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Original Articles
Is A1C Variability an Independent Predictor for the Progression of Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients?
Chul Sik Kim, So Young Park, Sung Hoon Yu, Jun Goo Kang, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo-Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(3):174-181.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.3.174
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  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Little is known about the relative contribution of long-term glycemic variability to the risk of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of A1C variability on the progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods

Among type 2 diabetic patients who visited Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from March 2007 to September 2009, 120 patients who had carotid artery IMT measured annually and A1C checked every three months for at least one year were analyzed. Individual A1C variability was defined as the standard deviation (SD) of five A1C levels taken every three months for approximately one year. Change in IMT was defined as an increase in IMT on follow-up measurement. The association between the SD of A1C and changes in IMT was evaluated.

Results

With greater A1C variability, there was a greater increase in the mean IMT (r = 0.350, P < 0.001) of the carotid artery. After adjusting for confounding factors that may influence IMT, A1C variability was significantly associated with the progression of IMT (r = 0.222, P = 0.034). However, the SD of A1C was not a significant independent risk factor for the progression of IMT in multiple regression analysis (β = 0.158, P = 0.093).

Conclusion

Higher A1C variability is associated with IMT progression in type 2 diabetic patients; however, it is not an independent predictor of IMT progression. Overall glycemic control is the most important factor in the progression of IMT.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Long-Term Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients According to Average and Visit-to-Visit Variations of HbA1c Levels During the First 3 Years of Diabetes Diagnosis
    Hyunah Kim, Da Young Jung, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Hyeon Woo Yim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Long-Term Visit-to-Visit Hemoglobin A1c and Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes: The ACCORD Trial
    Dan Huang, Yong-Quan Huang, Qun-Ying Zhang, Yan Cui, Tian-Yi Mu, Yin Huang
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Longitudinal Values of Glycated Hemoglobin With Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease
    Paulo Cury Rezende, Mark Andrew Hlatky, Whady Hueb, Rosa Maria Rahmi Garcia, Luciano da Silva Selistre, Eduardo Gomes Lima, Cibele Larrosa Garzillo, Thiago Luis Scudeler, Gustavo Andre Boeing Boros, Fernando Faglioni Ribas, Carlos Vicente Serrano, Jose An
    JAMA Network Open.2020; 3(1): e1919666.     CrossRef
  • Haemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in Chinese type 2 diabetes
    Yifei Mo, Jian Zhou, Xiaojing Ma, Wei Zhu, Lei Zhang, Jie Li, Jingyi Lu, Cheng Hu, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
    Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research.2018; 15(5): 402.     CrossRef
  • Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes: a Danish population-based prospective observational study
    Mette V Skriver, Annelli Sandbæk, Jette K Kristensen, Henrik Støvring
    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2015; 3(1): e000060.     CrossRef
  • Association between hemoglobin A1c variability and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes
    Hae Kyung Yang, Borami Kang, Seung-Hwan Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Byung-Hee Hwang, Kiyuk Chang, Kyungdo Han, Gunseog Kang, Jae Hyoung Cho
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2015; 29(6): 776.     CrossRef
  • Glycated hemoglobin as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiac remodeling among non-diabetic adults from the general population
    Robin Haring, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Wolfgang Lieb, Bettina von Sarnowski, Henry Völzke, Stephan B. Felix, Matthias Nauck, Henri Wallaschofski
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2014; 105(3): 416.     CrossRef
  • HbA1c Variability and Micro- and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes
    Hae Kyung Yang, Seung-Hwan Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2014; 15(4): 202.     CrossRef
  • HbA1c variability and the development of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes: Tsukuba Kawai Diabetes Registry 2
    A. Sugawara, K. Kawai, S. Motohashi, K. Saito, S. Kodama, Y. Yachi, R. Hirasawa, H. Shimano, K. Yamazaki, H. Sone
    Diabetologia.2012; 55(8): 2128.     CrossRef
Effect of Valsartan on Blood Pressure and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetic Patients: An Open-Label, Multicenter Study.
Se Jun Park, Dae Jung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Yeon Park, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Hak Chul Jang, Seung Hyun Ko, Ki Ho Song, Yu Bae Ahn, Soo Kyoung Kim, Yong Wook Cho, Jun Goo Kang, Sung Hee Ihm, Cheol Young Park, Sung Woo Park, Dong Hyun Shin, Yong Hyun Kim, Kwan Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(6):513-521.   Published online December 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.6.513
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been an important mechanism of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. It has been reported that RAS blockades reduce the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduced blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. METHOD: Three hundred forty-seven hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients who had not taken angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or ARB for 6 months prior to this study were enrolled. We measured blood pressure and UAER before and after 24 weeks of valsartan treatment. RESULT: Baseline mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 143 +/- 15 and 87 +/- 11 mmHg, respectively and the median albumin excretion rate was 27 ug/mg. Reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 16 mmHg/10 mmHg and the median UAER was 19.3 ug/mg after 24 weeks (P < 0.01, respectively). When we divided the subjects into three groups according to the UAER (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria), significant changes were reported in the microalbuminuria and the macroalbuminuria groups. Thirty-eight (42%) patients with microalbuminuria improved to normoalbuminuria and twelve (41%) patients with macroalbuminuria improved to microalbuminuria. We found an association between the improvement of blood pressure and UAER (R = 0.165, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: We concluded that valsartan reduces urinary albumin excretion and blood pressure in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients.
Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Risk Factors of Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Hong Ju Moon, Jun Goo Kang, Min Ho Jo, Byung Wan Lee, Cheol Young Park, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Kyung Hong, Jae Myoung Yu, Doo Man Kim, Sung Hee Ihm, Hyun Kyu Kim, Chong Yun Rhim, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):435-441.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.435
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is equivalent as well a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the effects of DM on clinical risk factors of acute coronary syndrome by comparing DM group with Non-DM group. METHODS: A total of 847 (514 males and 333 females) patients with acute coronary syndrome was selected from 1664 patients who had undergone coronary angiography (CAG). These patients comprised 105 subjects with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI), 313 with ST elevation MI and 429 with unstable angina. According to the presence of DM, we retrospectively reviewed the measured basic demographics, biochemical markers and coronary angiographic findings. RESULTS: In the multivariated analysis, history of hypertension (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) level (P = 0.001) and triglyceride level (P = 0.018) were independent risk factors in type 2 diabetic group. Also the frequency of multiple coronary vessel disease was higher in DM group than non-DM group on the coronary angiographic finding CONCLUSIONS: Classic risk factors for acute coronary syndrome are strong predictors in patients with type 2 DM. Among these factors, the most important powerful risk factor is history of hypertension.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gender-Based Differences in the Management and Prognosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Korea
    Hee Tae Yu, Kwang Joon Kim, Woo-Dae Bang, Chang-Myung Oh, Ji-Yong Jang, Sung-Soo Cho, Jung-Sun Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Donghoon Choi, Myeong-Ki Hong, Yangsoo Jang
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2011; 52(4): 562.     CrossRef
The Relationship Between the C1818T Polymorphism in Exon 4 of the klotho Gene with Fasting Glucose and Insulin Levels in Korean Women.
Ki Won Oh, Eun Joo Yun, Eun Jung Rhee, Won Young Lee, Ki Hyun Baek, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Seong Gyun Kim, Cheol Young Park, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(3):189-197.   Published online May 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A novel gene, termed klotho has been identified as a suppressor of several aging phenotypes, and a genetic defect of klotho in mice resulted in a syndrome resembling human aging, i.e., a short lifespan, infertility, arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis, and pulmonary emphysema. Since klotho mice also showed an abnormal glucose metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the C1818T polymorphism in exon 4 of the klotho gene and fasting glucose and insulin resistance in Korean women to observe its contribution to glucose metabolism. METHODS: The weight, height, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured in 241 women(mean age, 51.2+/-7.0yr) by using the standard methods. Homeostasis model assessment(HOMA)-insulin resistance(IR), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index(QUICKI) and HOMAbeta-cell were calculated. The genotyping of the C1818T polymorphism in exon 4 of the klotho gene was performed by allelic discrimination with using a 5' nuclease polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The allele frequencies were 0.805 for the C allele and 0.195 for the T allele, and they were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(P=0.290). The mean fasting blood glucose(P= 0.005) and HOMA IR(P=0.035) were significantly higher in the T allele carriers compared with the non-carriers. After adjustment was made for age, fasting blood glucose was persistently significant(P=0.015), but the HOMA-IR became marginally significant(P=0.063). In the premenopausal women, the T allele carriers showed a higher mean fasting blood glucose(P=0.038), insulin(P=0.024), HOMA-IR(P=0.010), total cholesterol(P=0.039), and triglyceride levels(P=0.031) than in the non-carriers. After adjustment was made for age, the fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and triglyceride were persistently significant(P= 0.043, P=0.026, P=0.011, P=0.040). Also, the QUICKI, total cholesterol and low-density ilpo-protein cholesterol became marginally significant(P=0.073, P=0.061, P=0.098). For the postmenopausal women, the T allele carriers showed a tendency for higher mean fasting blood glucose levels(P=0.065) and lower HOMA beta-cell levels(P=0.085) than in the noncarriers. These differences became non-significant after adjustment was made for age. CONCLUSION: We observed that the C1818T polymorphism in exon 4 of the klotho gene was partly associated with glucose metabolism in Korean women. Also, these data suggest that the C1818T polymorphism is related with some cardiovascular risk factors in Korean women. The mechanism linking this gene with glucose metabolism warrants further study
Review
Clinical Pancreatic Islet Allotransplantation.
Sung Hee Ihm
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(6):459-467.   Published online December 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Articles
Effect of Glucose Concentrations on the Cell Proliferation and Expression of L-type Calcium Channel mRNA in Cultured Rat Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Young Jung Cho, Hyung Joon Yoo, Hong Woo Nam, Ji Young Suh, In Kyung Jeong, Sung Hee Ihm, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Cheol Young Park, Jae Myung Yoo, Doo Man Kim, Moon Gi Choi, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(3):253-259.   Published online June 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is one of the major pathogenic mechanisms for atherosclerosis. It is known that L-type calcium channels play a role in VSMC proliferation in diabetic rats. However, there have been no studies that show an association between the L-type calcium channels and the VSMC proliferation due to various glucose concentrations in the culture media. Therefore, the association between the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels of the VSMCs, and the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, was examined. METHODS: Rat aortic VSMCs were isolated from the aorta of Sprague-Dawley and OLETF rats, using an enzymic method. The VSMCs were cultured in various concentrations of glucose (5.5, 11.0, 16.6, 25, 30 and 40 mM). The VSMCs (1x10(4) cells in 24-well plates) were incubated in the presence of Bay K 8644 (10(-6)M), both with and without verapamil (10(-6)M), for 48 hours. The proliferation was then assessed by the MTT (methylthiazole tetrazolium) assay, and the expression of L-type calcium channel mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation was significantly increased, in a dose-dependent manner, with glucose concentrations below 25 mM in both in a dose-dependent manner, with glucose concentrations below 25 mM in both kinds of rat. However, the increase in the VSMC proliferation of the OLETF rat was significantly higher than in the Sprague-Dawley rat. After the Bay K 8644 treatment, with the same glucose concentration, the VSMC proliferation and the expression of L-type calcium channel mRNA were significantly increased in both kinds of rat. After treatment with verapamil, the increased VSMC proliferation and expression of L-type calcium channel mRNA, due to the Bay K 8644, were suppressed to control levels in both kinds of rat. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that below certain concentrations of glucose, 25 mM, the L-type calcium channels may play a role in the VSMC proliferation of OLETF and Sprague-Dawley rats. The growth of the VSMCs in OLETF rats, due to various glucose concentrations (< 25 mM), was significantly higher than in the Sprague-Dawley rats.
Effect of Advanced Glycation End Products on Rat Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Jin Young Song, Sung Hee Ihm, Ji Young Suh, Young Joong Cho, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Ja Hei Ihm
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(2):91-99.   Published online April 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus is an epidemiologically proven risk factor for atherosclerosis. Advanced glycation end products (AGE) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diabetic vascular complications. AGE not only change the physicochemical properties of proteins, but also induce a wide range of cell-mediated responses. However, biological effects of AGE on the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have not been fully explained despite of presence of an AGE-receptor on the VSMCs. METHODS: In order to test whether AGE promotes atherosclerosis by stimulation of the growth promoting signal transduction pathways in the VSMCs, the proliferation of rat aortic VSMCs cultured in the presence of AGE-BSA with/without anti-AGE antibodies, the MAP kinase inhibitor and antioxidants was measured. The VSMCs (1 x 104 cells in 24-well plates) isolated from the aorta of Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated for 48 hours and the proliferation was assessed by a MTT assay. RESULTS: AGE-BSA increased the proliferation of rat aortic VSMCs by 1.5~1.6 fold at the g/mL level. The stimulatory effect of AGE-BSA (5 microgram/mL) was blocked by the anti-AGE antibodies (100 microgram/mL). PD98059 at 50 M inhibited the AGE - BSA - induced VSMC proliferation, suggesting that MAP kinase activation might be responsible for the proliferative response of the VSMCs to AGE. AGE - BSA - induced VSMC proliferation was also attenuated by N-acetylcysteine (1 micro M) and butylated hydroxyanisole (10 micro M), implying that increased intracellular oxidative stress might be also involved in the proliferative response to AGE. CONCLUSION: These results suggest AGE play a role in diabetic atherosclerosis by stimulating of the growth promoting signal transduction pathways in the VSMCs.
Effect of Red Ginseng Extract on Lipid Peroxidation in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.
Hee Jong Jin, Sung Hee Ihm, Ja Hei Ihm
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(5):374-383.   Published online October 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus is postulated to be associated with increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation which may contribute to vascular complications. Recently ginseng (Panax) has been shown to have an antioxidant effect by enhancing nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells and by directly scavenging hydroxyl radicals. It is unknown whether ginseng might act as an antioxidant against lipid peroxidation in diabetes. METHODS: We studied the in vitro effect of red ginseng extract on lipid peroxidation employing phospholipid liposome and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as a model system. To investigate the in vivo effect on lipid peroxidation in diabetes, we administered red ginseng extract (1 g/L in drinking water) to streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats for 12 weeks and measured lipid peroxidation products in plasma, liver, kidneys and heart. RESULTS: The Fe(3+)- or Cu(2+)- mediated lipid peroxidation in phospholipid liposome and LDL, measured by the concentration of TBARS, was inhibited in the presence of red ginseng extract. MDA level in plasma measured by HPLC was higher in STZ-induced diabetic rats than in control rats. Plasma MDA level was lower by 41% in red ginseng-treated diabetic rats than in untreated diabetic rats. Tissue MDA levels measured by TBA method in liver, kidneys and heart were higher in STZ-induced diabetic rats than in control rats. In red ginseng-treated diabetic rats tissue MDA levels were lower by 14~30% than in untreated diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: We observed that red ginseng extract has an effect in inhibiting lipid peroxidation both in vitro and in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that red ginseng might have a beneficial effect in diabetes as an antioxidant against lipid peroxidation and diabetic vascular complications.
Case Report
Two Cases of Hyperamylasemia not Aassociated with Acute Pancreatits in Non-ketotic Hyperosmolar Syndrome.
Jong Hyung Choi, Doo Man Kim, Han Su Cho, Ki Sung Lee, Ji Young Seo, Hyun Kyoo Kim, Cheol Soo Choi, Sung Hee Ihm, Jae Myung Yu, Moon Ki Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(5):614-618.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract
The serum amylase level is widely used as a screening test for acute pancreatitis and rises also in a wide variety of diseases involving the pancreas, salivary glands, intestines, liver, genitourinary tract, and lung, in metabolic aberrations such as diabetic ketoacidosis, and even during normal pregnancy. Although it is commonly assumed that the diseased organ is releasing amylase into the serum, in many conditions the precise relationship between the hyperamylasemia and the condition is not clear. Serum amylase is abnormally elevated in more than 60% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, but increased pancreatic enzyme activity, even in combination with abdominal pain, should not be diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. In nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome, elevated serum amylase level without pancreatitis has not been reported. Nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome is usually a complcation of type 2 DM and characterized by severe hyperosmolarity (serum osmolality> or =320 mOsm/L), hyperglycemia (serum glucose> or = 600 mg/dL) and dehydration. We experienced two cases of nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome with elevated serum amylase. Serum amylase level was 1556 U/L in first case, 229 U/L in second case. Two patients did not complain of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and abdomen CT with enhancement showed the normal pancreases.
Original Articles
Risk Factors of Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) and Nutritional Factors in Diabetic Patients over 60 Years Old Complicated with PVD Diagnosed by Ankle-Brachial Index ( ABI ).
Yoo Sun Chung, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung O Seo, Hyun Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(6):814-821.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The subjects with diabetes mellitus are at high risk for peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The ABI (Ankle-Brachial Index) was done for diagnosis of PVD in diabetes. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the risk factors for diabetes PVD. Most of the risk factors have been found are largely affected by the age and patients nutritional status to some extent. Especially in older diabetes, risk factors cannot be evaluated by numerical values only, for most patients are in background of poor nutritional support. Therefore, in this study, our aim was to evaluate on the influences of the nutritional status as the risk factors for PVD in older patients, ie., 60 years and older. METHODS: We selected 59 patients who are above 60 years old and took neither anti-hypertensive drug nor lipid lowering agents. All subjects ABI was measured by IMEXLAB 9000 and the study group was stratified according to the ABI values: the normal (ABI >10), PVD group (ABI <0.9). The ABI (Ankle-Brachial Index) was measured by The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. If statistically significant effect was found, post hoc analysis (e.g., Newman-Keuls' test) was performed to evaluate the difference between the groups. The values are expressed as the mean+/-standard error (SE). RESULT: There was significant difference in smoking (ABI < 0.9; 0.54+/-0.16 packs/day, ABI > 1.0; 0.35+/-0.08 packs/day), the serum level triglyceride(ABI < 0.9; 1.960.19 mmol/L, ABI > 1.0; 1.56 + 0.21 mmol/L), HDL-cholesterol(ABI < 0.9; 0.88+/-0.11 mmol/L, ABI > 1.0; 1.10+/-0.08 mmol/1) when compared between the normal and ABI decreased subjects(P < 0.05). However, we found no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL-C between the two groups. Serum level of the nutritional factors such as albumin, transferrin, total lympocyte count, folate, zinc were lower than the normal values in both groups. However, these levels were not statistically significant when two groups compared. CONCLUSION: The relationship between the known PVD risk factors and PVD in older diabetes was weak. Therefore, based on the findings from this study, we suggest that when investigators interpretate the risk factors of PVD in elderly patients one must consider nutritional effects along the other factors.
Proliferative Ability of Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells and Lipid Peroxidation of Red Blood Cell Membrane in Diabetic Rats.
Sae Young Park, Hyung Joon Yoo, Kyun Soo Kim, Hyun Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(6):785-792.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, and lipid peroxidation, expression of oxidative stress, is also known to related to diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the proliferative behaviour of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the alteration of lipid peroxidation in relation to the pathogenesis of diabetic atherosclerosis. METHODS: Seven streptozotocin-induced insulin dependent diabetic Sprague Dawley rats and 7 normal rats were studied. Using enzyme method, aortic VSMCs was cultured in diabetic rats. and proliferation was compared between normal and diabetic rat. The membrane lipid peroxidaton of erythrocytes was determined by measurement of malonyl- dialdehyde(MDA), an end-product of fatty acid peroxidation with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. MDA-TBA colored complex concentration was calculated with the extinction coefficient of MDA-TBA complex at 532nm = 1.56X105cm-lM-1. RESULT: 1. The proliferative ability of cultured VSMCs was much higher in diabetic rats than in nondiabetic ones (p<0.05). 2. Compared with normal control rats, MDA concentration of diabetic rats was significantly increased (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that proliferation of cultured VSMCs is due to oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus as a result of the increased proliferative ability of cultured VSMCs combined with increased lipid pemxidation in diabetic rats.
Metabolic Factors Influencing Serum Potassium Levels in Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Sung Jin Kim, Seung Oh Suh, Sung Hee Ihm, Hyun Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(5):661-668.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The serum K level is normal or high in the majority of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) despite significant total body K+ deficits. This might be due to the combined effects of severe acidosis, insulin deficiency, volume contraction, hyperglycemia and hypertonicity that usually accompany DKA. The aim of this study was to investigate the most likely determinants of the serum K+ levels among metabolic derangements observed in DKA patients. METHODS: The subjects were 88 DKA patients who had normal or high initial serum K+ levels. We anaylzed the correlation between initial serum K' levels and metabolic parameters (arterial pH, arterial HCO(3-) level, anion gap, serum glucose level, osmolality, BUN and fasting C-peptide levels), by simple linear regression analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis. RESULT: Serum K+ levels correlated significantly with initial arterial pH(r=-0.38, p<0.001), HCO(3-) (r=-0.35, p<0.001), anion gap(r=0.21, p<0.05), serum glucose (r=0.22, p<0.05) and fasting C-peptide (r=-0.33, p<0.05) levels. Among these, arterial HCO(3-), serum glueose and fasting C-peptide levels had significant and independent effects on serum K+ levels. These levels could account for about 33% of the observed variance in serum K+ levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia in DKA, which result primarily from insulin deficit, are the main determinants of increased serum K+ levels.
HbA1c Concentration of Elderly Diabetic Patients with the Hypoglycemic Shock who were Admitted via Emergency Room.
Jin Cheol Park, Hyung Joon Yoo, Hae Seang Yim, Yong Tae Kim, Do Kyun Jin, Hyun Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):546-551.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Mild degree of hypoglycemia is not unusual during drug therapy in elderly diabetic patients. However it is very difficult that the precise incidence of hypoglycemia is measured in elderly patients because the decreased cognitive function and autonomic dysfunction contribute to atypical hypoglycemic symptoms and signs. Therefore, most cases of elderly diabetic patients with hypoglycemia are discovered in comatose mental state. We did this study to evaluate the clinical charaeteristics of elderly diabetic patients with the hypoglycemic shock who were admitted via emergency room. METHODS: We analyzed the precipitating factors, mental status, and blood chemistries of the adult group(n=22, age 51+3.6 year, BMI-19 kg/m2) and elderly group(n=37, age=72+4.3 year, BMI=23 kg/m) that were classified by the point of 65 years old who were admitted via emergency room in state of the hypoglycemic shock. RESULTS: 1) In the precipitating factor of hypoglycemia, irregular oral intake was found in 64%(14/22) of the adult group and 64%(23/37) of the elderly group, and drug overdose was found in 27 %(1.6/22) of the adult group and 24%(9/37) of the elderly group. But there, was no significant difference between the adult and elderly group. 2) Those who arrived at the emerency room in comatose mental status were found in 45.5 % of adult group and 54.1 % of elderly group, that was no difference stastically. 3) HbA 1c was 5.8 +- 0.27% in elderly group and 8.0 +- 0.63% in the adult group who arrived at the emergency room, which was stastically significant difference between two groups. CONCLUSION: We concluded that lower HbA 1c in the elderly group than adult group who arrived at the emergency room suggest there was probability of unrecognized mild hypoglycemia before the onset of hypoglycemic shock.
The Frequency of ICA and anti-GAD Antibody in Korean IDDM and NIDDM Patients.
Kyung Soo Ko, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee, Nan Hee Kim, Dong Seop Choi, Sung Hee Ihm, Sung Woo Park, Chul Hee Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Hak Chul Chang, Byoung Doo Rhee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):312-319.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It has been suggested that the clinical and immunological characteristics of diabetes mellitus in Koreans are different from those of Caucasians. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of autoimmune markers in Korean adults with IDDM and recent-onset NIDDM. METHODS: Seventy-seven Korean adults with IDDM and 245 recently(within 2 years) diagnosed NIDDM were included in the study. Islet cell cytoplasmic antibody was measured by immunohistochemical method, and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibody was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: 1) The prevalence of ICA, anti-GAD antibody positivity was 27% and 40% in IDDM patients, and 5% and 4% in recent-onset NIDDM patients, respectively. 2) The prevalence of ICA positivity in IDDM patients decreased from 42% within one year to 21% over one year after clinical onset of disease. On the other hand, the positivity of anti-GAD antibody did not change according to the duration of diabetes. 3) The prevalence of ICA tends to be lower in IDDW patients with low serum C-peptide concentrations. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-GAD antibody was not different according to sernm C-peptide levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the prevalence of ICA and antii-GAD antibody was lower in Korean adult IDDM and recent-onset NIDDM patients than that in Caucasians.
Oxidative Stress in Diabetes.
Sung Hee Ihm
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):249-252.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal