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Basic Research
Diabetes Promotes Myocardial Fibrosis via AMPK/EZH2/PPAR-γ Signaling Pathway
Shan-Shan Li, Lu Pan, Zhen-Ye Zhang, Meng-Dan Zhou, Xu-Fei Chen, Ling-Ling Qian, Min Dai, Juan Lu, Zhi-Ming Yu, Shipeng Dang, Ru-Xing Wang
Received February 3, 2023  Accepted November 13, 2023  Published online February 27, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0031    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis is one of the main mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy. As a common histone methyltransferase, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been implicated in fibrosis progression in multiple organs. However, the mechanism of EZH2 in diabetic myocardial fibrosis has not been clarified.
Methods
In the current study, rat and mouse diabetic model were established, the left ventricular function of rat and mouse were evaluated by echocardiography and the fibrosis of rat ventricle was evaluated by Masson staining. Primary rat ventricular fibroblasts were cultured and stimulated with high glucose (HG) in vitro. The expression of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation, EZH2, and myocardial fibrosis proteins were assayed.
Results
In STZ-induced diabetic ventricular tissues and HG-induced primary ventricular fibroblasts in vitro, H3K27 trimethylation was increased and the phosphorylation of EZH2 was reduced. Inhibition of EZH2 with GSK126 suppressed the activation, differentiation, and migration of cardiac fibroblasts as well as the overexpression of the fibrotic proteins induced by HG. Mechanical study demonstrated that HG reduced phosphorylation of EZH2 on Thr311 by inactivating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which transcriptionally inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) expression to promote the fibroblasts activation and differentiation.
Conclusion
Our data revealed an AMPK/EZH2/PPAR-γ signal pathway is involved in HG-induced cardiac fibrosis.
Complications
Therapeutic Effects of Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 on Diabetic Nephropathy and the Possible Mechanism in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Mice
Wenya Weng, Tingwen Ge, Yi Wang, Lulu He, Tinghao Liu, Wanning Wang, Zongyu Zheng, Lechu Yu, Chi Zhang, Xuemian Lu
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(4):566-580.   Published online May 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0089
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  • 12 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been only reported to prevent type 1 diabetic nephropathy (DN) in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) mouse model. However, the FVB (Cg)-Tg (Cryaa-Tag, Ins2-CALM1) 26OVE/PneJ (OVE26) transgenic mouse is a widely recommended mouse model to recapture the most important features of T1DM nephropathy that often occurs in diabetic patients. In addition, most previous studies focused on exploring the preventive effect of FGF21 on the development of DN. However, in clinic, development of therapeutic strategy has much more realistic value compared with preventive strategy since the onset time of DN is difficult to be accurately predicted. Therefore, in the present study OVE26 mice were used to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of FGF21 on DN.

Methods

Four-month-old female OVE26 mice were intraperitoneally treated with recombinant FGF21 at a dose of 100 µg/kg/day for 3 months. The diabetic and non-diabetic control mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline at the same volume. Renal functions, pathological changes, inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress and fibrosis were examined in mice of all groups.

Results

The results showed that severe renal dysfunction, morphological changes, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis were observed in OVE26 mice. However, all the renal abnormalities above in OVE26 mice were significantly attenuated by 3-month FGF21 treatment associated with improvement of renal adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression.

Conclusion

Therefore, this study demonstrated that FGF21 might exert therapeutic effects on DN through AMPK-SIRT1 pathway.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 alleviates unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced renal fibrosis by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway
    Wenhui Zhong, Yuheng Jiang, Huizhen Wang, Xiang Luo, Tao Zeng, Huimi Huang, Ling Xiao, Nan Jia, Aiqing Li
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research.2024; 1871(2): 119620.     CrossRef
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    Anton I. Korbut, Vyacheslav V. Romanov, Vadim V. Klimontov
    Biomedicines.2024; 12(3): 487.     CrossRef
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    David M. Ornitz, Nobuyuki Itoh
    WIREs Mechanisms of Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Wenxiu Qi, Cheng Hu, Daqing Zhao, Xiangyan Li
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Research Progress of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in Fibrotic Diseases
    Min-Qi Jia, Cha-Xiang Guan, Jia-Hao Tao, Yong Zhou, Liang-Jun Yan
    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease increases the risk of end-stage renal disease in patients with biopsy-confirmed diabetic nephropathy: a propensity-matched cohort study
    Yutong Zou, Lijun Zhao, Junlin Zhang, Yiting Wang, Yucheng Wu, Honghong Ren, Tingli Wang, Yuancheng Zhao, Huan Xu, Lin Li, Nanwei Tong, Fang Liu
    Acta Diabetologica.2022; 60(2): 225.     CrossRef
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    João Victor Salgado, Miguel Angelo Goes, Natalino Salgado Filho
    Metabolism.2021; 118: 154738.     CrossRef
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    Junyu Deng, Ye Liu, Yiqiu Liu, Wei Li, Xuqiang Nie
    Journal of Inflammation Research.2021; Volume 14: 5273.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic effect and mechanism of combined use of FGF21 and insulin on diabetic nephropathy
    Fanrui Meng, Yukai Cao, Mir Hassan Khoso, Kai Kang, Guiping Ren, Wei Xiao, Deshan Li
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics.2021; 713: 109063.     CrossRef
  • FGF19 and FGF21 for the Treatment of NASH—Two Sides of the Same Coin? Differential and Overlapping Effects of FGF19 and FGF21 From Mice to Human
    Emma Henriksson, Birgitte Andersen
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • FGF21: An Emerging Therapeutic Target for Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Related Metabolic Diseases
    Erik J. Tillman, Tim Rolph
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pathophysiology
Metformin Ameliorates Lipotoxic β-Cell Dysfunction through a Concentration-Dependent Dual Mechanism of Action
Hong Il Kim, Ji Seon Lee, Byung Kook Kwak, Won Min Hwang, Min Joo Kim, Young-Bum Kim, Sung Soo Chung, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(6):854-866.   Published online June 27, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0179
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  • 14 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Chronic exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Although it is well known that metformin induces cellular energy depletion and a concomitant activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through inhibition of the respiratory chain, previous studies have shown inconsistent results with regard to the action of metformin on pancreatic β-cells. We therefore examined the effects of metformin on pancreatic β-cells under lipotoxic stress.

Methods

NIT-1 cells and mouse islets were exposed to palmitate and treated with 0.05 and 0.5 mM metformin. Cell viability, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, cellular adenosine triphosphate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and Rho kinase (ROCK) activities were measured. The phosphorylation of AMPK was evaluated by Western blot analysis and mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers and NADPH oxidase (NOX) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.

Results

We found that metformin has protective effects on palmitate-induced β-cell dysfunction. Metformin at a concentration of 0.05 mM inhibits NOX and suppresses the palmitate-induced elevation of ER stress markers and ROS levels in a AMPK-independent manner, whereas 0.5 mM metformin inhibits ROCK activity and activates AMPK.

Conclusion

This study suggests that the action of metformin on β-cell lipotoxicity was implemented by different molecular pathways depending on its concentration. Metformin at a usual therapeutic dose is supposed to alleviate lipotoxic β-cell dysfunction through inhibition of oxidative stress and ER stress.

Citations

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    Diabetes.2023; 72(4): 455.     CrossRef
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    Quan Wen, Azazul Islam Chowdhury, Banu Aydin, Mudhir Shekha, Rasmus Stenlid, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(12): 3757.     CrossRef
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    Priyamvada Amol Arte, Kanchanlata Tungare, Mustansir Bhori, Renitta Jobby, Jyotirmoi Aich
    Human Cell.2023; 37(1): 54.     CrossRef
  • Metformin disrupts insulin secretion, causes proapoptotic and oxidative effects in rat pancreatic beta‐cells in vitro
    Maíra M.R. Valle, Eloisa Aparecida Vilas‐Boas, Camila F. Lucena, Simone A. Teixeira, Marcelo N. Muscara, Angelo R. Carpinelli
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    Lei Wei, Jianjian Shi
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Qingrui Zhao, Shenghan Su, Yuqing Lin, Xuebei Li, Lingfeng Dan, Yunjin Zhang, Chunxiao Yang, Xiaohan Li, Yimeng Dong, Chenchen Geng, Changhao Sun, Xia Chu, Huimin Lu
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  • Metformin Dysregulates the Unfolded Protein Response and the WNT/β-Catenin Pathway in Endometrial Cancer Cells through an AMPK-Independent Mechanism
    Domenico Conza, Paola Mirra, Gaetano Calì, Luigi Insabato, Francesca Fiory, Francesco Beguinot, Luca Ulianich
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  • NADPH Oxidase (NOX) Targeting in Diabetes: A Special Emphasis on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction
    Suma Elumalai, Udayakumar Karunakaran, Jun-Sung Moon, Kyu-Chang Won
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    Kidney Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 40(4): 660.     CrossRef
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Review
Complications
Autophagy: A Novel Therapeutic Target for Diabetic Nephropathy
Shinji Kume, Daisuke Koya
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(6):451-460.   Published online December 11, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.6.451
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  • 73 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and its occurance is increasing worldwide. The most effective treatment strategy for the condition is intensive treatment to strictly control glycemia and blood pressure using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. However, a fraction of patients still go on to reach end stage renal disease even under such intensive care. New therapeutic targets for diabetic nephropathy are, therefore, urgently needed. Autophagy is a major catabolic pathway by which mammalian cells degrade macromolecules and organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis. The accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Autophagy in the kidney is activated under some stress conditions, such as oxidative stress and hypoxia in proximal tubular cells, and occurs even under normal conditions in podocytes. These and other accumulating findings have led to a hypothesis that autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Here, we review recent findings underpinning this hypothesis and discuss the advantages of targeting autophagy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal