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Association between Obesity and Physical Fitness, and Hemoglobin A1c Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults
Yoonsuk Jekal, Mi-Kyung Lee, Sukyung Park, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jun-Young Kim, Jung-Ui Kang, Masayo Naruse, Sang-Hwan Kim, Sun-Hyeon Kim, Sang Hui Chu, Sang-Hoon Suh, Justin Y Jeon
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(3):182-190.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.3.182
  • 4,147 View
  • 23 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity level, physical fitness level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors among Korean adults.

Methods

A total of 557 adults (272 males and 285 females) who underwent medical check-up at local hospital were recruited. In addition to regular health check-up, cardiopulmonary fitness, muscular endurance were measured and their association were analyzed.

Results

The prevalence of MetS was 31.7% for males and 23.7% for females. Females with the higher muscular endurance had lower waist circumference, triglyceride level, and HbA1c level than those with the lower muscular endurance. Males with the higher level of cardiopulmonary fitness had lower diastolic blood pressure, lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol level than males with the lower level of cardiopulmonary fitness. Females with the higher level of cardiopulmonary fitness had lower body weight, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose level than females with the lower level of cardiopulmonary fitness. Participants with the higher level of adiposity and the lower level of physical fitness were 5.26 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19 to 12.62), 5.71 times (95% CI, 2.23 to 14.60) more likely to have MetS, respectively, in male and female compared to participants who were neither obese nor have the lower level of fitness.

Conclusion

This study suggests that maintaining a healthy body weight as well as a certain level of fitness is important for the prevention of MetS.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Muscular strength and cardiovascular risk factors in adults: a systematic review
    Tiago Rodrigues De Lima, Priscila Custódio Martins, Paulo Henrique Guerra, Diego Augusto Santos Silva
    The Physician and Sportsmedicine.2021; 49(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • Influences of Cardiovascular Fitness and Body Fatness on the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Junga Lee
    American Journal of Health Promotion.2020; 34(7): 796.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship between Resting Heart Rate and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012)
    Hyuna Park, Junga Lee, Ji Young Kim, Dong-Il Kim, Justin Y. Jeon
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2015; 24(3): 166.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular Risk and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Youth Enrolled in a Multidisciplinary Medical Weight Management Program: Implications of Musculoskeletal Pain, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life
    Matthew S. Briggs, Colleen Spees, Sharon Bout-Tabaku, Christopher A. Taylor, Ihuoma Eneli, Laura C. Schmitt
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2015; 13(3): 102.     CrossRef
  • Development and Effect of a Metabolic Syndrome Prevention Program for University Students using Mobile Application.
    Han Kyu Kang, Tae Bin Kim, Kyu Hyung Kim, Min Jin Kim, Jin Hyun Kim, Hyun Yong Kim, Kyung Hoon Yeom, Ka Hyun Lee, Eun Young Choi, Kyung Ah Kang
    Child Health Nursing Research.2014; 20(3): 205.     CrossRef
  • Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1B 531K Allele Carriers Sustain a Higher Respiratory Quotient after Aerobic Exercise, but β3-Adrenoceptor 64R Allele Does Not Affect Lipolysis: A Human Model
    Eduardo Gómez-Gómez, Martín Efrén Ríos-Martínez, Elena Margarita Castro-Rodríguez, Mario Del-Toro-Equíhua, Mario Ramírez-Flores, Ivan Delgado-Enciso, Ana Lilia Pérez-Huitimea, Luz Margarita Baltazar-Rodríguez, Gilberto Velasco-Pineda, Jesús Muñiz-Murguía,
    PLoS ONE.2014; 9(6): e96791.     CrossRef
  • Combined Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Visceral Adiposity on Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Adults in Korea
    Sue Kim, Ji-Young Kim, Duk-Chul Lee, Hye-Sun Lee, Ji-Won Lee, Justin Y. Jeon, Reury F P. Bacurau
    PLoS ONE.2014; 9(1): e85742.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship Between Resting Heart Rate and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults
    Choae Lee, Junga Lee, Justin Y. Jeon
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2013; 22(4): 222.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship Between Fitness, BMI and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome Among University Students in Korea
    Dong-il Kim, Ji Young Kim, Mi Kyoung Lee, Hae-Dong Lee, Ji-Won Lee, Justin Y. Jeon
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2012; 21(2): 99.     CrossRef
  • Lifestyle Habits and Physical Capacity in Patients with Moderate or Severe Metabolic Syndrome
    Martin Sénéchal, Danielle R. Bouchard, Isabelle J. Dionne, Martin Brochu
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2012; 10(3): 232.     CrossRef
  • Effects of 6 Weeks of Lifestyle Modification Including Combined Exercise Program on the Risk of Metabolic Parameters and Macrovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Dong Hoon Lee, Seung Hwan Lee, Kiyong An, Jin Young Moon, So Hun Kim, Yoon Jin Choi, Moonsuk Nam, Justin Y. Jeon
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2011; 20(3): 147.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Physical Activity Participation and Type 2 Diabetes in Korea
    Yoonsuk Jekal, Justin Y Jeon
    Journal of Korean Diabetes.2011; 12(1): 13.     CrossRef
The Relationship between the Level of Fatness and Fitness during Adolescence and the Risk Factors of Metabolic Disorders in Adulthood
Yoonsuk Jekal, Ji Eun Yun, Sang Wook Park, Sun Ha Jee, Justin Y Jeon
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):126-134.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.126
  • 3,254 View
  • 27 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between the level of obesity and physical fitness (PF) during adolescence and the risk factors of metabolic disorders during adulthood.

Methods

In the current analysis, 3,993 Korean adults (mean age, 38.70 ± 1.69 years) were recruited. The level of body index (BI) and PF were examined during adolescence through high school record, and their health examination data, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose (FG), total cholesterol (TC), and current body mass index (BMI) were obtained from National Health Insurance Corporation Data. Gender-specific analyses were administered to compare health exam data across the level of BI, the level of PF, and a mixed level of BI and PF.

Results

Most obese males during high school had statistically higher SBP, DBP, FG, and BMI in adulthood, and most obese females had higher BMI, as compared to most lean males or females. Least fit males during high school had statistically higher BMI in adulthood, and least fit females had statistically higher SBP, DBP, FG, TC, and BMI, as compared to most fit males or females. There was a significant relationship between the mixed level of BI and PF and SBP, DBP, TC and current BMI in both genders.

Conclusion

Maintaining a healthy level of body weight and PF during adolescence is recommended to prevent the development of metabolic diseases in adulthood.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A cross‐sectional study on the use of big data for the past H1N1 influenza epidemic in obesity after COVID‐19: Focused on the body slimming cream and leptin via DTC gene test
    Jinkyung Lee, Ki Han Kwon
    Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology.2022; 21(11): 5321.     CrossRef
  • Aerobic fitness in late adolescence and the risk of cancer and cancer-associated mortality in adulthood: A prospective nationwide study of 1.2 million Swedish men
    G. Högström, H. Ohlsson, C. Crump, J. Sundquist, K. Sundquist
    Cancer Epidemiology.2019; 59: 58.     CrossRef
  • Study Time after School and Habitual Eating Are Associated with Risk for Obesity among Overweight Korean Children: A Prospective Study
    Eun Young Lee, Borami Kang, Yeoree Yang, Hae Kyung Yang, Hun-Sung Kim, Sun-Young Lim, Jin-Hee Lee, Seong-Su Lee, Byung-Kyu Suh, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Obesity Facts.2018; 11(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • Differences in Dietary Life and Health related Factors According to Obesity in Poor Urban Peruvian Adolescents
    Hye-Kyung Chung, Hae-Young Lee, Jin Ri Kim, Eun Woo Nam
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2018; 23(4): 302.     CrossRef
  • The influence of aerobic fitness on obesity and its parent-offspring correlations in a cross-sectional study among German families
    Ronja Foraita, Mirko Brandes, Frauke Günther, Karin Bammann, Iris Pigeot, Wolfgang Ahrens
    BMC Public Health.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Participation in Physical Activity “The Development of Fitness” Class on Physical Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome of University Students in Korea
    김동일, Justin Jeon, 이해동, 박지혜, 홍성현
    Korean Journal of Sport Science.2012; 23(3): 478.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology and prevention of stroke: a worldwide perspective
    Elena V Kuklina, Xin Tong, Mary G George, Pooja Bansil
    Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics.2012; 12(2): 199.     CrossRef
  • Fitness, Fatness, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Outcomes
    John M. Jakicic, Anne E. Mishler, Renee Rogers
    Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports.2011; 5(2): 113.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Physical Activity Participation and Type 2 Diabetes in Korea
    Yoonsuk Jekal, Justin Y Jeon
    Journal of Korean Diabetes.2011; 12(1): 13.     CrossRef
  • Relationship Between Trajectories of Trunk Fat Mass Development in Adolescence and Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Adulthood
    Lauren B. Sherar, Joe C. Eisenmann, Philip D. Chilibeck, Nazeem Muhajarine, Susanna Martin, Donald A. Bailey, Adam D.G. Baxter‐Jones
    Obesity.2011; 19(8): 1699.     CrossRef
Effects of Walking and Physical Activity on Glucose Regulation among Type 2 Diabetics.
Yoonsuk Jekal, Mi Kyung Lee, Eun Sung Kim, Ji Hye Park, Hyun Ji Lee, Seung Jin Han, Eun Seok Kang, Hyun Chul Lee, So Hun Kim, Justin Y Jeon
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(1):60-67.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.1.60
  • 2,240 View
  • 39 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Physical activity, especially walking is strongly recommended to control blood glucose among type 2 diabetic patients. Furthermore, physical activity is one of the most important tools to prevent secondary diabetes complications among type 2 diabetic patients such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy etc. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between the level of walking and physical activity and glucose control among Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 250 patients with type 2 diabetes (98 males and 152 females) were recruited (mean age = 62.1 +/- 10.2 years) in the current study. The height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured, and the level of physical activity and total walking hour were measured by physical activity scale for elderly (PASE). High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose and oral glucose tolerance test, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin, hemoglobin A1c were measured. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential covariates such as age, education, occupation income, smoking, and drinking, male patients who spent least time in walking were more likely to have 2 hour serum glucose level in oral glucose tolerance above 200 mg/dL than counterparts who spent most time in walking with age adjusted (Relative Risk (RR) = 11.75, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.94-71.00). Male patients who were in the least active group were 5.92 time (95% CI = 1.39-25.28) more likely to have 2 hour serum glucose level in oral glucose tolerance over 200 mg/dL than counterparts in the most active group. However, there was no significant finding in females. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that physical activity and walking are effective method to maintain glucose tolerance among type 2 diabetic male patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 호남권 지역주민의 건강행태와 만성질환 관리현황
    선아 김, 정은 이
    Public Health Weekly Report.2024; 17(2): 46.     CrossRef
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Obesity, Metabolic Parameters and Clinical Values in the South Korean Adult Population
    Anna Kim, Eun-yeob Kim, Jaeyoung Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(10): 2814.     CrossRef
  • A Study Analyzing the Relationship among Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), Obesity Index, Physical Activity, and Beverage and Alcohol Consumption Frequency in 20s and 30s:The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2013-2015
    Yujin Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim
    The Korean Journal of Community Living Science.2022; 33(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Travel Guidance for People with Diabetes
    Izadi Morteza, Hosseini Mahboobeh Sadat, Pazham Hossein
    International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health.2015; 3(4): 149.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes According to Gender among Korean Employees
    Sang-A Kim, Woong-Sub Park, Su Jeong Yu, Young Ran Chae, Donghee Choi
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(11): 7589.     CrossRef
  • Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults
    Dong Hoon Lee, Yoon Myung Kim, Yoonsuk Jekal, Sukyung Park, Kyong-Chol Kim, Masayo Naruse, Sun Hyun Kim, Sang-Hwan Kim, Ji-Hye Park, Mi Kyung Lee, Sang Hui Chu, Justin Y. Jeon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(2): 132.     CrossRef
  • Association between Obesity and Physical Fitness, and Hemoglobin A1c Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults
    Yoonsuk Jekal, Mi-Kyung Lee, Sukyung Park, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jun-Young Kim, Jung-Ui Kang, Masayo Naruse, Sang-Hwan Kim, Sun-Hyeon Kim, Sang Hui Chu, Sang-Hoon Suh, Justin Y Jeon
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(3): 182.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal