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Association of Succinate and Adenosine Nucleotide Metabolic Pathways with Diabetic Kidney Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Inha Jung, Seungyoon Nam, Da Young Lee, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Dae Ho Lee, Nan Hee Kim
Received October 23, 2023  Accepted May 6, 2024  Published online July 1, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0377    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Although the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is increasing, reliable biomarkers for its early detection are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the association of adenosine and succinate levels and their related pathways, including hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis, with DKD.
Methods
We examined 235 participants and categorized them into three groups: healthy controls; those with diabetes but without DKD; and those with DKD, which was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We compared the concentrations of urinary adenosine, succinate, and HA and the serum levels of cluster of differentiation 39 (CD39) and CD73, which are involved in adenosine generation, among the groups with DKD or albuminuria. In addition, we performed multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the independent association of DKD or albuminuria with the metabolites after adjusting for risk factors. We also showed the association of these metabolites with eGFR measured several years before enrollment. This study was registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (https://cris.nih.go.kr; Registration number: KCT0003573).
Results
Urinary succinate and serum CD39 levels were higher in the DKD group than in the control and non-DKD groups. Correlation analysis consistently linked urinary succinate and serum CD39 concentrations with eGFR, albuminuria, and ΔeGFR, which was calculated retrospectively. However, among the various metabolites studied, only urinary succinate was identified as an independent indicator of DKD and albuminuria.
Conclusion
Among several potential metabolites, only urinary succinate was independently associated with DKD. These findings hold promise for clinical application in the management of DKD.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Association of Body Composition Changes with the Development of Diabetes Mellitus: A Nation-Wide Population Study
Hyung Jun Kim, Hyung-Woo Lee, Min-Kyoung Kang, Gwang Hyun Leem, Min-Ho Kim, Tae-Jin Song
Received August 31, 2023  Accepted January 26, 2024  Published online May 21, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0243    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We investigated the association between body composition changes and new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) development according to the body mass index (BMI) in a longitudinal setting in the general Korean population.
Methods
From 2010 to 2011 (1st) and 2012 to 2013 (2nd), we included 1,607,508 stratified random sample participants without DM from the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening dataset of Korean. The predicted appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (pASMMI), body fat mass index (pBFMI), and lean body mass index (pLBMI) were calculated using pre-validated anthropometric prediction equations. A prediction equation was constructed by combining age, weight, height, waist circumference, serum creatinine levels, alcohol consumption status, physical activity, and smoking history as variables affecting body composition.
Results
Decreased pASMMI (men: hazard ratio [HR], 0.866; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.830 to 0.903; P<0.001; women: HR, 0.748; 95% CI, 0.635 to 0.881; P<0.001), decreased pLBMI (men: HR, 0.931; 95% CI, 0.912 to 0.952; P<0.001; women: HR, 0.906; 95% CI, 0.856 to 0.959; P=0.007), and increased pBFMI (men: HR, 1.073; 95% CI, 1.050 to 1.096; P<0.001; women: HR, 1.114; 95% CI, 1.047 to 1.186; P=0.007) correlated with the development of new-onset DM. Notably, only in the overweight and obese BMI categories, decreases in pASMMI and pLBMI and increases in pBFMI associated with new-onset DM, regardless of gender.
Conclusion
Decreased pASMMI and pLBMI, and increased pBFMI with excess fat accumulation may enhance the risk of newonset DM. Therefore, appropriate changes in body composition can help prevent new-onset DM.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Construction of Risk Prediction Model of Type 2 Diabetic Kidney Disease Based on Deep Learning
Chuan Yun, Fangli Tang, Zhenxiu Gao, Wenjun Wang, Fang Bai, Joshua D. Miller, Huanhuan Liu, Yaujiunn Lee, Qingqing Lou
Received February 3, 2023  Accepted May 27, 2023  Published online April 30, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0033    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to develop a diabetic kidney disease (DKD) prediction model using long short term memory (LSTM) neural network and evaluate its performance using accuracy, precision, recall, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
Methods
The study identified DKD risk factors through literature review and physician focus group, and collected 7 years of data from 6,040 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients based on the risk factors. Pytorch was used to build the LSTM neural network, with 70% of the data used for training and the other 30% for testing. Three models were established to examine the impact of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and pulse pressure (PP) variabilities on the model’s performance.
Results
The developed model achieved an accuracy of 83% and an AUC of 0.83. When the risk factor of HbA1c variability, SBP variability, or PP variability was removed one by one, the accuracy of each model was significantly lower than that of the optimal model, with an accuracy of 78% (P<0.001), 79% (P<0.001), and 81% (P<0.001), respectively. The AUC of ROC was also significantly lower for each model, with values of 0.72 (P<0.001), 0.75 (P<0.001), and 0.77 (P<0.05).
Conclusion
The developed DKD risk predictive model using LSTM neural networks demonstrated high accuracy and AUC value. When HbA1c, SBP, and PP variabilities were added to the model as featured characteristics, the model’s performance was greatly improved.
Basic Research
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DGAT2 Plays a Crucial Role to Control ESRRAPROX1 Transcriptional Network to Maintain Hepatic Mitochondrial Sustainability
Yoseob Lee, Yeseong Hwang, Minki Kim, Hyeonuk Jeon, Seyeon Joo, Sungsoon Fang, Jae-Woo Kim
Received October 13, 2023  Accepted December 11, 2023  Published online April 22, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0368    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) synthesizes triacylglycerol (TG) from diacylglycerol; therefore, DGAT2 is considered as a therapeutic target for steatosis. However, the consequence of inhibiting DGAT2 is not fully investigated due to side effects including lethality and lipotoxicity. In this article, we observed the role of DGAT2 in hepatocarcinoma.
Methods
The role of DGAT2 is analyzed via loss-of-function assay. DGAT2 knockdown (KD) and inhibitor treatment on HepG2 cell line was analyzed. Cumulative analysis of cell metabolism with bioinformatic data were assessed, and further compared with different cohorts of liver cancer patients and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients to elucidate how DGAT2 is regulating cancer metabolism.
Results
Mitochondrial function is suppressed in DGAT2 KD HepG2 cell along with the decreased lipid droplets. In the aspect of the cancer, DGAT2 KD upregulates cell proliferation. Analyzing transcriptome of NAFLD and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients highlights negatively correlating expression patterns of 73 lipid-associated genes including DGAT2. Cancer patients with the lower DGAT2 expression face lower survival rate. DGAT2 KD cell and patients’ transcriptome show downregulation in estrogen- related receptor alpha (ESRRA) via integrated system for motif activity response analysis (ISMARA), with increased dimerization with corepressor prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1).
Conclusion
DGAT2 sustains the stability of mitochondria in hepatoma via suppressing ESRRA-PROX1 transcriptional network and hinders HCC from shifting towards glycolytic metabolism, which lowers cell proliferation.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Biologically Informed Polygenic Scores for Brain Insulin Receptor Network Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Diabetes in Women
Jannica S. Selenius, Patricia P. Silveira, Mikaela von Bonsdorff, Jari Lahti, Hannu Koistinen, Riitta Koistinen, Markku Seppälä, Johan G. Eriksson, Niko S. Wasenius
Received February 10, 2023  Accepted November 25, 2023  Published online March 25, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0039    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate associations between variations in the co-expression-based brain insulin receptor polygenic score and cardiometabolic risk factors and diabetes mellitus.
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 1,573 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Biologically informed expression-based polygenic risk scores for the insulin receptor gene network were calculated for the hippocampal (hePRS-IR) and the mesocorticolimbic (mePRS-IR) regions. Cardiometabolic markers included body composition, waist circumference, circulating lipids, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 and 3 (IGFBP-1 and -3). Glucose and insulin levels were measured during a standardized 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and impaired glucose regulation status was defined by the World Health Organization 2019 criteria. Analyzes were adjusted for population stratification, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status, chronic diseases, birth weight, and leisure-time physical activity.
Results
Multinomial logistic regression indicated that one standard deviation increase in hePRS-IR was associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus in all participants (adjusted relative risk ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.35). In women, higher hePRS-IR was associated with greater waist circumference and higher body fat percentage, levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, insulin, and IGFBP-1 (all P≤0.02). The mePRS-IR was associated with decreased IGF-1 level in women (P=0.02). No associations were detected in men and studied outcomes.
Conclusion
hePRS-IR is associated with sex-specific differences in cardiometabolic risk factor profiles including impaired glucose regulation, abnormal metabolic markers, and unfavorable body composition in women.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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2023 Diabetic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet in Korea
Nam Hoon Kim, Mi-Hae Seo, Jin Hyung Jung, Kyung Do Han, Mi Kyung Kim, Nan Hee Kim, on Behalf of Diabetic Kidney Disease Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(3):463-472.   Published online March 19, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0310
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate the prevalence, incidence, comorbidities, and management status of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetes-related end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in South Korea.
Methods
We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2019 to 2021, n=2,665) for the evaluation of prevalence, comorbidities, control rate of glycemia and comorbidities in DKD, and the Korean Health Insurance Service-customized database (2008 to 2019, n=3,950,857) for the evaluation of trends in the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes-related ESKD, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors use for DKD, and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and mortality according to DKD stages. DKD was defined as albuminuria or low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Results
The prevalence of DKD was 25.4% (albuminuria, 22.0%; low eGFR, 6.73%) in patients with diabetes mellitus aged ≥30 years. Patients with DKD had a higher rate of comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity; however, their control rates were lower than those without DKD. Prescription rate of SGLT2 inhibitors with reduced eGFR increased steadily, reaching 5.94% in 2019. Approximately 70% of DKD patients were treated with RAS blockers. The prevalence rate of diabetesrelated ESKD has been steadily increasing, with a higher rate in older adults. ASCVD and mortality were significantly associated with an in increase in DKD stage.
Conclusion
DKD is prevalent among Korean patients with diabetes and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which requiring intensive management of diabetes and comorbidities. The prevalence of diabetes-related ESKD has been increasing, especially in the older adults, during past decade.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Endothelial NOX5 Obliterates the Reno-Protective Effect of Nox4 Deletion by Promoting Renal Fibrosis via Activation of EMT and ROS-Sensitive Pathways in Diabetes
    Karin A. M. Jandeleit-Dahm, Haritha R. Kankanamalage, Aozhi Dai, Jaroslawna Meister, Sara Lopez-Trevino, Mark E. Cooper, Rhian M. Touyz, Christopher R. J. Kennedy, Jay C. Jha
    Antioxidants.2024; 13(4): 396.     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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A Prospective 1-Year Follow-Up of Glycemic Status and C-Peptide Levels of COVID-19 Survivors with Dysglycemia in Acute COVID-19 Infection
David Tak Wai Lui, Chi Ho Lee, Ying Wong, Carol Ho Yi Fong, Kimberly Hang Tsoi, Yu Cho Woo, Kathryn Choon Beng Tan
Received June 5, 2023  Accepted October 13, 2023  Published online March 11, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0175    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
We evaluated changes in glycemic status, over 1 year, of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors with dysglycemia in acute COVID-19.
Methods
COVID-19 survivors who had dysglycemia (defined by glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 5.7% to 6.4% or random glucose ≥10.0 mmol/L) in acute COVID-19 were recruited from a major COVID-19 treatment center from September to October 2020. Matched non-COVID controls were recruited from community. The 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed at baseline (6 weeks after acute COVID-19) and 1 year after acute COVID-19, with HbA1c, insulin and C-peptide measurements. Progression in glycemic status was defined by progression from normoglycemia to prediabetes/diabetes, or prediabetes to diabetes.
Results
Fifty-two COVID-19 survivors were recruited. Compared with non-COVID controls, they had higher C-peptide (P< 0.001) and trend towards higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.065). Forty-three COVID-19 survivors attended 1-year reassessment. HbA1c increased from 5.5%±0.3% to 5.7%±0.2% (P<0.001), with increases in glucose on OGTT at fasting (P=0.089), 30-minute (P=0.126), 1-hour (P=0.014), and 2-hour (P=0.165). At baseline, 19 subjects had normoglycemia, 23 had prediabetes, and one had diabetes. Over 1 year, 10 subjects (23.8%; of 42 non-diabetes subjects at baseline) had progression in glycemic status. C-peptide levels remained unchanged (P=0.835). Matsuda index decreased (P=0.007) and there was a trend of body mass index increase from 24.4±2.7 kg/m2 to 25.6±5.2 (P=0.083). Subjects with progression in glycemic status had more severe COVID-19 illness than non-progressors (P=0.030). Reassessment was not performed in the control group.
Conclusion
Subjects who had dysglycemia in acute COVID-19 were characterized by insulin resistance. Over 1 year, a quarter had progression in glycemic status, especially those with more severe COVID-19. Importantly, there was no significant deterioration in insulin secretory capacity.
Drug/Regimen
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Efficacy and Safety of IDegAsp in a Real-World Korean Population with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Shinae Kang, Yu-Bae Ahn, Tae Keun Oh, Won-Young Lee, Sung Wan Chun, Boram Bae, Amine Dahaoui, Jin Sook Jeong, Sungeun Jung, Hak Chul Jang
Received August 24, 2023  Accepted November 22, 2023  Published online February 27, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0297    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigated the real-world efficacy and safety of insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whose insulin treatment was switched to IDegAsp.
Methods
This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study comprising two 26-week treatment periods, before and after switching to IDegAsp, respectively. Korean adults with uncontrolled T2DM treated with basal or premix insulin (±oral antidiabetic drugs) were enrolled. The primary objective was to compare the degree of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) change in each 26-week observation period. The analyses included changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, proportion of participants achieving HbA1c <7.0%, hypoglycemic events, and total daily insulin dose (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04656106).
Results
In total, 196 adults (mean age, 65.95 years; mean T2DM duration, 18.99 years) were analyzed. The change in both HbA1c and FPG were significantly different between the pre-switching and the post-switching period (0.28% vs. –0.51%, P<0.001; 5.21 mg/dL vs. –23.10 mg/dL, P=0.005), respectively. After switching, the rate of achieving HbA1c <7.0% was significantly improved (5.10% at baseline vs. 11.22% with IDegAsp, P=0.012). No significant differences (before vs. after switching) were observed in body weight change, and total daily insulin dose. The rates of overall and severe hypoglycemia were similar in the two periods.
Conclusion
In real-world clinical practice in Korea, the change of insulin regimen to IDegAsp was associated with an improvement in glycemic control without increase of hypoglycemia, supporting the use of IDegAsp for patients with T2DM uncontrolled with basal or premix insulin.
Basic Research
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Diabetes Promotes Myocardial Fibrosis via AMPK/EZH2/PPAR-γ Signaling Pathway
Shan-Shan Li, Lu Pan, Zhen-Ye Zhang, Meng-Dan Zhou, Xu-Fei Chen, Ling-Ling Qian, Min Dai, Juan Lu, Zhi-Ming Yu, Shipeng Dang, Ru-Xing Wang
Received February 3, 2023  Accepted November 13, 2023  Published online February 27, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0031    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis is one of the main mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy. As a common histone methyltransferase, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been implicated in fibrosis progression in multiple organs. However, the mechanism of EZH2 in diabetic myocardial fibrosis has not been clarified.
Methods
In the current study, rat and mouse diabetic model were established, the left ventricular function of rat and mouse were evaluated by echocardiography and the fibrosis of rat ventricle was evaluated by Masson staining. Primary rat ventricular fibroblasts were cultured and stimulated with high glucose (HG) in vitro. The expression of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation, EZH2, and myocardial fibrosis proteins were assayed.
Results
In STZ-induced diabetic ventricular tissues and HG-induced primary ventricular fibroblasts in vitro, H3K27 trimethylation was increased and the phosphorylation of EZH2 was reduced. Inhibition of EZH2 with GSK126 suppressed the activation, differentiation, and migration of cardiac fibroblasts as well as the overexpression of the fibrotic proteins induced by HG. Mechanical study demonstrated that HG reduced phosphorylation of EZH2 on Thr311 by inactivating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which transcriptionally inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) expression to promote the fibroblasts activation and differentiation.
Conclusion
Our data revealed an AMPK/EZH2/PPAR-γ signal pathway is involved in HG-induced cardiac fibrosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • An update on chronic complications of diabetes mellitus: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic strategies with a focus on metabolic memory
    Tongyue Yang, Feng Qi, Feng Guo, Mingwei Shao, Yi Song, Gaofei Ren, Zhao Linlin, Guijun Qin, Yanyan Zhao
    Molecular Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Farrerol Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Regulating AMPK-Mediated Cardiac Lipid Metabolic Pathways in Type 2 Diabetic Rats
    Jia Tu, Qiaoling Liu, Huirong Sun, Luzhen Gan
    Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Cardiovascular risk/Epidemiology
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Risk of Cardiovascular Disease according to Baseline Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in Different Age Groups in Korean Diabetes Population: A Cohort Study
Tae Kyung Yoo, Kyung-Do Han, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(2):265-278.   Published online February 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0443
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The association between low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in different age groups within the diabetes mellitus (DM) population remains unclear. The cohort study was conducted to investigate this relationship.
Methods
We assessed the 2009 to 2012 Korean National Health Screening and National Health Insurance Service records, with follow-up to the primary outcome (myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke) or December 2018. After excluding the participants with a history of MI or stroke, 2,227,394 participants with DM were included and categorized according to baseline LDL-C levels and age. Cox proportional hazards modeling was conducted. The CVD risk of age <40 years and LDL-C <70 mg/dL was set as the reference. In each age group, LDL-C <70 mg/dL was used as a reference for the subgroup analysis.
Results
The cut-off LDL-C value for increased MI risk in each age group varied (<40 years old, LDL-C ≥160 mg/dL: hazard ratios [HR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.644 to 2.506) (40–49-year-old, LDL-C <115 mg/dL: HR, 1.245; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.489) (50–59-year-old, LDL-C <115 mg/dL: HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.014 to 1.445) (60-69-year-old, LDL-C <145 mg/dL: HR, 1.229; 95% CI, 1.022 to 1.479) (≥70 years old group, LDL-C <100 mg/dL: HR, 1.238; 95% CI, 1.018 to 1.504). The cut-off LDL-C values for increased stroke risk varied in each age subgroup (<40 years old, LDL-C ≥160 mg/dL: HR, 1.395; 95% CI, 1.094 to 1.779) (40–49-year-old, LDL-C <145 mg/dL: HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.019 to 1.253) (50–59-year-old, LDL-C <160 mg/dL: HR, 1.079; 95% CI, 1.008 to 1.154) (60–69-year-old, LDL-C <130 mg/dL: HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.022 to 1.119) (≥70 years old, LDL-C <115 mg/dL: HR, 1.064; 95% CI, 1.019 to 1.112).
Conclusion
The effect of LDL-C on the risk of CVD differs depending on the age of the population with DM.
Review
Pathophysiology
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Dysfunctional Mitochondria Clearance in Situ: Mitophagy in Obesity and Diabetes-Associated Cardiometabolic Diseases
Songling Tang, Di Hao, Wen Ma, Lian Liu, Jiuyu Gao, Peng Yao, Haifang Yu, Lu Gan, Yu Cao
Received July 4, 2023  Accepted October 29, 2023  Published online February 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0213    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Several mitochondrial dysfunctions in obesity and diabetes include impaired mitochondrial membrane potential, excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, reduced mitochondrial DNA, increased mitochondrial Ca2+ flux, and mitochondrial dynamics disorders. Mitophagy, specialized autophagy, is responsible for clearing dysfunctional mitochondria in physiological and pathological conditions. As a paradox, inhibition and activation of mitophagy have been observed in obesity and diabetes-related heart disorders, with both exerting bidirectional effects. Suppressed mitophagy is beneficial to mitochondrial homeostasis, also known as benign mitophagy. On the contrary, in most cases, excessive mitophagy is harmful to dysfunctional mitochondria elimination and thus is defined as detrimental mitophagy. In obesity and diabetes, two classical pathways appear to regulate mitophagy, including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin-dependent mitophagy and receptors/adapters-dependent mitophagy. After the pharmacologic interventions of mitophagy, mitochondrial morphology and function have been restored, and cell viability has been further improved. Herein, we summarize the mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy alterations in obesity and diabetes, as well as the underlying upstream mechanisms, in order to provide novel therapeutic strategies for the obesity and diabetes-related heart disorders.
Original Articles
Drug/Regimen
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Pioglitazone as Add-on THERAPY in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled with Dapagliflozin and Metformin: Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Ji Hye Heo, Kyung Ah Han, Jun Hwa Hong, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eun-Gyoung Hong, Jae Myung Yu, Hye Seung Jung, Bong-Soo Cha
Received September 1, 2023  Accepted October 25, 2023  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0314    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study assessed the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with pioglitazone 15 mg add-on versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin and dapagliflozin.
Methods
In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase 3 study, patients with T2DM with an inadequate response to treatment with metformin (≥1,000 mg/day) plus dapagliflozin (10 mg/day) were randomized to receive additional pioglitazone 15 mg/day (n=125) or placebo (n=125) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels from baseline to week 24 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05101135).
Results
At week 24, the adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c level compared with placebo was significantly greater with pioglitazone treatment (–0.47%; 95% confidence interval, –0.61 to –0.33; P<0.0001). A greater proportion of patients achieved HbA1c <7% or <6.5% at week 24 with pioglitazone compared to placebo as add-on to 10 mg dapagliflozin and metformin (56.8% vs. 28% for HbA1c <7%, and 23.2% vs. 9.6% for HbA1c <6.5%; P<0.0001 for all). The addition of pioglitazone also significantly improved triglyceride, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels, while placebo did not. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between the groups, and the incidence of fluid retention-related side effects by pioglitazone was low (1.5%).
Conclusion
Triple therapy with the addition of 15 mg/day of pioglitazone to dapagliflozin plus metformin was well tolerated and produced significant improvements in HbA1c in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with dapagliflozin plus metformin.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Temporal Changes in Resting Heart Rate and Risk of Diabetes Mellitus
Mi Kyoung Son, Kyoungho Lee, Hyun-Young Park
Received August 29, 2023  Accepted November 13, 2023  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0305    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate the association between the time-varying resting heart rate (RHR) and change in RHR (∆RHR) over time and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) by sex.
Methods
We assessed 8,392 participants without DM or atrial fibrillation/flutter from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a community-based prospective cohort study that was initiated in 2001 to 2002. The participants were followed up until December 31, 2018. Updating RHR with biennial in-study re-examinations, the time-varying ∆RHR was calculated by assessing the ∆RHR at the next follow-up visit.
Results
Over a median follow-up of 12.3 years, 1,345 participants (16.2%) had DM. As compared with RHR of 60 to 69 bpm, for RHR of ≥80 bpm, the incidence of DM was significantly increased for both male and female. A drop of ≥5 bpm in ∆RHR when compared with the stable ∆RHR group (–5< ∆RHR <5 bpm) was associated significantly with lower risk of DM in both male and female. However, an increase of ≥5 bpm in ∆RHR was significantly associated with higher risk of DM only in female, not in male (hazard ratio for male, 1.057 [95% confidence interval, 0.869 to 1.285]; and for female, 1.218 [95% confidence interval, 1.008 to 1.471]).
Conclusion
In this community-based longitudinal cohort study, a reduction in ∆RHR was associated with a decreased risk of DM, while an increase in ∆RHR was associated with an increased risk of DM only in female.
Lifestyle
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Enhancing Diabetes Care through a Mobile Application: A Randomized Clinical Trial on Integrating Physical and Mental Health among Disadvantaged Individuals
Jae Hyun Bae, Eun Hee Park, Hae Kyung Lee, Kun Ho Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyun Mi Kim, Sin Gon Kim
Received August 24, 2023  Accepted October 16, 2023  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0298    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study examines integrating physical and mental healthcare for disadvantaged persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mild-to-moderate depression in the community, using a mobile application within a public-private-academic partnership.
Methods
The Korean Diabetes Association has developed a mobile application combining behavioral activation for psychological well-being and diabetes self-management, with conventional medical therapy. Participants were randomly assigned to receive the application with usual care or only usual care. Primary outcomes measured changes in psychological status and diabetes selfmanagement through questionnaires at week 12 from the baseline. Secondary outcomes assessed glycemic and lipid control, with psychological assessments at week 16.
Results
Thirty-nine of 73 participants completed the study (20 and 19 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and were included in the analysis. At week 12, the intervention group showed significant reductions in depression severity and perceived stress compared to the control group. Additionally, they reported increased perceived social support and demonstrated improved diabetes self-care behavior. These positive effects persisted through week 16, with the added benefit of reduced anxiety. While fasting glucose levels in the intervention group tended to improve, no other significant differences were observed in laboratory assessments between the groups.
Conclusion
This study provides compelling evidence for the potential efficacy of a mobile application that integrates physical and mental health components to address depressive symptoms and enhance diabetes self-management in disadvantaged individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Further research involving larger and more diverse populations is warranted to validate these findings and solidify their implications.
Review
Pathophysiology
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Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Heart Failure, Friend or Foe?
Dong-Hyuk Cho, Seong-Mi Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(3):373-384.   Published online February 2, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0190
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Heart failure (HF) management guidelines recommend individualized assessments based on HF phenotypes. Adiposity is a known risk factor for HF. Recently, there has been an increased interest in organ-specific adiposity, specifically the role of the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), in HF risk. EAT is easily assessable through various imaging modalities and is anatomically and functionally connected to the myocardium. In pathological conditions, EAT secretes inflammatory cytokines, releases excessive fatty acids, and increases mechanical load on the myocardium, resulting in myocardial remodeling. EAT plays a pathophysiological role in characterizing both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In HFrEF, EAT volume is reduced, reflecting an impaired metabolic reservoir, whereas in HFpEF, the amount of EAT is associated with worse biomarker and hemodynamic profiles, indicating increased EAT activity. Studies have examined the possibility of therapeutically targeting EAT, and recent studies using sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have shown potential in reducing EAT volume. However, further research is required to determine the clinical implications of reducing EAT activity in patients with HF.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • New Mechanisms to Prevent Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Using Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonism (GLP-1 RA) in Metabolic Syndrome and in Type 2 Diabetes: A Review
    Jorge E. Jalil, Luigi Gabrielli, María Paz Ocaranza, Paul MacNab, Rodrigo Fernández, Bruno Grassi, Paulina Jofré, Hugo Verdejo, Monica Acevedo, Samuel Cordova, Luis Sanhueza, Douglas Greig
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(8): 4407.     CrossRef
  • Association of body adiposity with left ventricular concentric remodeling and diastolic dysfunction
    In‐Jeong Cho, Sang‐Eun Lee, Wook Bum Pyun
    Echocardiography.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef

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