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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal



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Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase and Tyrosine Phosphatase-Related Islet Antigen-2 Positivity among Children and Adolescents with Diabetes in Korea
Ka Young Kim, Min Seung Kim, Yun Jeong Lee, Young Ah Lee, Seong Yong Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Jae Hyun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):948-952.   Published online March 8, 2022
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  • 183 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), tyrosine phosphatase-related islet antigen 2 (IA2A), insulin (INSA), and islet cells (ICA) are critical for determining the type of diabetes and management strategy in new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM), but there have been few reports of all diabetes-associated autoantibody (DAA) in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 193 patients with NODM aged 0 to 18 years who were followed at two tertiary centers in Korea (2017 to 2021). Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were 93 (48.2%) and 100 (51.8%), respectively. In T1DM patients, the DAA positivity rate was 94.6%; prevalence of GADA, IA2A, INSA, and ICA was 71.0%, 71.0%, 31.2%, and 10.8%, respectively; and IA2A added 10.7% point autoantibody positivity (83.9% for GADA+INSA+ICA and 94.6% for GADA+INSA+ICA+IA2A). Among the patients with T2DM, 12 (12.0%) were positive for DAA, and all were positive for INSA. These findings suggest that DAA at diagnosis, especially GADA and IA2A, is useful for classifying diabetes in Korean children and adolescents.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: From Its Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Practice
    Yun Kyung Cho, Chang Hee Jung
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(6): 757.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth
    Hwa Young Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
    The Ewha Medical Journal.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Discrepancies between Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Fasting Plasma Glucose for Diagnosing Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Youth and Young Adults
Jieun Lee, Young Ah Lee, Jae Hyun Kim, Seong Yong Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(2):174-182.   Published online November 2, 2018
  • 5,040 View
  • 73 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   

Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recommended as a diagnostic test for prediabetes and diabetes. Here, we evaluated the level of agreement between diagnoses based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) versus HbA1c levels and determined optimal HbA1c cutoff values for these diseases in youth and young adults.


The study included 7,332 subjects (n=4,129, aged 10 to 19 years in youth group; and n=3,203 aged 20 to 29 years in young adult group) from the 2011 to 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Prediabetes and diabetes were defined as 100 to 125 mg/dL (impaired fasting glucose [IFG]) and ≥126 mg/dL for FPG (diabetes mellitus [DM] by FPG [DMFPG]), and 5.7% to 6.4% and ≥6.5% for HbA1c, respectively.


In the youth group, 32.5% with IFG had an HbA1c level of 5.7% to 6.4%, and 72.2% with DMFPG had an HbA1c ≥6.5%. In the young adult group, 27.5% with IFG had an HbA1c level of 5.7% to 6.4%, and 66.6% with DMFPG had an HbA1c ≥6.5%. Kappa coefficients for agreement between the FPG and HbA1c results were 0.12 for the youth group and 0.19 for the young adult group. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal HbA1c cutoff for IFG and DMFPG were 5.6% and 5.9% in youths and 5.5% and 5.8% in young adults, respectively.


Usefulness of HbA1c for diagnosis of IFG and DMFPG in Koreans aged <30 years remains to be determined due to discrepancies between the results of glucose- and HbA1c-based tests. Additional testing might be warranted at lower HbA1c levels to detect IFG and DMFPG in this age group.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Lower Dietary Magnesium Is Associated with a Higher Hemoglobin Glycation Index in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Juan Chen, Song Lin, Xingzhou Wang, Xiwei Wang, Pengxia Gao
    Biological Trace Element Research.2024; 202(3): 878.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic traits and colorectal cancer survival in a cohort of South Korean patients: A Mendelian randomization analysis
    So Yon Jun, Sooyoung Cho, Min Jung Kim, Ji Won Park, Seung‐Bum Ryoo, Seung Yong Jeong, Kyu Joo Park, Aesun Shin
    Cancer Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Associations between HbA1c-derived estimated average glucose and fasting plasma glucose in patients with normal and abnormal hemoglobin patterns
    Wilaiwan Sriwimol, Phattanapong Choosongsang, Pensiri Choosongsang, Warakorn Petkliang, Pittaya Treerut
    Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation.2022; 82(3): 192.     CrossRef
  • Increasing prevalence of fasting hyperglycemia in adolescents aged 10–18 years and its relationship with metabolic indicators: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (KNHANES), 2007–2018
    Seung Eun Yoo, Ji Hyen Lee, Jung Won Lee, Hye Sook Park, Hye Ah Lee, Hae Soon Kim
    Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.2022; 27(1): 60.     CrossRef
  • Differences in Clinical Indicators of Diabetes, Hypertension, and Dyslipidemia Among Workers Who Worked Long Hours and Shift Work
    EunKyo Kang
    Workplace Health & Safety.2021; 69(6): 268.     CrossRef
  • Practice Patterns in the Acceptance of Medically Complex Living Kidney Donors with Obesity, Hypertension, Family History of Kidney Disease, or Donor-Recipient Age Discrepancy
    Ziad Arabi, Muhammad Bukhari, Abdullah Hamad, Abdulrahman Altheaby, Saleh Kaysi
    Avicenna Journal of Medicine.2021; 11(04): 172.     CrossRef
  • Endocrine comorbidities of pediatric obesity
    Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
    Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics.2021; 64(12): 619.     CrossRef
  • Association between handgrip strength and cardiovascular risk factors among Korean adolescents
    Kyoung Kon Kim, Kyu Rae Lee, In Cheol Hwang
    Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 33(9): 1213.     CrossRef
  • Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with long-term risk of cardiovascular events and specific comorbidity in very high-risk hypertensive patients
    O. Ya. Korolyuk, O. M. Radchenko
    The Ukrainian Biochemical Journal.2020; 92(2): 8.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Weight Loss and Metabolic Changes in Adults with Obesity
    Stanisław Głuszek, Arkadiusz Bociek, Edyta Suliga, Jarosław Matykiewicz, Magdalena Kołomańska, Piotr Bryk, Przemysław Znamirowski, Łukasz Nawacki, Martyna Głuszek-Osuch, Iwona Wawrzycka, Dorota Kozieł
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(15): 5342.     CrossRef
  • Peculiarities of Clinical Presentations and Long–Term Complications in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Metabolic Syndrome, depending on their Serum Triglyceride Levels
    O. Ya. Korolyuk
    Ukraïnsʹkij žurnal medicini, bìologìï ta sportu.2020; 5(1): 125.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal