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Original Articles
Is A1C Variability an Independent Predictor for the Progression of Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients?
Chul Sik Kim, So Young Park, Sung Hoon Yu, Jun Goo Kang, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo-Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(3):174-181.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.3.174
  • 4,317 View
  • 29 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Little is known about the relative contribution of long-term glycemic variability to the risk of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of A1C variability on the progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods

Among type 2 diabetic patients who visited Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from March 2007 to September 2009, 120 patients who had carotid artery IMT measured annually and A1C checked every three months for at least one year were analyzed. Individual A1C variability was defined as the standard deviation (SD) of five A1C levels taken every three months for approximately one year. Change in IMT was defined as an increase in IMT on follow-up measurement. The association between the SD of A1C and changes in IMT was evaluated.

Results

With greater A1C variability, there was a greater increase in the mean IMT (r = 0.350, P < 0.001) of the carotid artery. After adjusting for confounding factors that may influence IMT, A1C variability was significantly associated with the progression of IMT (r = 0.222, P = 0.034). However, the SD of A1C was not a significant independent risk factor for the progression of IMT in multiple regression analysis (β = 0.158, P = 0.093).

Conclusion

Higher A1C variability is associated with IMT progression in type 2 diabetic patients; however, it is not an independent predictor of IMT progression. Overall glycemic control is the most important factor in the progression of IMT.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Long-Term Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients According to Average and Visit-to-Visit Variations of HbA1c Levels During the First 3 Years of Diabetes Diagnosis
    Hyunah Kim, Da Young Jung, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Hyeon Woo Yim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Long-Term Visit-to-Visit Hemoglobin A1c and Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes: The ACCORD Trial
    Dan Huang, Yong-Quan Huang, Qun-Ying Zhang, Yan Cui, Tian-Yi Mu, Yin Huang
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Longitudinal Values of Glycated Hemoglobin With Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease
    Paulo Cury Rezende, Mark Andrew Hlatky, Whady Hueb, Rosa Maria Rahmi Garcia, Luciano da Silva Selistre, Eduardo Gomes Lima, Cibele Larrosa Garzillo, Thiago Luis Scudeler, Gustavo Andre Boeing Boros, Fernando Faglioni Ribas, Carlos Vicente Serrano, Jose An
    JAMA Network Open.2020; 3(1): e1919666.     CrossRef
  • Haemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in Chinese type 2 diabetes
    Yifei Mo, Jian Zhou, Xiaojing Ma, Wei Zhu, Lei Zhang, Jie Li, Jingyi Lu, Cheng Hu, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
    Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research.2018; 15(5): 402.     CrossRef
  • Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes: a Danish population-based prospective observational study
    Mette V Skriver, Annelli Sandbæk, Jette K Kristensen, Henrik Støvring
    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2015; 3(1): e000060.     CrossRef
  • Association between hemoglobin A1c variability and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes
    Hae Kyung Yang, Borami Kang, Seung-Hwan Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Byung-Hee Hwang, Kiyuk Chang, Kyungdo Han, Gunseog Kang, Jae Hyoung Cho
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2015; 29(6): 776.     CrossRef
  • Glycated hemoglobin as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiac remodeling among non-diabetic adults from the general population
    Robin Haring, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Wolfgang Lieb, Bettina von Sarnowski, Henry Völzke, Stephan B. Felix, Matthias Nauck, Henri Wallaschofski
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2014; 105(3): 416.     CrossRef
  • HbA1c Variability and Micro- and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes
    Hae Kyung Yang, Seung-Hwan Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2014; 15(4): 202.     CrossRef
  • HbA1c variability and the development of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes: Tsukuba Kawai Diabetes Registry 2
    A. Sugawara, K. Kawai, S. Motohashi, K. Saito, S. Kodama, Y. Yachi, R. Hirasawa, H. Shimano, K. Yamazaki, H. Sone
    Diabetologia.2012; 55(8): 2128.     CrossRef
The Relationship of Family Support with Blood Glucose Control in Elderly Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Eun Suk Kim, Seong Jin Lee, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Jee Youn Lee, Hyun Suk Yun, Moon Gi Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(5):435-443.   Published online September 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.5.435
  • 1,992 View
  • 27 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
With the extension of human life span, the prevalence of diabetes in elderly population is increasing. The glycemic control is also important in elderly diabetics because the life expectancy in elderly is steadily increased. In this study, we investigated the role of family support on glycemic control in elderly type diabetic patients. METHODS: This study was conducted with 126 type 2 diabetic patients over 60 years of age who were enrolled between March and December, 2005. The data for glycemic control, family characteristics, and family support were collected by structured questionnaire, personal interview, and medical record review. We used total supportive index scores to evaluate family support. We evaluated the relationship between family support and glycemic control. RESULTS: Fasting plasma glucose was positively correlated with duration of diabetes (r = 0.277, P = 0.003). Postprandial 2 hour plasma glucose was negatively correlated with monthly incomes (r = -0.357, P = 0.002), assessment support (r = -0.201, P = 0.029). Hemoglobin A1c was positively correlated with duration with diabetes (r = 0.294, P = 0.002) and insulin use (r = 0.259, P = 0.004), but it was negatively correlated with diabetic self-management education (r = -0.190, P = 0.036). Adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and monthly incomes, there were no significant associations between glycemic control and family support. CONCLUSION: In this study, there were no significant associations between glycemic control and family support. More large prospective studies will be followed to exactly evaluate the role of family support in diabetic patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The role of psychological insulin resistance in diabetes self‐care management
    Ancho Lim, Youngshin Song
    Nursing Open.2020; 7(3): 887.     CrossRef
  • A Predictive Model of Health Outcomes for Young People with Type 2 Diabetes
    Sun Young Jung, Sook Ja Lee, Sun Hee Kim, Kyung Mi Jung
    Asian Nursing Research.2015; 9(1): 73.     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing Self-Care Behaviors Related to Insulin Therapy in Elders with Diabetes Mellitus
    Na-Yeong Sohn, Jin-Hyang Yang
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2013; 20(1): 27.     CrossRef
  • Perception of social support by individuals with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers
    Ana Laura Galhardo Figueira, Lílian Cristiane Gomes Villas Boas, Maria Cristina Foss de Freitas, Milton César Foss, Ana Emilia Pace
    Acta Paulista de Enfermagem.2012; 25(spe1): 20.     CrossRef
  • The impact of family support on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Agata Matej-Butrym, Marek Butrym, Andrzej Jaroszyński
    Zdrowie Publiczne.2012; 122(3): 265.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Low Glycemic Index Nutrition Education on the Blood Glucose Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Mi-Ja Kim, Sunja Kwon, Sun Yung Ly
    The Korean Journal of Nutrition.2010; 43(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • Relationships of family support, diet therapy practice and blood glucose control in typeII diabetic patients
    Jeong-Ok Yun, Ki-Nam Kim
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2009; 3(2): 141.     CrossRef
Correlation of C-reactive Protein with Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly Korean Women with Normal or Impaired Glucose Tolerance.
Soon Beom Kwon, Kyung Mook Choi, Soo Yeon Park, Hye Jin Yoo, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Sang Soo Park, Hee Young Kim, Kye Won Lee, Ji A Seo, Jeong Heon Oh, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):432-440.   Published online October 1, 2004
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  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Previous studies have reported that type 2 diabetes is associated with the increased blood concentrations of markers for the acute phase response, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum sialic acid and fibrinogen. The purpose of this study was to verify whether the pro-inflammatory cytokine- induced acute-phase response is a major pathogenic mechanism for type 2 diabetes in elderly Korean women. METHODS: We randomly selected a total of 232 non-smoking and non-diabetic female subjects among a total of 1,737 elderly subjects aged over 60 years who had participated in a population based study in Seoul, Korea (SWS Study 1999). We compared concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), as well as the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP), between the subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESULTS: The IGT group showed higher serum high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations than did the NGT group (the median was 1.2 versus 0.9, respectively, p<0.05). Moreover, a close relationship between serum hs-CRP concentrations and many components of the metabolic syndrome was found. However, serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were not increasedin the IGT group, and they were not closely correlated with the components of metabolic syndrome. Multiple regression analysis using a stepwise selection method showed that the white blood cell counts, body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin, post-load 2h glucose, hematocrit and LDL cholesterol were associated with hs-CRP. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the relationship between C-reactive protein, impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean women.
Plasma and urinary Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Jeong Heon Oh, Hye Jin Yoo, Soo Yeon Park, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Sang Soo Park, Soon Beom Kwon, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Kye Won Lee, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Dae Ryong Cha, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(2):111-121.   Published online April 1, 2004
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  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
VEGF(vascular endothelial growth factor) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neovascularization and endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. However, its precise role in diabetic nephropathy is still unknown. Our aims were to determine whether alterations of plasma and urinary VEGF levels were related to diabetic microvascular complications, especially nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 107 type 2 diabetic patients, without non-diabetic kidney diseases, and 47 healthy control subjects were studied. The urinary albumin excretion was defined as the albumin-to-creatinine ratio(ACR) in 24 hour urine samples. The study subjects were divided into four groups: a nondiabetic healthy control group(n=47), a normoalbuminuric diabetic group(ACR <30mug/mg, n=37), a microalbuminuric diabetic group(ACR 30~299mug/mg, n=37) and an overt proteinuric diabetic group(ACR=300mug/mg, n=33). The plasma and urinary VEGF levels were measured in these subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: 1) The urinary VEGF concentrations were significantly higher in the diabetic groups than in the controls, even in the normoalbuminuric stage(log VEGF/Cr, normoalbuminuria; 4.33+/-1.06 vs. control; 3.53+/-0.79, p=0.009). The levels of urinary VEGF excretions increased with advancing diabetic nephropathy stage. 2) The plasma and urinary VEGF levels were higher in the hypertensive diabetic than the normotensive diabetic patients. 3) In the diabetic patients, the level of plasma VEGF was positively correlated with the BUN(r=0.398, p=0.039) and urinary ACR (r=0.251, p=0.044). The level of urinary VEGF was positively correlated with the urinary ACR(r=0.645, p<0.001), and creatinine(r=0.336, p=0.009), but negatively correlated with the level of serum albumin(r=-0.557, p<0.001). Both the levels of urinary VEGF and serum creatinine were independently correlated with the urinary ACR. CONCLUSIONS: The excretion of urinary VEGF increased at a relatively earlier stage in diabetic nephropathy and was significantly correlated with the excretion of urinary albumin. These results suggested the possibility of urinary VEGF as a sensitive marker or the detection of diabetic nephropathy and in predicting disease progression.
Relations between Insulin Resistance and Hematologic Parameters in Elderly Koreans: Southwest Seoul (SWS) Study.
Kye Won Lee, Hye Jin Yoo, Soo Yeon Park, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Sang Soo Park, Soon Beom Kwon, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Jeong Heon Oh, Dong Hyun Shin, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Hyoung Jin Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(4):352-361.   Published online August 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is known as insulin resistance syndrome. Hyperinsulinemia has been suggested as a cardiovascular risk factor due to the capacity of insulin to induce vascular endothelial proliferation and atherosclerosis. Insulin also has been shown to stimulate erythroid colony formation independently of erythropoietin. WBC count is one of the major components of the inflammatory process and is increased by IL-6, which is high in those with features of insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether insulin resistance affects hematological parameters. METHODS: In this study, 1,314, randomly selected, non-diabetic, elderly subjects over 60 years living in the southwest area of Seoul were recruited. Subjects underwent 75 g OGTT and careful physical examinations during evaluation, and were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Biochemical data and hematologic parameters were also measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) method. Analysis of variance, Duncan's multiple comparisons and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out. RESULTS: In the male non-smoking group we found a correlation between insulin resistance and hemoglobin concentration (r=0.20, p=0.0186). In the female non- smoking group we found correlations between insulin resistance and both hemoglobin concentration (r=0.10, p=0.0017) and white blood cell (WBC) count (r=0.15, p=0.001). Hemoglobin concentration and WBC count were also correlated with BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting insulin levels in female non-smokers. In multiple regression analysis, using HOMA IR as a dependent variable, we found significance in the variables of hemoglobin concentration, WBC count, age, BMI and triglyceride level. CONCLUSION: Our study provided evidence for a relation between insulin resistance and hematological parameters such as hemoglobin concentration and WBC count in elderly Koreans. This suggests that increased hemoglobin level and WBC count could be considered as novel aspects of the met.

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