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Guideline/Fact Sheet
Fatty Liver & Diabetes Statistics in Korea: Nationwide Data 2009 to 2017
Eugene Han, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-ho Lee, Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Jung Hwan Park, Cheol-Young Park, on Behalf of Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(3):347-355.   Published online March 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0444
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  • 5 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigated the changes of fatty liver disease prevalence in general Korean population.
Methods
This study analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2009 to 2017 that included individuals aged 20 years or older who had undergone a medical health examination. Fatty liver disease was assessed using the fatty liver index (FLI). The disease severity was defined by FLI cutoff, ≥30 as moderate, and ≥60 as severe fatty liver disease.
Results
The prevalence of Korean adults aged 20 years or over with fatty liver disease (FLI ≥60) increased from 13.3% in 2009 to 15.5% in 2017 (P for trend <0.001). The increase in fatty liver disease prevalence was prominent in men (from 20.5% to 24.2%) and the young age (20 to 39 years) group (from 12.8% to 16.4%) (P for interaction <0.001). The prevalence of fatty liver disease was the highest in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, 29.6%) population compared to that of prediabetes or normoglycemia (10.0% and 21.8%) in 2017. The prevalence of fatty liver disease had statistically increased in individuals with T2DM and prediabetes (P for trend <0.001). Its prevalence increased more steeply in the young-aged population with T2DM, from 42.2% in 2009 to 60.1% in 2017. When applying a lower FLI cutoff (≥30) similar results were observed.
Conclusion
The prevalence of fatty liver disease in the Korean population has increased. Individuals who are young, male, and have T2DM are vulnerable to fatty liver disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Jin Hwa Kim, Young Sang Lyu, Mee Kyoung Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Ki‐Hyun Baek, Ki‐Ho Song, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk‐Sang Kwon
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(1): 180.     CrossRef
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    Metabolism.2024; 152: 155789.     CrossRef
  • Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with cardiovascular disease and all cause death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: nationwide population based study
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    BMJ.2024; : e076388.     CrossRef
  • Hepatic Fibrosis and Cancer: The Silent Threats of Metabolic Syndrome
    Scott L. Friedman
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2024; 48(2): 161.     CrossRef
  • Reply to G. Wang et al
    Joo-Hyun Park, Jung Yong Hong, Kyungdo Han
    Journal of Clinical Oncology.2023; 41(32): 5070.     CrossRef
  • Longitudinal changes in fatty liver index are associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: A nationwide cohort study in Korea
    Min Gu Kang, Chang Hun Lee, Chen Shen, Jong Seung Kim, Ji Hyun Park
    Journal of Hepatology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Role of the Fatty Liver Index (FLI) in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review
    Teodora Biciusca, Sorina Ionelia Stan, Mara Amalia Balteanu, Ramona Cioboata, Alice Elena Ghenea, Suzana Danoiu, Ana-Maria Bumbea, Viorel Biciusca
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(21): 3316.     CrossRef
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    Eugene Han, Yong-ho Lee
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2023; 29(4): 980.     CrossRef
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    Ji Cheol Bae
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 107.     CrossRef
Erratum
Trends in Cardiovascular Complications and Mortality among Patients with Diabetes in South Korea
Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Bo Yeon Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(2):283.   Published online March 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0026
Corrects: Diabetes Metab J 2021;45(1):120
  • 4,216 View
  • 115 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
PDFPubReader   ePub   

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cardiovascular Outcomes according to Comorbidities and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Min Kyong Moon, Junghyun Noh, Eun-Jung Rhee, Sang Hyun Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Byung Jin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Seonghoon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Young Youl Hyun, Bum Joon Kim, Kyung-Do Han, In-Kyung Jeong
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 45.     CrossRef
  • Rising Incidence of Diabetes in Young Adults in South Korea: A National Cohort Study
    Hyun Ho Choi, Giwoong Choi, Hojun Yoon, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(5): 803.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus in Korea
    Soon Young Lee
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(10): 640.     CrossRef
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    Min Kyong Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2021; 22(4): 259.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Complications
Trends in Cardiovascular Complications and Mortality among Patients with Diabetes in South Korea
Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Bo Yeon Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):120-124.   Published online December 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0175
Correction in: Diabetes Metab J 2021;45(2):283
  • 11,713 View
  • 350 Download
  • 32 Web of Science
  • 37 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
We investigated the cardiovascular complications and mortality rates of patients with diabetes in South Korea. The rates of hospitalization due to cardiovascular complications and mortality were analyzed using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. From 2006 to 2015, the rates of hospitalization due to major cardiovascular complications decreased, while those due to heart failure (from 72 to 146 and 124 to 161 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) and peripheral artery disease (from 39 to 55 and 19 to 35 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) increased. In the period 2007 to 2015, the mortality rates for cancer, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertensive disease all decreased. However, the mortality rate for pneumonia increased. We observed a continuous reduction in cardiovascular complications and mortality in adults with diabetes. However, with the increase in some diabetes complications, more efforts are needed to prevent diabetes complications.

Citations

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    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation and Management of Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
    Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 10.     CrossRef
  • The effect of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease and diabetic kidney disease on the risk of hospitalization of heart failure in type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study
    Seung Eun Lee, Juhwan Yoo, Bong-Seong Kim, Han Seok Choi, Kyungdo Han, Kyoung-Ah Kim
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jong Ha Baek, Yong-Moon Park, Kyung Do Han, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Han Choi, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(2): 201.     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Epidemiology
Diabetes Fact Sheets in Korea, 2018: An Appraisal of Current Status
Bo-Yeon Kim, Jong Chul Won, Jae Hyuk Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Kyu Chang Won, Dae Jung Kim, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):487-494.   Published online July 17, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0067
  • 11,133 View
  • 177 Download
  • 97 Web of Science
  • 100 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged 30 years and older.

Methods

This study used 2013 to 2016 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally-representative survey of the Korean population. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, current use of antidiabetic medication, a previous history of diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%.

Results

In 2016, 14.4% (approximately 5.02 million) of Korean adults had diabetes. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 25.3% (8.71 million). From 2013 to 2016, the awareness, control, and treatment rates for diabetes were 62.6%, 56.7%, and 25.1%, respectively. People with diabetes had the following comorbidities: obesity (50.4%), abdominal obesity (47.8%), hypertension (55.3%), and hypercholesterolemia (34.9%). The 25.1%, 68.4%, and 44.2% of people with diabetes achieved HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure <140/85 mm Hg, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL. Only 8.4% of people with diabetes had good control of all three targets.

Conclusion

This study confirms that diabetes is as an important public health problem. Efforts should be made to increase awareness, detection, and comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
The Association between Z-Score of Log-Transformed A Body Shape Index and Cardiovascular Disease in Korea
Wankyo Chung, Jung Hwan Park, Hye Soo Chung, Jae Myung Yu, Shinje Moon, Dong Sun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):675-682.   Published online April 26, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0169
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

In order to overcome the limitations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), the z-score of the log-transformed A Body Shape Index (LBSIZ) has recently been introduced. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the LBSIZ and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Korean representative sample.

Methods

Data were collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination VI to V. The association between CVD and obesity indices was analyzed using a receiver operating characteristic curve. The cut-off value for the LBSIZ was estimated using the Youden index, and the odds ratio (OR) for CVD was determined via multivariate logistic regression analysis. ORs according to the LBSIZ value were analyzed using restricted cubic spline regression plots.

Results

A total of 31,227 Korean healthy adults were analyzed. Area under the curve (AUC) of LBSIZ against CVD was 0.686 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.671 to 0.702), which was significantly higher than the AUC of BMI (0.583; 95% CI, 0.567 to 0.599) or WC (0.646; 95% CI, 0.631 to 0.661) (P<0.001). Similar results were observed for stroke and coronary artery diseases. The cut-off value for the LBSIZ was 0.35 (sensitivity, 64.5%; specificity, 64%; OR, 1.29, 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.49). Under restricted cubic spline regression, LBSIZ demonstrated that OR started to increase past the median value.

Conclusion

The findings of this study suggest that the LBSIZ might be more strongly associated with CVD risks compared to BMI or WC. These outcomes would be helpful for CVD risk assessment in clinical settings, especially the cut-off value of the LBSIZ suggested in this study.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Body Shape Index and Cardiovascular Risk in Individuals With Obesity
    Nazlı Hacıağaoğlu, Can Öner, Hüseyin Çetin, Engin Ersin Şimşek
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between body shape index and risk of mortality in the United States
    Heysoo Lee, Hye Soo Chung, Yoon Jung Kim, Min Kyu Choi, Yong Kyun Roh, Wankyo Chung, Jae Myung Yu, Chang-Myung Oh, Shinje Moon
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Utility of the Z-score of log-transformed A Body Shape Index (LBSIZ) in the assessment for sarcopenic obesity and cardiovascular disease risk in the United States
    Wankyo Chung, Jung Hwan Park, Hye Soo Chung, Jae Myung Yu, Dong Sun Kim, Shinje Moon
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Association between Serum Selenium Level and the Presence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Juno Kim, Hye Soo Chung, Min-Kyu Choi, Yong Kyun Roh, Hyung Joon Yoo, Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Shinje Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):447-460.   Published online January 2, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0123
  • 6,252 View
  • 97 Download
  • 34 Web of Science
  • 35 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between selenium (Se) and diabetes mellitus (DM). However, different studies have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to clarify the impact of Se on DM.

Methods

We searched the PubMed database for studies on the association between Se and DM from inception to June 2018.

Results

Twenty articles evaluating 47,930 participants were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis found that high levels of Se were significantly associated with the presence of DM (pooled odds ratios [ORs], 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44 to 2.45). However, significant heterogeneity was found (I2=82%). Subgroup analyses were performed based on the Se measurement methods used in each study. A significant association was found between high Se levels and the presence of DM in the studies that used blood (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.60 to 2.93; I2=77%), diet (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.36; I2=0%), and urine (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.17; I2=0%) as samples to estimate Se levels, but not in studies on nails (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.52 to 2.98; I2=91%). Because of significant heterogeneity in the studies with blood, we conducted a sensitivity analysis and tested the publication bias. The results were consistent after adjustment based on the sensitivity analysis as well as the trim and fill analysis for publication bias.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of Se are associated with the presence of DM. Further prospective and randomized controlled trials are warranted to elucidate the link better.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Qin Wang, Jianrong Wang, Xue Zhang, Yiqun Liu, Feng Han, Xuesong Xiang, Yanbin Guo, Zhen-wu Huang
    Biological Trace Element Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Response
Response: The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:442–6)
Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):546-547.   Published online December 17, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0248
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • WITHDRAWN: Efficacy of High-frequency Ultrasound Image Information Diagnosis on Neurological-abnormality in Patients with Type-2-diabetes Combined with Peripheral- neuropathy
    Xiaoqiang Liu, Hongyan Zhou, Zhaoyun Wang, Xiaoli Liu, Xin Li, Chen Nie, Yang Li
    Neuroscience Letters.2020; : 135205.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Complications
The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice
Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):442-446.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0090
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Early recognition and appropriate management of diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPNP) is important. We evaluated the necessity of simple, non-invasive tests for DPNP detection in clinical practice. We enrolled 136 randomly-chosen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and examined them with the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament examination, the 128-Hz tuning-fork, ankle-reflex, and pinprick tests; the Total Symptom Score and the 15-item self-administered questionnaire of the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Among 136 patients, 48 had subjective neuropathic symptoms and 88 did not. The abnormal-response rates varied depending on the methods used according to the presence of subjective neuropathic symptoms (18.8% vs. 5.7%, P<0.05; 58.3% vs. 28.4%, P<0.005; 81.3% vs. 54.5%, P<0.005; 12.5% vs. 5.7%, P=0.195; 41.7% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001; and 77.1% vs. 9.1%, P<0.001; respectively). The largest abnormal response was derived by combining all methods. Moreover, these tests should be implemented more extensively in diabetic patients without neuropathic symptoms to detect DPNP early.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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  • Response: The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:442–6)
    Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(6): 546.     CrossRef
  • Letter: The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:442-6)
    Jun Hwa Hong
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(6): 544.     CrossRef
Original Article
Distension and Collagenase Digestion Time of The Pancreas are Critical Factors in Islet Isolation of Canine Pancreas.
Tae Young Yang, In Kyung Jeong, Seung Hoon Oh, Sang Hoon Lee, Dong Jun Kim, Jong Ryul Hahm, Jung Hwan Park, Jong Sung Kim, Jin Soo Han, Sung Joo Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Yong Ki Min, Myung Shik Lee, Moon Kyu Lee, Kwang Won Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(2):180-190.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
S: One of the main problems conditioning the outcome of islet transplantation is the ability to separate a sufficient number of viable islets with preserved function. Islet purification is critically affected by all of the isolation stages, Thus, it is necessary to set up the standard isolation method that islets are separate well from acinar without compromising islet yield and viability. METHODS: Twenty three adult mongrel dogs were used for the experiment of total pancreatectomy with islet isolation. The islets were properly isolated by a modified Recordi method. The obtained islets were further purified by centrifugation on discontinuous gradients using cell separation system (Model 2991, Cobe, Lakewood Colo). We evaluatad islet number (islet equivalent number, 150 gm equivalents/kg of recipient body weight, lEq/kg), purity. cell volume, viabilty, recovery rate, and comparison of outcome according to the isolation conditions. RESULTS: 1) The mean of islet numbers before purification were 13543+/-943 lEq/kg, digestion times were 13.8+/-2.6 min. digestion tamperature was b was 59,7+/-7.0%, viability was 90.0+/-2.1%, cell volume was 4.7+/-1.1 mL, islet number after purification were 4064+/-361 lEq/kg, and recovery rate was 29+2.9. 2) Isolated islet numbers were different according to the degree of pancreas distension with collagenase, digestion temperature, and digestion time. 3) The best conditions for islet isolation were above 37.5 degree C in temperature at recirculation of collagenase, within 12min in digestion time and well distended pancreas with collagenase. 4) According to multiple regression adjusted by variable factors, the degree of pancreas distension with collagenase and digestion time were independently associated factors for successful islet isolation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we concluded that the degree of pancreas distension with collagenase and digestion time were independent factors for successful islet isolation and the best conditions for islet isolation were above 37.5 degree C in temperature at recirculation of collagenase, within 12 min in digestion time and well distended pancreas with collagenase.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal