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Pathophysiology
Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase and Tyrosine Phosphatase-Related Islet Antigen-2 Positivity among Children and Adolescents with Diabetes in Korea
Ka Young Kim, Min Seung Kim, Yun Jeong Lee, Young Ah Lee, Seong Yong Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Jae Hyun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):948-952.   Published online March 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0332
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  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), tyrosine phosphatase-related islet antigen 2 (IA2A), insulin (INSA), and islet cells (ICA) are critical for determining the type of diabetes and management strategy in new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM), but there have been few reports of all diabetes-associated autoantibody (DAA) in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 193 patients with NODM aged 0 to 18 years who were followed at two tertiary centers in Korea (2017 to 2021). Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were 93 (48.2%) and 100 (51.8%), respectively. In T1DM patients, the DAA positivity rate was 94.6%; prevalence of GADA, IA2A, INSA, and ICA was 71.0%, 71.0%, 31.2%, and 10.8%, respectively; and IA2A added 10.7% point autoantibody positivity (83.9% for GADA+INSA+ICA and 94.6% for GADA+INSA+ICA+IA2A). Among the patients with T2DM, 12 (12.0%) were positive for DAA, and all were positive for INSA. These findings suggest that DAA at diagnosis, especially GADA and IA2A, is useful for classifying diabetes in Korean children and adolescents.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: From Its Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Practice
    Yun Kyung Cho, Chang Hee Jung
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(6): 757.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth
    Hwa Young Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
    The Ewha Medical Journal.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Yun Jeong Lee, Hye Mi Kang, Na Kyung Kim, Ju Yeon Yang, Jung Hyun Noh, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Dong-Jun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(2):150-157.   Published online April 18, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.2.150
  • 4,150 View
  • 35 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

A total of 226 older (age ≥65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI.

Results

The prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (≥74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003), educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001), and systolic blood pressure (≥135 mm Hg vs. ≤120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012) were associated with MCI.

Conclusion

More concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prediction model for mild cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes using the autonomic function test
    Heeyoung Kang, Juhyeon Kim, Minkyeong Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Gu Seob Roh, Soo Kyoung Kim
    Neurological Sciences.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cognitive screening among older adults with diabetes across diverse clinic settings
    Deepashree Gupta, Holly Wilhalme, Gabriela Sauder, Tannaz Moin
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 196: 110184.     CrossRef
  • Occurrence of mild cognitive impairment with hyperinsulinaemia in Africans with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus
    J. Bashir, I.U. Yarube
    IBRO Neuroscience Reports.2022; 12: 182.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors for cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Brazil: a prospective observational study
    Ana Cristina Ravazzani de Almeida Faria, Joceline Franco Dall’Agnol, Aline Maciel Gouveia, Clara Inácio de Paiva, Victoria Chechetto Segalla, Cristina Pellegrino Baena
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The TELE-DD project on treatment nonadherence in the population with type 2 diabetes and comorbid depression
    Juan Francisco Roy, María Luisa Lozano del Hoyo, Fernando Urcola-Pardo, Alicia Monreal-Bartolomé, Diana Cecilia Gracia Ruiz, María Mercedes Gómez Borao, Ana Belén Artigas Alcázar, José Pedro Martínez Casbas, Alexandra Aceituno Casas, María Teresa Andaluz
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential roles of Glucagon-like peptide-1 and its analogues in cognitive impairment associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Zi-Wei Yu, Rong Liu, Xin Li, Ying Wang, Yu-Hong Fu, Hui-Yao Li, Yue Yuan, Xin-Yuan Gao
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development.2020; 190: 111294.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Quality of Life among Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment Attending Urban Primary Care Clinics
    Alexander Lourdes Samy, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman, Saroja Krishnaswamy, Wah-Yun Low
    Clinical Gerontologist.2020; 43(4): 441.     CrossRef
  • Influence of the Mediterranean and Ketogenic Diets on Cognitive Status and Decline: A Narrative Review
    Federica Vinciguerra, Marco Graziano, Maria Hagnäs, Lucia Frittitta, Andrea Tumminia
    Nutrients.2020; 12(4): 1019.     CrossRef
  • ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHANGES IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS AND METABOLIC DISORDERS IN WOMEN WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION, OBESITY AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION
    N. M. Kyrychenko
    Bulletin of Problems Biology and Medicine.2020; 4(2): 102.     CrossRef
  • Insulin resistance is a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment in elderly adults with T2DM
    Hongjun Zhao, Chenglong Wu, Xiaoping Zhang, Liping Wang, Jianhong Sun, Fuyuan Zhuge
    Open Life Sciences.2019; 14(1): 255.     CrossRef
  • Oral diabetes medication and risk of dementia in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes
    Ju Young Kim, Young Sook Ku, Hyun Jeong Kim, Nga Thi Trinh, Woorim Kim, Bomi Jeong, Tae Young Heo, Myung Koo Lee, Kyung Eun Lee
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2019; 154: 116.     CrossRef
  • Biomarkers for cognitive decline in patients with diabetes mellitus: evidence from clinical studies
    Xue Zhao, Qing Han, You Lv, Lin Sun, Xiaokun Gang, Guixia Wang
    Oncotarget.2018; 9(7): 7710.     CrossRef
  • Low education and lack of spousal relationship are associated with dementia in older adults with diabetes mellitus in Nigeria
    Abdulkareem J. Yusuf, Olusegun Baiyewu, Adamu G. Bakari, Sani B. Garko, Mohammed E.‐B. Jibril, Aishatu M. Suleiman, Haruna M. Muktar, Micheal A. Amedu
    Psychogeriatrics.2018; 18(3): 216.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and risk factors of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving care in a reference hospital in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study
    Zainab I. Abba, Yannick Mboue-Djieka, Yacouba N. Mapoure, Cyrille Nkouonlack, Henry N. Luma, Simeon-Pierre Choukem
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2018; 38(2): 158.     CrossRef
  • Cognitive impairment among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia
    Dagnew Baye, Desalegn Wolide Amare, Mossie Andualem
    Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology.2017; 9(11): 300.     CrossRef
  • Association of metabolic syndrome and 25‐hydroxyvitamin D with cognitive impairment among elderly Koreans
    Eun Young Lee, Su Jin Lee, Kyoung Min Kim, Young Mi Yun, Bo Mi Song, Jong Eun Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yumie Rhee, Yoosik Youm, Chang Oh Kim
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International.2017; 17(7): 1069.     CrossRef
  • Serum uric acid and impaired cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly in Beijing
    Shuangling Xiu, Zheng Zheng, Shaochen Guan, Jin Zhang, Jinghong Ma, Piu Chan
    Neuroscience Letters.2017; 637: 182.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of relationship on excess arsenic intake from drinking water and cognitive impairment in adults and elders in arsenicosis areas
    Jiayong Liu, Yanhui Gao, Hongxu Liu, Jing Sun, Yang Liu, Junhua Wu, Dandan Li, Dianjun Sun
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.2017; 220(2): 424.     CrossRef
  • An Update on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as a Risk Factor for Dementia
    Wei Li, Edgar Huang
    Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.2016; 53(2): 393.     CrossRef
  • Current status of managing diabetes mellitus in Korea
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2016; 31(5): 845.     CrossRef
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with brain atrophy and hypometabolism in the ADNI cohort
    Wei Li, Shannon L. Risacher, Edgar Huang, Andrew J. Saykin
    Neurology.2016; 87(6): 595.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes
    Insa Feinkohl, Markéta Keller, Christine M. Robertson, Joanne R. Morling, Stela McLachlan, Brian M. Frier, Ian J. Deary, Mark W. J. Strachan, Jackie F. Price
    Diabetologia.2015; 58(7): 1637.     CrossRef
  • Association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2; a study protocol
    Eduardo De la Cruz-Cano, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate, Emilio Reyes-Ramos, Thelma Beatriz Gonzalez-Castro, Isela Juarez-Castro, Maria Lilia López-Narváez, Ana Fresan
    F1000Research.2015; 4: 7.     CrossRef
The Association of Self-Reported Coronary Heart Disease with Diabetes Duration in Korea
Hye Mi Kang, Yun Jeong Lee, Dong-Jun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(5):350-356.   Published online October 18, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.5.350
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study aimed to investigate the association of diabetes duration with self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) in Korea.

Methods

Among data from 34,145 persons compiled in the third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005, laboratory test and nutritional survey data from 5,531 persons were examined. The participants were asked to recall a physician's diagnosis of CHD (angina or myocardial infarction).

Results

Age- and sex-adjusted relative risk for CHD was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 3.59; not significant) for diabetes with duration of <1 year, 2.27 (95% CI, 1.14 to 4.54; P=0.020) for diabetes with a duration of 1 to 5 years, and 3.29 (95% CI, 1.78 to 6.08; P<0.001) for diabetes with a duration >5 years, compared with non-diabetes as a control. Even after adjusting for age, sex, current smoking status, waist circumference, hypertension, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, relative risk for CHD was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.01 to 8.11; P=0.047) in diabetes with a duration of 6 to 10 years and 4.07 (95% CI, 1.73 to 9.63; P=0.001) in diabetes with duration of >10 years with non-diabetes as a control.

Conclusion

CHD prevalence increased with an increase in diabetes duration in Korean men and women. Recently detected diabetes (duration <1 year) was not significantly associated with CHD prevalence compared to non-diabetes. However, diabetes of a duration of >5 years was associated with an increase in CHD compared to non-diabetics after adjusting for several CHD risk factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predictive nomogram for coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Shucai Xiao, Youzheng Dong, Bin Huang, Xinghua Jiang
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels predict cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 10-year prospective cohort study
    Tae-Seok Lim, Jae-Seung Yun, Seon-Ah Cha, Ki-Ho Song, Ki-Dong Yoo, Yu-Bae Ahn, Yong-Moon Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2016; 31(6): 1110.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Marker of Platelet Hyperreactivity in Diabetes Mellitus
    Jin Hwa Kim, Hak Yeon Bae, Sang Yong Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(6): 423.     CrossRef
Clinical Trial
The Effect of Cellular Phone-Based Telemedicine on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Insulin Therapy.
Yun Jeong Lee, Mi Hyun Jeong, Joo Hyung Kim, Juri Park, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):232-240.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.232
  • 2,235 View
  • 22 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cellular phones are extremely prevalent in modern society and they enable appropriate feedback mechanisms through real time monitoring and short message services regarding blood glucose levels. We investigated whether cellular phone-based telemedicine support system could improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients who were in inadequate glycemic control regardless of insulin therapy. METHODS: A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted involving 74 type 2 diabetic patients with suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c levels > 7%) regardless of insulin therapy. The intervention (cellular phone-based telemedicine) group managed their blood glucose using a cellular phone for 3 months, while the control (self monitoring of blood glucose) group managed their blood glucose with a standard glucometer for the same period. RESULTS: Three months later, HbA1c levels were decreased in both groups. However, the decrease in the control group from 8.37% to 8.20% was only 0.20% (P = 0.152) which was not significant. In contrast, the intervention group had a significant reduction of 0.61% from 8.77% to 8.16% (P < 0.001). Moreover, among patients with a baseline > or = 8%, the patients in the intervention group showed a significant reduction of 0.81% from 9.16% to 8.34% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HbA1c levels were significantly decreased in the cellular phone-based telemedicine group compared with the control group after 3 months. This study suggests that cellular phone-based telemedicine is helpful for better glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients who previously were unable to control glucose levels adequately with insulin therapy.

Citations

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  • A Survey on Ubiquitous Healthcare Service Demand among Diabetic Patients
    Soo Lim, So-Youn Kim, Jung Im Kim, Min Kyung Kwon, Sei Jin Min, Soo Young Yoo, Seon Mee Kang, Hong Il Kim, Hye Seung Jung, Kyong Soo Park, Jun Oh Ryu, Hayley Shin, Hak Chul Jang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(1): 50.     CrossRef
Original Article
Effects of Comprehensive Support on Glycemic Control Using Community Networks in Low- Income Elderly Patients with Diabetes.
Nam Hoon Kim, Yun Jeong Lee, Hye Ok Kim, Cho Rong Oh, Ju Ri Park, Soo Yoen Park, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Sin Gon Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(5):453-461.   Published online October 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.5.453
  • 2,357 View
  • 29 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes is common among elderly, and low-income is associated with poor adherence to treatment and increased mortality. We evaluated whether comprehensive support using community networks improves glycemic control among low-income elderly patients with diabetes. METHODS: A total of 49 low-income elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, mean age 73 years, were enrolled. For 1 year, study subjects underwent various lifestyle modification programs provided by community networks. The biochemical data including glycemic markers and anthropometric data were obtained at the baseline and at the end of the study. Also, the patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their quality of life, self-confidence and self-care behavior. RESULTS: After lifestyle modification program, overall changes of fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, and other biochemical markers were not significantly different. In a subgroup analysis of 21 patients with poorly controlled diabetes (fasting glucose > 140 mg/dL or HbA1c > 7.5%), fasting plasma glucose was significantly reduced (P = 0.030). Among patients with baseline HbA1c level > or = 8%, HbA1c levels after intervention decreased from 9.33 +/- 1.07% to 8.27 +/- 1.15% (P = 0.092). The results of the questionnaires revealed significant increases in the scores of quality of life, self-confidence and self-care behavior (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among low-income, elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, lifestyle modification through community networks showed no significant changes in glycemic control markers. More intensive and precise interventions using community networks are needed for the glycemic control of low-income, elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

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  • The Effects of a Health Mentoring Program in Community-dwelling Vulnerable Elderly Individuals with Diabetes
    Ki wol Sung, Hye Seung Kang, Ji Ran Nam, Mi Kyung Park, Ji Hyeon Park
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2018; 48(2): 182.     CrossRef
  • Development of a scale to measure diabetes self‐management behaviors among older Koreans with type 2 diabetes, based on the seven domains identified by the American Association of Diabetes Educators
    Kyoungsan Seo, Misoon Song, Suyoung Choi, Se‐an Kim, Sun Ju Chang
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science.2017; 14(2): 161.     CrossRef
  • Current Status and Effects of Dining with Diabetes in Korea and Abroad
    Seung Hye Yang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2017; 18(2): 117.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Management through Care Communities
    Kyeong Ok Yun
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(4): 271.     CrossRef
  • Understanding Psycho-Social Aspects and Social Welfare Information of Low-Income Diabetes Patients
    Been Yoo
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2015; 16(3): 212.     CrossRef
  • Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus With Pancreatic Cancer Manifested as Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State
    Tae Hyung Kwon, Min Seong Kim, Jun Ho Jeon, Dong Il Jeong, Sang Seok Yun, Yong Kyu Lee
    Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society.2013; 17(2): 95.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Comprehensive Self-Management Program Promoting Self Efficacy for Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Ju-Young Park, Il-Sun Ko
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2012; 19(1): 74.     CrossRef
Randomized Controlled Trial
Effects of Telmisartan Compared with Valsartan on Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.
Soo Yeon Park, Sin Gon Kim, Juri Park, Yun Jeong Lee, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):236-242.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2006.32.3.236
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Telmisartan, used for the treatment of hypertension, has been shown to function as a partial agonist of peroxime proliferative activated receptor-nu (PPAR-nu). Theoretically, telmisartan which simultaneously blocks the angiotensin II receptor and activates PPAR-nu should be more effective in improving atherosclerotic surrogate markers than angiotensin II receptor blockers alone. Therefore, this pilot study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of telmisartan and valsartan on plasma adiponectin levels and pulse wave velocity as a marker of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty two patients with type 2 diabetes (mean duration 7.6 +/- 5.1 years) taking oral hypoglycemic agents were randomly assigned to receive telmisartan or valsartan for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Telmisartan and valsartan treatment significantly increased circulating adiponectin levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.013, respectively) and reduced systolic (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), and brachial-ankle PWV (P = 0.019 and P = 0.002, respectively), without significant differences between the two treatments. Before and after treatment, the fasting plasma glucose, interleukin-6, homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMAIR) levels and lipid profile were unchanged in both treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our expectation, telmisartan, even with its partial PPAR-nu activity, is not superior to valsartan in improving plasma adipocytokine levels and arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that the partial PPAR-nu activity of telmisartan beyond valsartan may have less significant therapeutic implications than expected in treating patients with type 2 diabetes.
Original Articles
The Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetic Patients.
Jick Hwa Nam, Soon Hee Lee, Hyun Jeong Lee, Jeung Hun Han, Jung Guk Kim, Sung Woo Ha, Bo Wan Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(5):702-714.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The chronic complications of diabetes mellitus are important prognostic factors of diabetics. The pathogenic mechanisms have not been known exactly and the prevalence is different according to the race and the reporter. In general, the development of diabetic microangiopathy depends on the duration and the severity of disease, while that of macroangiopathy does not. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of diabetic chronic complications according to age and duration of diabetes and to elucidate associated factors and correlation of chronic complications. METHODS: We studied 1,270 patients with non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who visited the Endocrine-metabolism clinic at Kyungpook National University during the period from February 1992 to September 1996. We investigated prevalence, severity, associated factors and correlation of chronic vascular complications, including micro- and macroangiopathy. RESULT: 1) The ratio of male to female was similar and the average duration was 7.8 years. Diabetes mellitus was most prevalent in the 6th decade and the 1-5 years of diabetes duration. 2) The prevalences of retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral polyneuropathy were 47.8%, 31.9% and 41.0%, respectively. Macrovascular complications were found in 6.2% of patients and the prevalences of coronary artery disease, cerebrovas-cular disease and peripheral artery disease were 2.4%, 3.4%, 0.4%, respectively. Prevalence of diabetic foot was 4.4%. 3) The prevalence and severity of microvascular complications increased as the age and diabetic duration of patients increased. In the group of same age, the prevalence of microvascular complications increased as the duration of diabetes increased. However, prevalence of macrovascular complica-tions especially coronary artery disease depended on the age, but not the duration of diabetes (p<0.05). 4) In the group over 10 years of diabetes, the fasting blood glucose, age and serum creatinine levels were increased, while hemoglobin and total protein levels were decreased than other groups (p<0.05). 5) The development of diabetic retinopathy was related to the duration, fasting blood glucose, albumine excretion rate and serum creatinine. The nephropathy was related to the duration and systolic blood pressure. The peripheral polyneuropathy was related to the duration, fasting blood glucose and body mass index. Macrovascular complications-particularly, coronary artery disease-were related to the age of diabeties (p<0.05). 6) There was significant relation between development of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy but no relation between development of micro and macrovascular complications (p<0.05). CONCLUSION : The prevalence of microvascular complications in non-insulin dependent diabetics increased as the duration and the age of diabetics increased. The development of microvascular complications was related to the duration of disease and the glycemic control. There was relation between development of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. The development of macrovascular complications, however, was related to the age of diabetics but not to the microvascular complications. Our results suggest that different pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in the development of micro- and macrovaseular complications of diabetes mellitus.
Clinical Manifestation and Prognostic Factors in Nonketotic Hyperosmolar Coma.
Bo Wan Kim, Jung Guk Kim, Sung Woo Ha, Hyun Jeong Lee, Jeung Hun Han, Sang Won Jung, Jick Hwa Nam, Si Hyung Park, Soon Hee Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(4):575-584.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma is usually a complication of non-insuli#n dependent diabetes and a syndrome of profound dehydration, hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity. Therefore the patients present a progressive mental change. We evaluated the clinical manifestations of nonketotic hyperosmolar coma to assess the correlation between initial clinical manifestations and responses to treatment in patients with nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. METHODS: We studied 31 patients who had experienced proven nonketotic hyperosmolar coma at Kyungpook National University Hospital from March 1987 to February 1998. We divided nonketotic hyperosmolar coma patients into two groups, tbe complete recovery group and the incomplete recovery group, and compared clinical features and laboratory findings between these two groups. RESULTS: l) A total of 31 patients were studied. Eighteen patients were in the complete recovery group and thirteen patients were in the incomplete recovery group. 2) Mean age was 63.1+10.1 years old, initial blood glucose was 781.8+314.3 mg/dL, effective osmolarity was 342.6+34.9 mosm/L, arterial pH was 7.34. Serum creatinine level was 241.7+130.0 uol/L and BUN was 23.1+12.5 mmol/L. 3) Among clinical features of both groups (complete recovery and incomplete recovery groups), initial systolic blood pressure was 131.4+26.1 mmHg and 104.1+28.6 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 90.6+16.5 mmHg and 63.2+17.4 mmHg, and mean arterial blood pressure was 104.2 +18.2 mmHg and 76.8+19.7 mmHg. They revealed a significant difference statistically. 4) Arterial blood pH was 7.40 and 7.25, BUN was 18.4+11.7 mmol/L and 29.5+11.1mmol/L, and WBC count was 13850+4122/ mm and 19823+ 5946/mm. They revealed a significant difference statistically. 5) We also analyzed the significant factors together using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The only significant independent factor responsible for prognosis of nonketotic hyperosmolar coma was initial mean arterial blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma occurred more frequently in patients who were older and had abnormal renal function. The prognosis of patients was related with mean arterial blood pressure independently. Mean arterial blood pressure thought to be related to intravascular volume and arterial hypotension seems to reflect dehydration state. In conclusion, prevention and rapid correction of hypotension due to dehydration in older diabetics is the most important treatment to improve the prognosis.
Relationship between Peripheral Neuropathy and Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetics.
Sung Woo Ha, Hyun Jeong Lee, Jeung Hun Han, Sang Won Jung, Jick Hwa Nam, Byoung Ho Sin, Seong Mo Koo, Jung Guk Kim, Sam Kwon, Bo Wan Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(4):476-483.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Autonomic neuropathy was detected in some diabetics with symmetric peripheral neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes mellitus that may be associated with considerable morbidity. There has been known to be similarity of pathogenic mechanism in two neuropathies. Then we examined nerve conduction velocity and cardiovascular autonomic function tests. We studied relationship between peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in non-insulin dependent diabetics. METHODS: We studied 166 patients with or witbout peripheral neuropathy who had been diagnosed as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. We examined nerve conduction tests to assess diabetic peripheral neuropathy and classified them into 4 groups aecording to neuropathic symptoms and results of nerve conduction tests. We examined five cardiovascular autonomic function tests by Ewing's methods. RESULTS: 1. The duration of diabetes mellitus was significantly longer in the group of cliabetics with neuropathic symptoms and abnormal findings in the nerve conduction velocity tests than the other groups. The level of blood glucose was significantly higher in the group of diabetics with neuropathic symptoms and findings than the other groups. 2. In the 5 cardiovascular autonomic function tests, heart rate response to deep breathing and Valsalva maneuver had significant differences between the diabetic group with peripheral neuropathy and the other groups. 3. The frequency and severity of autonomic neuropathy were higher in the group with peripheral neuro-pathic symptoms and findings than the other groups without neuropathic syrnptoms and findings. There was an overall significant relationship between sensorirnotor neural function and autonomic function. 4. There was no association between peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy although peripheral neuropathy was related with retinopathy. CONCLUSION: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy accompanies autonomic neuropathy. Then, this result suggests that there is the relationship between peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal