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Drug/Regimen
Pioglitazone as Add-on THERAPY in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled with Dapagliflozin and Metformin: Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Ji Hye Heo, Kyung Ah Han, Jun Hwa Hong, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eun-Gyoung Hong, Jae Myung Yu, Hye Seung Jung, Bong-Soo Cha
Received September 1, 2023  Accepted October 25, 2023  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0314    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study assessed the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with pioglitazone 15 mg add-on versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin and dapagliflozin.
Methods
In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase 3 study, patients with T2DM with an inadequate response to treatment with metformin (≥1,000 mg/day) plus dapagliflozin (10 mg/day) were randomized to receive additional pioglitazone 15 mg/day (n=125) or placebo (n=125) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels from baseline to week 24 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05101135).
Results
At week 24, the adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c level compared with placebo was significantly greater with pioglitazone treatment (–0.47%; 95% confidence interval, –0.61 to –0.33; P<0.0001). A greater proportion of patients achieved HbA1c <7% or <6.5% at week 24 with pioglitazone compared to placebo as add-on to 10 mg dapagliflozin and metformin (56.8% vs. 28% for HbA1c <7%, and 23.2% vs. 9.6% for HbA1c <6.5%; P<0.0001 for all). The addition of pioglitazone also significantly improved triglyceride, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels, while placebo did not. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between the groups, and the incidence of fluid retention-related side effects by pioglitazone was low (1.5%).
Conclusion
Triple therapy with the addition of 15 mg/day of pioglitazone to dapagliflozin plus metformin was well tolerated and produced significant improvements in HbA1c in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with dapagliflozin plus metformin.
Drug Regimen
Efficacy and Safety of Evogliptin Add-on Therapy to Dapagliflozin/Metformin Combinations in Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 24-Week Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Parallel-Design Phase-3 Trial with a 28-Week Extension
Jun Sung Moon, Il Rae Park, Hae Jin Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Kyu Chang Won, Kyung Ah Han, Cheol-Young Park, Jong Chul Won, Dong Jun Kim, Gwan Pyo Koh, Eun Sook Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Eun-Gyoung Hong, Chang Beom Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):808-817.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0387
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigates the long-term efficacy and safety of evogliptin add-on therapy in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) previously received dapagliflozin and metformin (DAPA/MET) combination.
Methods
In this multicenter randomized placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels 7.0% to 10.5% (n=283) previously used DAPA 10 mg plus MET (≥1,000 mg) were randomly assigned to the evogliptin 5 mg once daily or placebo group (1:1). The primary endpoint was the difference in the HbA1c level from baseline at week 24, and exploratory endpoints included the efficacy and safety of evogliptin over 52 weeks (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04170998).
Results
Evogliptin add-on to DAPA/MET therapy was superior in HbA1c reduction compared to placebo at weeks 24 and 52 (least square [LS] mean difference, –0.65% and –0.55%; 95% confidence interval [CI], –0.79 to –0.51 and –0.71 to –0.39; P<0.0001). The proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7% was higher in the triple combination group at week 52 (32.14% vs. 8.51% in placebo; odds ratio, 5.62; P<0.0001). Evogliptin significantly reduced the fasting glucose levels and mean daily glucose levels with improvement in homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (LS mean difference, 9.04; 95% CI, 1.86 to 16.21; P=0.0138). Adverse events were similar between the groups, and no serious adverse drug reactions were reported in the evogliptin group.
Conclusion
Long-term triple combination with evogliptin added to DAPA/MET showed superior HbA1c reduction and glycemic control compared to placebo at 52 weeks and was well tolerated.
Drug Regimen
Efficacy and Safety of Enavogliflozin versus Dapagliflozin as Add-on to Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 24-Week, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial
Kyung Ah Han, Yong Hyun Kim, Doo Man Kim, Byung Wan Lee, Suk Chon, Tae Seo Sohn, In Kyung Jeong, Eun-Gyoung Hong, Jang Won Son, Jae Jin Nah, Hwa Rang Song, Seong In Cho, Seung-Ah Cho, Kun Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):796-807.   Published online February 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0315
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  • 3 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Enavogliflozin is a novel sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor currently under clinical development. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of enavogliflozin as an add-on to metformin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) against dapagliflozin.
Methods
In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase 3 study, 200 patients were randomized to receive enavogliflozin 0.3 mg/day (n=101) or dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n=99) in addition to ongoing metformin therapy for 24 weeks. The primary objective of the study was to prove the non-inferiority of enavogliflozin to dapagliflozin in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) change at week 24 (non-inferiority margin of 0.35%) (Clinical trial registration number: NCT04634500).
Results
Adjusted mean change of HbA1c at week 24 was –0.80% with enavogliflozin and –0.75% with dapagliflozin (difference, –0.04%; 95% confidence interval, –0.21% to 0.12%). Percentages of patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% were 61% and 62%, respectively. Adjusted mean change of fasting plasma glucose at week 24 was –32.53 and –29.14 mg/dL. An increase in urine glucose-creatinine ratio (60.48 vs. 44.94, P<0.0001) and decrease in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (–1.85 vs. –1.31, P=0.0041) were significantly greater with enavogliflozin than dapagliflozin at week 24. Beneficial effects of enavogliflozin on body weight (–3.77 kg vs. –3.58 kg) and blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, –5.93/–5.41 mm Hg vs. –6.57/–4.26 mm Hg) were comparable with those of dapagliflozin, and both drugs were safe and well-tolerated.
Conclusion
Enavogliflozin added to metformin significantly improved glycemic control in patients with T2DM and was non-inferior to dapagliflozin 10 mg, suggesting enavogliflozin as a viable treatment option for patients with inadequate glycemic control on metformin alone.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy and safety of enavogliflozin vs. dapagliflozin as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on renal function: a pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials
    Young Sang Lyu, Sangmo Hong, Si Eun Lee, Bo Young Cho, Cheol-Young Park
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A 52‐week efficacy and safety study of enavogliflozin versus dapagliflozin as an add‐on to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: ENHANCE‐M extension study
    Tae Seo Sohn, Kyung‐Ah Han, Yonghyun Kim, Byung‐Wan Lee, Suk Chon, In‐Kyung Jeong, Eun‐Gyoung Hong, Jang Won Son, JaeJin Na, Jae Min Cho, Seong In Cho, Wan Huh, Kun‐Ho Yoon
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Role of novel sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor enavogliflozin in type-2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Deep Dutta, B.G. Harish, Beatrice Anne, Lakshmi Nagendra
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2023; 17(8): 102816.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of the Latest Therapeutic Agent for Diabetes
    Nuri Yun
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 148.     CrossRef
  • Prospects of using sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in patients with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD)
    Iryna Kostitska, Nadia Protas, Liliia Petrovska
    Diabetes Obesity Metabolic Syndrome.2023; (5): 8.     CrossRef
  • Navigating the Future of Diabetes Treatment with New Drugs: Focusing on the Possibilities and Prospects of Enavogliflozin
    Sang Youl Rhee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(6): 769.     CrossRef
Lifestyle
Body Fat Is Related to Sedentary Behavior and Light Physical Activity but Not to Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Keun Hee An, Kyung Ah Han, Tae Seo Sohn, Ie Byung Park, Hae Jin Kim, Sung Dae Moon, Kyung Wan Min
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):316-325.   Published online November 12, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0029
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  • 138 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Sedentary behavior (SB) has emerged as a new risk factor for cardiovascular accidents. We investigated whether physical activity levels or SB were related to percent body fat (%BF) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

In this cross sectional study, we measured the duration of SB, light physical activity (LPA), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total energy expenditure, and step counts using a wireless activity tracker (Fitbit HR; FB) for 7 days in free-living conditions, along with %BF using a bio impedance analyzer (Inbody; Biospace) in 120 smartphone users with T2DM. Subjects were divided into exercise (Exe, n=68) and non-exercise (nonExe, n=52) groups based on self-reports of whether the recommended exercises (30 min/day, 3 days/week for 3 months) were performed. SBt, LPAt, MVPAt were transformed from SB, LPA, MVPA for normally distributed variables.

Results

Participants were: female, 59.2%; age, 59.3±8.4 years; body mass index, 25.5±3.4 kg/m2; glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 7.6%±1.2%; %BF, 30.4%±7.1%. They performed SB for 15.7±3.7 hr/day, LPA for 4.4±1.7 hr/day, and MVPA for 0.9±0.8 hr/day. The %BF was related to SBt and LPAt, but not to MVPA after adjustments for age, gender, and HbA1c. VPA was significantly higher in the Exe group than in the nonExe group, but SB, LPA, and moderate physical activity were not different. Predicted %BF was 89.494 to 0.105 (age), −13.047 (gender), −0.507 (HbA1c), −7.655 (LPAt) (F[4, 64]=62.929, P<0.001), with an R2 of 0.785 in multiple linear regression analysis.

Conclusion

Reduced body fat in elderly diabetic patients might be associated with reduced inactivity and increased LPA.

Citations

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  • Explanatory variables of objectively measured 24-h movement behaviors in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review
    Lotte Bogaert, Iris Willems, Patrick Calders, Eveline Dirinck, Manon Kinaupenne, Marga Decraene, Bruno Lapauw, Boyd Strumane, Margot Van Daele, Vera Verbestel, Marieke De Craemer
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2024; 18(4): 102995.     CrossRef
  • Association between depression, anemia and physical activity using isotemporal substitution analysis
    Hee-kyoung Nam, Jungmi Park, Sung-il Cho
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Impact of Wearable Technologies in Health Research: Scoping Review
    Sophie Huhn, Miriam Axt, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Martina Anna Maggioni, Stephen Munga, David Obor, Ali Sié, Valentin Boudo, Aditi Bunker, Rainer Sauerborn, Till Bärnighausen, Sandra Barteit
    JMIR mHealth and uHealth.2022; 10(1): e34384.     CrossRef
  • The Correlation of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes With Adiposity in Adults
    Juan Sun, Zhen Liu, Zimu Zhang, Ziyang Zeng, Weiming Kang
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Physical Activity Assessment of Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Using Accelerometer-Based Cut Points: Scoping Review
    Ioana A Moldovan, Alexa Bragg, Anna S Nidhiry, Barbara A De La Cruz, Suzanne E Mitchell
    Interactive Journal of Medical Research.2022; 11(2): e34433.     CrossRef
  • Effects of 4 Weeks of a Technique-Specific Protocol with High-Intensity Intervals on General and Specific Physical Fitness in Taekwondo Athletes: An Inter-Individual Analysis
    Alex Ojeda-Aravena, Tomás Herrera-Valenzuela, Pablo Valdés-Badilla, Jorge Cancino-López, José Zapata-Bastias, José Manuel García-García
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(7): 3643.     CrossRef
  • Inter-Individual Variability of a High-Intensity Interval Training With Specific Techniques vs. Repeated Sprints Program in Sport-Related Fitness of Taekwondo Athletes
    Alex Ojeda-Aravena, Tomás Herrera-Valenzuela, Pablo Valdés-Badilla, Jorge Cancino-López, José Zapata-Bastias, José Manuel García-García
    Frontiers in Physiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • EFFECT OF SPORTS MEDICINE ON REDUCING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND LEAN BODY MASS
    Chunyan Fan
    Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte.2021; 27(7): 714.     CrossRef
  • Validation of the effectiveness of a digital integrated healthcare platform utilizing an AI-based dietary management solution and a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system for diabetes management: a randomized controlled trial
    Sung Woon Park, Gyuri Kim, You-Cheol Hwang, Woo Je Lee, Hyunjin Park, Jae Hyeon Kim
    BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Brain activity during a working memory task in different postures: an EEG study
    Ju-Yeon Jung, Hwi-Young Cho, Chang-Ki Kang
    Ergonomics.2020; 63(11): 1359.     CrossRef
Arterial Stiffness by Aerobic Exercise Is Related with Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Total Fat but not with Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Female Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Ji Yeon Jung, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Ah Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(6):439-448.   Published online December 15, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.6.439
  • 4,590 View
  • 32 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Arterial stiffness is an important factor in atherosclerosis. Thus we examined whether aerobic exercise could reduce arterial stiffness in obese women with type 2 diabetes without diabetic complication.

Methods

A total of 35 women with type 2 diabetes (body mass index, 26.6±2.8 kg/m2; age, 56.4±1.9 years; duration of diabetes, 4.7±4.8 years) were assigned to aerobic exercise group (AEG) or control group (CG). AEG completed a 12-week exercise program (3.6 to 5.2 metabolic equivalents, 3 day/week, 60 min/day), with their exercise activities monitored by accelerometers. We measured abdominal total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) by computed tomography, insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance test (KITT), and augmentation index (AIx) by SphygmoCor at baseline and at the end of the 12-week program.

Results

The AIx was improved in the AEG compared with the CG (P<0.001). The percent change of AIx had significant correlation with the improvement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), aerobic capacity, TFA, and SFA (r=-0.416, P=0.013; r=0.560, P<0.001; r=0.489, P=0.003; r=0.531, P=0.001, respectively), but not with insulin sensitivity, energy intake, or VFA.

Conclusion

Improvement in aortic stiffness by aerobic exercise is related with the improvement of aerobic capacity, PAEE, and total fat but not with insulin sensitivity or energy intake in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relationship between objectively measured physical activity and subclinical cardiovascular disease: a systematic review
    Aparna Narendrula, Ellen Brinza, Christine Horvat Davey, Chris T Longenecker, Allison R Webel
    BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine.2024; 10(1): e001596.     CrossRef
  • Aerobic training reduces pancreatic fat content and improves β‐cell function: A randomized controlled trial using IDEAL‐IQ magnetic resonance imaging
    Min Li, Qidong Zheng, Joshua D. Miller, Panpan Zuo, Xiaodan Yuan, Jitao Feng, Chao Liu, Shan Bao, Qingqing Lou
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of aerobic exercise on waist circumference in adults with overweight or obesity: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Alex Armstrong, Klaus Jungbluth Rodriguez, Angelo Sabag, Yorgi Mavros, Helen M. Parker, Shelley E. Keating, Nathan A. Johnson
    Obesity Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Aortic waveform responses to insulin in late versus early chronotype with metabolic syndrome
    Mary‐Margaret E. Remchak, Emily M. Heiston, Anna Ballantyne, Brielle L. Dotson, Steven K. Malin
    Physiological Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Exercise and ectopic fat in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    A. Sabag, K.L. Way, S.E. Keating, R.N. Sultana, H.T. O’Connor, M.K. Baker, V.H. Chuter, J. George, N.A. Johnson
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2017; 43(3): 195.     CrossRef
  • Arterial Stiffness Measured with the Cuff Oscillometric Method Is Predictive of Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Diseases
    Yasushi Tazawa, Nobuyoshi Mori, Yoshiko Ogawa, Osamu Ito, Masahiro Kohzuki
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine.2016; 239(2): 127.     CrossRef
Effects of Aerobic Exercise Intensity on Abdominal and Thigh Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Attenuation in Overweight Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Ji Yeon Jung, Kyung Ah Han, Hee Jung Ahn, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(3):211-221.   Published online June 14, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.3.211
  • 4,402 View
  • 40 Download
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We investigated the effects of exercise intensity on abdominal and mid-thigh adipose tissue, attenuation of skeletal muscle, and insulin sensitivity in overweight women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

Twenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to control (CG, n=12), moderate intensity exercise (MEG, n=8), or vigorous intensity exercise (VEG, n=8) group. Subjects in both exercise groups completed a 12-week exercise program (MEG, 3.6 to 5.2 METs; VEG, ≥5.2 METs) that was monitored by accelerometers. We assessed body mass index (BMI), total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), mid-thigh intramuscular adipose tissue (TIMAT), total skeletal muscle (TTM), low density skeletal muscle (TLDM), and normal density skeletal muscle (TNDM) using computed tomography, and measured insulin sensitivity with an insulin tolerance test (KITT), before and after the intervention.

Results

At baseline, the mean age was 53.8±7.9 years, duration of diabetes was 3.8±2.3 years, and BMI was 26.6±2.6 kg/m2. After 12 weeks, the percent change (%C) in BMI, TIMAT, and TLDM were not different among three groups. However, %C in TFA and VFA were significantly reduced in MEG compared to CG (P=0.026 and P=0.008, respectively). %C SFA was significantly reduced in VEG compared to CG (P=0.038) and %C TTM, TNDM, and KITT were significantly increased in VEG compared to the CG (P=0.044, P=0.007, and P=0.016, respectively).

Conclusion

Although there was no difference in the change in BMI among groups, TFA and VFA were more reduced in MEG, and only VEG increased TTM, TNDM, and insulin sensitivity compared to CG.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    翔 畑中, 洋祐 大須賀
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  • Associations of Muscle Density and Area With Coronary Artery Plaque and Physical Function
    Kristine M. Erlandson, Triin Umbleja, Michael T. Lu, Jana Taron, Heather J. Ribaudo, Edgar T. Overton, Rachel M. Presti, David W. Haas, Paul E. Sax, Michael T. Yin, Bingxue Kris Zhai, Rochelle Louis, Namrata Upadhyay, Parastou Eslami, Pamela S. Douglas, M
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    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Alex Armstrong, Klaus Jungbluth Rodriguez, Angelo Sabag, Yorgi Mavros, Helen M. Parker, Shelley E. Keating, Nathan A. Johnson
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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Yasmin Ezzatvar, Mikel Izquierdo, Antonio García-Hermoso
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    Yu-Hsuan Chang, Hui-Ying Yang, Shiow-Ching Shun
    International Journal of Obesity.2021; 45(5): 982.     CrossRef
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    Mauro Tuñón-Suárez, Alvaro Reyes-Ponce, Rodrigo Godoy-Órdenes, Nicolás Quezada, Marcelo Flores-Opazo
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    Muhei Tanaka, Hiroshi Okada, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Muneaki Kumagai, Hiromi Nishimura, Michiaki Fukui
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    Guillem Jabardo-Camprubí, Rafel Donat-Roca, Mercè Sitjà-Rabert, Raimon Milà-Villarroel, Judit Bort-Roig
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    Hayder Hasan, Amita Attlee, Hamid Jan Bin Jan Mohamed, Norliyana Aris, Wan Abdul Manan Bin Wan Muda
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    A. Sabag, K.L. Way, S.E. Keating, R.N. Sultana, H.T. O’Connor, M.K. Baker, V.H. Chuter, J. George, N.A. Johnson
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2017; 43(3): 195.     CrossRef
  • Effect of aerobic exercise intensity on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized trials
    Yilina Liubaoerjijin, Tasuku Terada, Kevin Fletcher, Normand G. Boulé
    Acta Diabetologica.2016; 53(5): 769.     CrossRef
  • A systematic review and meta‐analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue
    R. J. H. M. Verheggen, M. F. H. Maessen, D. J. Green, A. R. M. M. Hermus, M. T. E. Hopman, D. H. T. Thijssen
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    Thomas Brioche, Allan F. Pagano, Guillaume Py, Angèle Chopard
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  • Arterial Stiffness by Aerobic Exercise Is Related with Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Total Fat but not with Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Female Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Ji Yeon Jung, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Ah Han
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(6): 439.     CrossRef
  • Intermuscular Fat: A Review of the Consequences and Causes
    Odessa Addison, Robin L. Marcus, Paul C. LaStayo, Alice S. Ryan
    International Journal of Endocrinology.2014; 2014: 1.     CrossRef
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    Byung Sam Park, Ji Sung Yoon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(6): 458.     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk Assessment with Vascular Function, Carotid Atherosclerosis and the UKPDS Risk Engine in Korean Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes
Choon Sik Seon, Kyung Wan Min, Seung Yup Lee, Kyoung Woo Nho, Se Hwan Park, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyung Ah Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):619-627.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.619
  • 3,733 View
  • 28 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk simultaneously using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine and non-invasive vascular tests in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Participants (n=380; aged 20 to 81 years) with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of CVD. The 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risks were calculated for each patient using the UKPDS risk engine. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), flow mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) were measured. The correlations between the UKPDS risk engine and the non-invasive vascular tests were assessed using partial correlation analysis, after adjusting for age, and multiple regression analysis.

Results

The mean 10-year CHD and 10-year stroke risks were 14.92±11.53% and 4.03±3.95%, respectively. The 10-year CHD risk correlated with CIMT (P<0.001), FMD (P=0.017), and PWV (P=0.35) after adjusting for age. The 10-year stroke risk correlated only with the mean CIMT (P<0.001) after adjusting for age. FMD correlated with age (P<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (P=0.09). CIMT correlated with age (P<0.01), HbA1c (P=0.05), and gender (P<0.01).

Conclusion

The CVD risk is increased at the onset of type 2 diabetes. CIMT, FMD, and PWV along with the UKPDS risk engine should be considered to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

Citations

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Response
Response: The Effect of an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker on Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Hypertension (Diabetes Metab J 2011;35:236-42)
Ji Hyun Kim, Su Jin Oh, Jung Min Lee, Eun Gyoung Hong, Jae Myung Yu, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min, Hyun Shik Son, Sang Ah Chang
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):429-430.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.429
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PDFPubReader   
Original Articles
The Correlations between Extremity Circumferences with Total and Regional Amounts of Skeletal Muscle and Muscle Strength in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Hee Jung Ahn, Jae Hyuk Lee, Gang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):374-383.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.374
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  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Insulin resistance is related to central obesity and the amount of skeletal muscle. A simple and practical anthropometric marker for muscle mass is not known, although waist circumference (WC) is used as an indicator of abdominal obesity. The aims of this study were to investigate whether arm (AC) and thigh circumferences (TC) can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and if they are related to muscle strength.

Methods

A total of 110 obese (body mass index [BMI]≥25 kg/m2) women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and WC, AC, and TC were measured. Abdominal visceral fat (AVF), subcutaneous fat (ASF), and total fat (ATF) were assessed by computed tomography, regional muscle (MM), and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength by one repetition maximum (1RM) of both extremities (chest and leg press) and insulin resistance by KITT.

Results

The mean age was 56.2±7.3 years, duration of diabetes was 4.2±4.4 years, and BMI was 27.2±2.8 kg/m2. WC was correlated with ATF, AVF, and ASF (r=0.728, P<0.001; r=0.515, P<0.001; r=0.608, P<0.001, respectively). Arm MM was correlated with AC (r=0.500, P<0.001), and leg MM with TC (r=0.291, P=0.002). Upper 1RM was related to AC/WC ratio (r=0.359, P<0.001), and lower 1RM was to TC/WC ratio (r=0.286, P=0.003). Insulin resistance had significant relations with AVF, WC, and total MM (r=-0.262, P=0.008; r=-0.217, P=0.029; r=0.160, P=0.031, respectively).

Conclusion

The muscle mass was related to extremity circumferences, and muscle strength was to extremity/waist circumference ratio in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

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Effects of Aerobic Exercise vs. Resistance Training on Endothelial Function in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hee Geum Seok, Jae Hyuk Lee, Gang Seo Park, Kyung Ah Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):364-373.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.364
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

There is controversy over whether aerobic or resistance exercise is more effective for improving endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of an aerobic and resistance training program on endothelial function, and the influences of glycemic control, body weight changes, and aerobic capacity in T2DM.

Methods

Total 40 overweight women with T2DM were assigned into 3 groups: an aerobic exercise group (AEG, n=13), resistance exercise group (REG, n=12), and control group (CG, n=15), and followed either brisk walking for the AEG or resistance band training for the REG, 60 minutes per day, 5 days per week for 12 weeks with monitoring daily activity using accelerometers. We assessed endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and aerobic capacity by oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (AT_VO2) at baseline and following training program.

Results

The mean participants' age was 57.0±6.8 years, and body mass index (BMI) was 27.0±2.3 kg/m2. After intervention, FMD increased by 2.2±1.9% in AEG, which differed from REG and CG (P=0.002), despite of decreased body weight (BW) in both AG and RG (2.8±2.5%, P=0.002; 1.6±2.0%, P=0.017, respectively). A significant increased AT_VO2 and decreased HbA1c were found only in AEG. In all participants, FMD was changed with the significant relations to the AT_VO2 (r=0.348, P=0.035), but not to HbA1c levels or BW.

Conclusion

Aerobic exercise appears to be more beneficial than resistance exercise for improving endothelial function in T2DM. In addition, aerobic capacity could be a better predictor of changes in FMD than BW and glycemic control.

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Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(3):273-281.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.273
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Koreans eat rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effect of a meal plan using small rice bowls on the total energy intake (TEI) and the marcronutrient intake in Korean men with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A total of 62 men with type 2 diabetes were divided by body mass index (BMI) (normal weight [NW], BMI<23 kg/m2; overweight [OW], 23≤BMI<25 kg/m2; obese [OB], BMI≥25 kg/m2) and proportions of carbohydrate intake to TEI (PCI) (low carbohydrate intake [LC], <55%; recommended carbohydrate intake [RC], ≥55% and ≤60%; high carbohydrate intake [HC], >60%). The 3-day dietary records were analyzed for TEI and proportions of macronutrients, before and 2 weeks after a small-sized (300 mL) rice bowl based education was given.

Results

There were no significant differences in the age and BMI within the sub-groups by BMI and PCI groups. In baseline, the ratio of TEI to recommended total energy intake (RTR) of OW and OB were higher than that of NW. The PCI of HC was higher than that of LC and alcohol intake of HC was lower than that of LC. After education, the reduction of RTREI in OB was higher than that in OW and NW. The reduction of PCI in HC was higher than that of LC.

Conclusion

A small rice bowl based meal plan was effective for the reduction of energy intake and control of marcronutrient intake in Korean obese men with type 2 diabetes consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

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  • Comprehensive Understanding for Application in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus of the Consensus Statement on Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets by Korean Diabetes Association, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, and Korean Society of Hyperte
    Jong Han Choi, Jee-Hyun Kang, Suk Chon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 377.     CrossRef
  • The association between measurement sites of visceral adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk factors after caloric restriction in obese Korean women
    Hye-Ok Lee, Jung-Eun Yim, Jeong-Sook Lee, Young-Seol Kim, Ryowon Choue
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2013; 7(1): 43.     CrossRef
  • Daily Rice Intake Strongly Influences the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Men Aged 40-59 Years
    Yoko Watanabe, Isao Saito, Yasuhiko Asada, Taro Kishida, Tatsuhiro Matsuo, Masamitsu Yamaizumi, Tadahiro Kato
    Journal of Rural Medicine.2013; 8(1): 161.     CrossRef
The Effect of an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker on Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Hypertension
Ji Hyun Kim, Su Jin Oh, Jung Min Lee, Eun Gyoung Hong, Jae Myung Yu, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min, Hyun Shik Son, Sang Ah Chang
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(3):236-242.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.236
  • 28,881 View
  • 35 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study analyzed the changes in central aortic waveforms and pulse wave velocity as well as related parameters after treatment with valsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

Methods

We used pulse wave analysis to measure central aortic waveform in a total of 98 subjects. In 47 of these patients, pulse wave velocity measurements were obtained before and after 12 weeks of treatment with valsartan.

Results

In the central aortic waveform analysis, the aortic pulse pressure and augmentation index were significantly decreased after valsartan treatment, as was the aortic pulse wave velocity. Factors contributing to the improvement in pulse wave velocity were the fasting blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c levels.

Conclusion

Short-term treatment with valsartan improves arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and the glucose status at baseline was associated with this effect.

Citations

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  • Mechanisms underlying the blood pressure‐lowering effects of empagliflozin, losartan and their combination in people with type 2 diabetes: A secondary analysis of a randomized crossover trial
    Rosalie A. Scholtes, Charlotte M. Mosterd, Anne C. Hesp, Mark M. Smits, Hiddo J. L. Heerspink, Daniël H. van Raalte
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(1): 198.     CrossRef
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    Ami B Bhatt, J Stewart Buck, Jonah P Zuflacht, Jessica Milian, Samoneh Kadivar, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Michael N Singh, Mark A Creager
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    Feng Peng, Hongming Pan, Bin Wang, Jinxiu Lin, Wenquan Niu
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    Ljiljana Fodor, Vedran Premužić, Vanja Ivković, Dražen Perkov, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Živka Dika, Marijana Živko, Bojan Jelaković
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    Vedran Savić, Barbara Eržen, Miodrag Janić, Mojca Lunder, Maja Boncelj, Karin Kanc, Andrej Janež, Mišo Šabovič
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  • Letter: The Effect of an Angiotensin Receptor Blocker on Arterial Stiffness in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Hypertension (Diabetes Metab J 2011;35:236-42)
    Chul-Hee Kim
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The Usefulness of an Accelerometer for Monitoring Total Energy Expenditure and Its Clinical Application for Predicting Body Weight Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Korean Women
Ji Yeon Jung, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Hee Jung Ahn, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(6):374-383.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.6.374
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an accelerometer in predicting body weight (BW) change during a lifestyle intervention and to find out whether exercise or overall physical activity is associated with change in insulin sensitivity and body composition.

Methods

A total of 49 overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 23 kg/m2) women with diabetes were enrolled and performed lifestyle intervention while monitoring BW, total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) using an accelerometer, and energy intake (EI) using a three-day dietary record at baseline and every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. We assessed body composition using bioimpedance analysis and compared the actual BW change to the predicted BW change, which was calculated from the energy deficit (ED) between EI and TEE (ED = EI-TEE).

Results

Mean age was 57.2 years, duration of diabetes was 8.0 years, and BMI was 27.8 kg/m2. There was no significant difference between EI and TEE at baseline. For 12 weeks, the ED was 474.0 kcal·day-1, which was significantly correlated with BW change (-3.1 kg) (r = 0.725, P < 0.001). However, the actual BW change was 50% lower than the predicted BW change. Both TEE and PAEE correlated with change in KITT (r = 0.334, P = 0.019; r = 0.358, P = 0.012, respectively), BMI (r = -0.395, P = 0.005; r = -0.347, P = 0.015, respectively), and fat mass (r = -0.383, P = 0.007; r = -0.395, P = 0.005, respectively), but only TEE correlated with fat free mass change (r = -0.314, P = 0.030).

Conclusion

The accelerometer appears to be a useful tool for measuring TEE under free-living conditions for both short- and long-term periods.

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  • Whether Smaller Plates Reduce Consumption Depends on Who’s Serving and Who’s Looking: A Meta-Analysis
    Stephen S. Holden, Natalina Zlatevska, Chris Dubelaar
    Journal of the Association for Consumer Research.2016; 1(1): 134.     CrossRef
The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(6):340-349.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.6.340
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  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The typical Korean diet includes rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effects of a meal plan using rice bowls of varying sizes on dietary energy intake (EI), body weight (BW), and blood glucose levels.

Methods

Forty-two obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to use either a 200 mL small rice bowl (SB), a 380 mL regular rice bowl (RB), or to a control group (C). Both intervention groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks and simple instructions for using the assigned bowl were provided. Dietary EI and proportion of macronutrients (PMN) were estimated from 3-day dietary records.

Results

Reduction of EI was more prominent in the SB group compared to the RB and C group, although EI decreased significantly from baseline in all groups. Carbohydrate and fat intakes of the SB group were decreased greater than those of the RB and C group. However, changes in PMN were not significant across the 3 groups. Reduction of BW and HbA1c levels in the SB group was more prominent compared to the C group. Although, BW and HbA1c were decreased significantly from baseline in both bowl groups. There was no statistical difference between the two groups.

Conclusion

The small rice bowl-based meal plan was effective at reducing EI, BW, and blood glucose levels, and the observed reductions in EI, carbohydrate, and fat intake were greater than those of the regular rice bowl-based meal plan.

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  • Impact of Portion Control Tools on Portion Size Awareness, Choice and Intake: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    M. Angeles Vargas-Alvarez, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Luigi Palla, J. Alfredo Martínez, Eva Almiron-Roig
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    Stephen S. Holden, Natalina Zlatevska, Chris Dubelaar
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    Gareth J Hollands, Ian Shemilt, Theresa M Marteau, Susan A Jebb, Hannah B Lewis, Yinghui Wei, Julian P T Higgins, David Ogilvie
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The Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle and Body Fat Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Women
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo-Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):101-110.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.101
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  • 54 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Our goal was to investigate the effects of low intensity resistance training on body fat, muscle mass and strength, cardiovascular fitness, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Twenty-eight overweight women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a resistance training group (RG, n = 13) or a control group (CG, n = 15). RG performed resistance training using elastic bands, of which strength was equal to 40 to 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM), for three days per week. Each exercise consisted of three sets for 60 minutes. We assessed abdominal fat using computed tomography, muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength using Keiser's chest and leg press. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the insulin tolerance test, and aerobic capacity was expressed as oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (AT-VO2) before and after the 12-week exercise program.

Results

The age of participants was 56.4 ± 7.1 years, duration of diabetes was 5.9 ± 5.5 years, and BMI was 27.4 ± 2.5 kg/m2, without significant differences between two groups. During intervention, a greater increase in muscle mass and greater decreases in both total fat mass and abdominal fat were observed in RG compared to those of CG (P = 0.015, P = 0.011, P = 0.010, respectively). Increase in 1RM of upper and lower extremities was observed in the RG (P = 0.004, P = 0.040, respectively), without changes in AT-VO2 and insulin resistance in either group.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the low intensity resistance training was effective in increasing muscle mass and strength and reducing total fat mass without change of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal