SFA was significantly reduced in VEG compared to CG (P=0.038) and %C TTM, TNDM, and KITT were significantly increased in VEG compared to the CG (P=0.044, P=0.007, and P=0.016, respectively).

Conclusion

Although there was no difference in the change in BMI among groups, TFA and VFA were more reduced in MEG, and only VEG increased TTM, TNDM, and insulin sensitivity compared to CG.

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ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel-Deficient Mice Show Hyperphagia but Are Resistant to Obesity
Yeul Bum Park, Yun Jung Choi, So Young Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Seong Ho Kim, Dae Kyu Song, Kyu Chang Won, Yong Woon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(3):219-225.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.219
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The hypothalamus, the center for body weight regulation, can sense changes in blood glucose level based on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in the hypothalamic neurons. We hypothesized that a lack of glucose sensing in the hypothalamus affects the regulations of appetite and body weight.

Methods

To evaluate this hypothesis, the responses to glucose loading and high fat feeding for eight weeks were compared in Kir6.2 knock-out (KO) mice and control C57BL/6 mice, because Kir6.2 is a key component of the KATP channel.

Results

The hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) analyzed one hour after glucose injection was suppressed in C57BL/6 mice, but not in Kir6.2 KO mice, suggesting a blunted hypothalamic response to glucose in Kir6.2 KO mice. The hypothalamic NPY expression at a fed state was elevated in Kir6.2 KO mice and was accompanied with hyperphagia. However, the retroperitoneal fat mass was markedly decreased in Kir6.2 KO mice compared to that in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the body weight and visceral fat following eight weeks of high fat feeding in Kir6.2 KO mice were not significantly different from those in control diet-fed Kir6.2 KO mice, while body weight and visceral fat mass were elevated due to high fat feeding in C57BL/6 mice.

Conclusion

These results suggested that Kir6.2 KO mice showed a blunted hypothalamic response to glucose loading and elevated hypothalamic NPY expression accompanied with hyperphagia, while visceral fat mass was decreased, suggesting resistance to diet-induced obesity. Further study is needed to explain this phenomenon.

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The Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle and Body Fat Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Women
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo-Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):101-110.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.101
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Our goal was to investigate the effects of low intensity resistance training on body fat, muscle mass and strength, cardiovascular fitness, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Twenty-eight overweight women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a resistance training group (RG, n = 13) or a control group (CG, n = 15). RG performed resistance training using elastic bands, of which strength was equal to 40 to 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM), for three days per week. Each exercise consisted of three sets for 60 minutes. We assessed abdominal fat using computed tomography, muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength using Keiser's chest and leg press. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the insulin tolerance test, and aerobic capacity was expressed as oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (AT-VO2) before and after the 12-week exercise program.

Results

The age of participants was 56.4 ± 7.1 years, duration of diabetes was 5.9 ± 5.5 years, and BMI was 27.4 ± 2.5 kg/m2, without significant differences between two groups. During intervention, a greater increase in muscle mass and greater decreases in both total fat mass and abdominal fat were observed in RG compared to those of CG (P = 0.015, P = 0.011, P = 0.010, respectively). Increase in 1RM of upper and lower extremities was observed in the RG (P = 0.004, P = 0.040, respectively), without changes in AT-VO2 and insulin resistance in either group.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the low intensity resistance training was effective in increasing muscle mass and strength and reducing total fat mass without change of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.

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Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Abdominal Fat, Thigh Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Subject
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hee Geum Seok, Bo Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Ah Han
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):23-31.   Published online February 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.23
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Aerobic exercise can effectively reduce visceral fat. However, few studies have examined the effect of daily physical activity on obesity and cardiopulmonary function in the subjects with diabetes. We examined the effect of moderate intensity of walking in obese diabetes patients by monitoring of daily activity and measuring the change in abdominal fat area, muscle are and maximal muscle strength.

Methods

We randomly assigned 27 obese women with type 2 diabetes to an aerobic exercise group (AG, n = 13) and control group (CG, n = 14). The AG performed moderate intensity walking for 60 minutes per exercise, 5 times per week, and for 12 weeks. The activity energy expenditure was monitored by a multi-record accelerometer. The CG maintained routine daily activities. At the time of the initiation of the study and after 12 weeks of exercise, the aerobic exercise capacity was assessed using oxygen consumption rate at anaerobic threshold (VO2-AT). The abdominal fat area and the quadriceps muscle area were measured by computed tomography, and the maximum muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was measured by a chest press and a leg press, respectively.

Results

The mean age of the study subjects was 56.6 ± 8.0 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 6.3 ± 6.0 years, and the body weight index (BMI) was 27.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. The BMI of the AG was significantly decreased (P = 0.003). In the AG, the visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat area were also significantly decreased (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001, respectively) but not in CG. VO2-AT of the AG was significantly improved, while that of the CG did not change (P = 0.009 and P = 0.115, respectively). The quadriceps muscle mass and the maximal muscle strength of the AG did not change, however, the CG showed a significant decrease. Duration of moderate intensity exercise was correlated with the decrease in total abdominal fat area (r = -0.484; P = 0.011) and that of high intensity exercise was correlated with improvement of cardiopulmonary function (r = 0.414; P = 0.032).

Conclusion

Daily moderate intensity aerobic exercise is effective at reducing abdominal fat mass, while high intensity exercise improves cardiopulmonary function.

Citations

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Randomized Controlled Trial
The Effects of Low-Calorie Diets on Abdominal Visceral Fat, Muscle Mass, and Dietary Quality in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects.
Hee Jung Ahn, Youn Ok Cho, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Yun Hyi Ku, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):526-536.   Published online December 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.526
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  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Weight loss through low-calorie diets (LCDs) decreases visceral fat (VF). However, the effects on muscle mass, changes of dietary quality, and insulin sensitivity are unknown for Korean obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore, this study examined such effects of LCDs. METHODS: A total of 30 obese type 2 diabetic subjects (body mass index, 27.0 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to an LCD or control group. Subjects on LCDs took 500~1,000 kcal fewer energy than their usual dietary intake (1,000~1,500 kcal/day) over the course of 12 weeks. The abdominal VF and femoral muscle mass were evaluated by computed tomography, and insulin sensitivity was assessed using an insulin tolerance test (Kitt; rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance, %/min). Dietary nutrient intake consumed by subjects was assessed by 3-day food records. RESULTS: The percent VF reduction was -23.4 +/- 17.2% in the LCD group and -9.8 +/- 11.8% in the control group after 12 weeks (P < 0.001, P = 0.002). However, significant decrease in femoral mass or proportional change of marcronutrient intake and mean adequacy ratio were not found in the LCD group, as compared to the control group. Insulin sensitivity improved in the LCD group, as compared to the control group (P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: LCD effectively improved insulin sensitivity and reduced abdominal VF without reduction of femoral muscle and dietary quality in obese type 2 diabetic subjects.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal