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Original Article
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Effect of Sarcopenia and Body Shape on Cardiovascular Disease According to Obesity Phenotypes
Hyun-Woong Cho, Wankyo Chung, Shinje Moon, Ohk-Hyun Ryu, Min Kyung Kim, Jun Goo Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(2):209-218.   Published online July 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0223
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  • 211 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

This study aimed to assess the effects of sarcopenia and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to obesity phenotypes.

Methods

We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. A total of 25,270 adults were included and classified into the following groups: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal mass index <7 kg/m2 in men and <5.5kg/m2 in women. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia and ABSI for CVD events according to the obesity phenotype.

Results

The MHNW participants with sarcopenia had higher risk for CVD than those without sarcopenia (OR, 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 4.64). In the analysis with MHNW participants without sarcopenia as a reference, the participants with sarcopenia showed a higher OR for CVD than those without sarcopenia in both MHO (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.94 to 5.64) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.59; 95% CI, 2.63 to 28.04) and MUO participants (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 5.11; 95% CI, 3.21 to 8.15) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.12; 95% CI, 4.04 to 16.32). Participants within the second and third tertiles of ABSI had higher ORs for CVDs than the counterpart of obesity phenotypes within the first tertile.

Conclusion

These results suggest that clinical approaches that consider muscle and body shape are required.

Citations

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    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 104.     CrossRef
  • Additive impact of diabetes and sarcopenia on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: A longitudinal nationwide population-based study
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  • Skeletal Muscle Should Not Be Overlooked
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  • The Role of Sarcopenic Obesity in Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease: A Synthesis of the Evidence on Pathophysiological Aspects and Clinical Implications
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Brief Reports
Others
A Potential Issue with Screening Prediabetes or Diabetes Using Serum Glucose: A Delay in Diagnosis
Jun Goo Kang, Cheol-Young Park, Sung-Hee Ihm, Sung Woo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(5):414-417.   Published online September 1, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.5.414
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  • 50 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The aim of this study was to compare the fasting serum glucose level with the fasting plasma glucose level for diagnosing hyperglycemic states in real-life clinical situations. Additionally, we investigated a usual delay in sample processing and how such delays can impact the diagnosis of hyperglycemic states. Among 1,254 participants who had normoglycemia or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) assessed by the fasting serum glucose level, 20.9% were newly diagnosed with diabetes based on the plasma fasting glucose level. Of the participants with normoglycemia, 62.1% and 14.2% were newly diagnosed with IFG and diabetes, respectively, according to the plasma fasting glucose level. In our clinical laboratory for performing health examinations, the time delay from blood sampling to glycemic testing averaged 78±52 minutes. These findings show that the ordinary time delay for sample processing of the serum glucose for screening hyperglycemic states may be an important reason for these diagnoses to be underestimated in Korea.

Citations

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  • Comparing glycemic traits in defining diabetes among rural Chinese older adults
    Pin Wang, Yuanjing Li, Mingqi Wang, Lin Song, Yi Dong, Xiaolei Han, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Yongxiang Wang, Yifeng Du, Chengxuan Qiu, Fredirick Lazaro mashili
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(1): e0296694.     CrossRef
  • Serum glucose, a cost-effective alternate of plasma glucose in diagnosing and monitoring diabetes mellitus
    Vivek Pant, Anders Kallner
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023; 43(3): 377.     CrossRef
  • Hyperglycemia and prematurity: a narrative review
    Dimitrios Angelis, Mambarambath A. Jaleel, Luc P. Brion
    Pediatric Research.2023; 94(3): 892.     CrossRef
  • Global, regional, and national burden of diabetes from 1990 to 2021, with projections of prevalence to 2050: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021
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  • PM2.5 exposure increases the risk of preterm birth in pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose women: A cohort study in a Southern province of China
    Zhijiang Liang, Lina Zhao, Jialing Qiu, Xinhong Zhu, Min Jiang, Guocheng Liu, Qingguo Zhao
    Environmental Research.2022; 204: 112403.     CrossRef
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    Jie Tang, Xinhong Zhu, Mingzhen Li, Dongming Huang, Qingguo Zhao
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.2020; 222(3): 265.e1.     CrossRef
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    Alpesh Goyal, Yashdeep Gupta
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Epidemiology
Glycosylated Hemoglobin Threshold for Predicting Diabetes and Prediabetes from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sangmo Hong, Jun Goo Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Seong Jin Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Chang Beom Lee, Sung-Hee Ihm
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):167-170.   Published online April 5, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.167
  • 2,971 View
  • 39 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

We aimed to estimate the threshold level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the fasting plasma glucose of 100 and 126 mg/dL in the Korean adult population, using the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 4,481 participants over 19 years of age without diabetic medications and conditions to influence the interpretation of HbA1c levels, such as anemia, renal insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, and cancers, were analyzed. A point-wise area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate the optimal HbA1c cutoff value. A HbA1c threshold of 6.35% was optimal for predicting diabetes with a sensitivity of 86.9% and a specificity of 99.1%. Furthermore, the threshold of HbA1c was 5.65% for prediabetes, with a sensitivity of 69.3% and a specificity of 71%. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the HbA1c cutoff point for diagnosing prediabetes and diabetes in the Korean population.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Cutoff Value of HbA1c in Predicting Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose
    Seyoung Kwon, Youngak Na
    The Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science.2017; 49(2): 114.     CrossRef
  • Cutoff Point of HbA1c for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Individuals
    Bing Wang, Ming-Chuan Liu, Xin-Yu Li, Xu-Han Liu, Qiu-Xia Feng, Lu Lu, Zhu Zhu, Ying-Shu Liu, Wei Zhao, Zheng-Nan Gao, Noel Christopher Barengo
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Reviews
The Role of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists in Type 2 Diabetes: Understanding How Data Can Inform Clinical Practice in Korea
Seungjoon Oh, Suk Chon, Kyu Jeong Ahn, In-Kyung Jeong, Byung-Joon Kim, Jun Goo Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(3):177-187.   Published online June 15, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.3.177
  • 4,167 View
  • 47 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) reduce glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, 0.5% to 1.0%), and are associated with moderate weight loss and a relatively low risk of hypoglycemia. There are differences between Asian and non-Asian populations. We reviewed available data on GLP-1RAs, focusing on Korean patients, to better understand their risk/benefit profile and help inform local clinical practice. Control of postprandial hyperglycemia is important in Asians in whom the prevalence of post-challenge hyperglycemia is higher (vs. non-Asians). The weight lowering effects of GLP-1RAs are becoming more salient as the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Korean patients increases. The higher rate of gastrointestinal adverse events amongst Asian patients in clinical trials may be caused by higher drug exposure due to the lower body mass index of the participants (vs. non-Asian studies). Data on the durability of weight loss, clinically important health outcomes, safety and optimal dosing in Korean patients are lacking. Use of GLP-1RAs is appropriate in several patient groups, including patients whose HbA1c is uncontrolled, especially if this is due to postprandial glucose excursions and patients who are overweight or obese due to dietary problems (e.g., appetite control). The potential for gastrointestinal adverse events should be explained to patients at treatment initiation to facilitate the promotion of better compliance.

Citations

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  • Tolerability and Effectiveness of Switching to Dulaglutide in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Insulin Therapy
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  • Antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2017: a position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 947.     CrossRef
Anti-Obesity Drugs: A Review about Their Effects and Safety
Jun Goo Kang, Cheol-Young Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(1):13-25.   Published online February 17, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.1.13
  • 15,253 View
  • 248 Download
  • 387 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The current recommendations for the treatment of obese people include increased physical activity and reduced calories intake. When the behavioral approach is not sufficient, a pharmacologic treatment is recommended. In past years, numerous drugs have been approved for the treatment of obesity; however, most of them have been withdrawn from the market because of their adverse effects. In fact, amphetamine, rimonabant and sibutramine licenses have been withdrawn due to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke. Even if orlistat is not as effective as other drugs in reducing body weight, orlistat is presently the only available choice for the treatment of obesity because of its safety for cardiovascular events and positive effects on diabetic control. Hopefully, more effective and better tolerated anti-obesity drugs will be developed through an improved understanding of the multiple mechanisms and complex physiological systems targeting appetite.

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Original Articles
Is A1C Variability an Independent Predictor for the Progression of Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients?
Chul Sik Kim, So Young Park, Sung Hoon Yu, Jun Goo Kang, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo-Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(3):174-181.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.3.174
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Little is known about the relative contribution of long-term glycemic variability to the risk of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of A1C variability on the progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods

Among type 2 diabetic patients who visited Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from March 2007 to September 2009, 120 patients who had carotid artery IMT measured annually and A1C checked every three months for at least one year were analyzed. Individual A1C variability was defined as the standard deviation (SD) of five A1C levels taken every three months for approximately one year. Change in IMT was defined as an increase in IMT on follow-up measurement. The association between the SD of A1C and changes in IMT was evaluated.

Results

With greater A1C variability, there was a greater increase in the mean IMT (r = 0.350, P < 0.001) of the carotid artery. After adjusting for confounding factors that may influence IMT, A1C variability was significantly associated with the progression of IMT (r = 0.222, P = 0.034). However, the SD of A1C was not a significant independent risk factor for the progression of IMT in multiple regression analysis (β = 0.158, P = 0.093).

Conclusion

Higher A1C variability is associated with IMT progression in type 2 diabetic patients; however, it is not an independent predictor of IMT progression. Overall glycemic control is the most important factor in the progression of IMT.

Citations

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Effect of Valsartan on Blood Pressure and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetic Patients: An Open-Label, Multicenter Study.
Se Jun Park, Dae Jung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Yeon Park, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Hak Chul Jang, Seung Hyun Ko, Ki Ho Song, Yu Bae Ahn, Soo Kyoung Kim, Yong Wook Cho, Jun Goo Kang, Sung Hee Ihm, Cheol Young Park, Sung Woo Park, Dong Hyun Shin, Yong Hyun Kim, Kwan Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(6):513-521.   Published online December 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.6.513
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BACKGROUND
Activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been an important mechanism of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. It has been reported that RAS blockades reduce the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduced blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. METHOD: Three hundred forty-seven hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients who had not taken angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or ARB for 6 months prior to this study were enrolled. We measured blood pressure and UAER before and after 24 weeks of valsartan treatment. RESULT: Baseline mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 143 +/- 15 and 87 +/- 11 mmHg, respectively and the median albumin excretion rate was 27 ug/mg. Reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 16 mmHg/10 mmHg and the median UAER was 19.3 ug/mg after 24 weeks (P < 0.01, respectively). When we divided the subjects into three groups according to the UAER (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria), significant changes were reported in the microalbuminuria and the macroalbuminuria groups. Thirty-eight (42%) patients with microalbuminuria improved to normoalbuminuria and twelve (41%) patients with macroalbuminuria improved to microalbuminuria. We found an association between the improvement of blood pressure and UAER (R = 0.165, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: We concluded that valsartan reduces urinary albumin excretion and blood pressure in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients.
Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Risk Factors of Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Hong Ju Moon, Jun Goo Kang, Min Ho Jo, Byung Wan Lee, Cheol Young Park, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Kyung Hong, Jae Myoung Yu, Doo Man Kim, Sung Hee Ihm, Hyun Kyu Kim, Chong Yun Rhim, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):435-441.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.435
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is equivalent as well a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the effects of DM on clinical risk factors of acute coronary syndrome by comparing DM group with Non-DM group. METHODS: A total of 847 (514 males and 333 females) patients with acute coronary syndrome was selected from 1664 patients who had undergone coronary angiography (CAG). These patients comprised 105 subjects with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI), 313 with ST elevation MI and 429 with unstable angina. According to the presence of DM, we retrospectively reviewed the measured basic demographics, biochemical markers and coronary angiographic findings. RESULTS: In the multivariated analysis, history of hypertension (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) level (P = 0.001) and triglyceride level (P = 0.018) were independent risk factors in type 2 diabetic group. Also the frequency of multiple coronary vessel disease was higher in DM group than non-DM group on the coronary angiographic finding CONCLUSIONS: Classic risk factors for acute coronary syndrome are strong predictors in patients with type 2 DM. Among these factors, the most important powerful risk factor is history of hypertension.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gender-Based Differences in the Management and Prognosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Korea
    Hee Tae Yu, Kwang Joon Kim, Woo-Dae Bang, Chang-Myung Oh, Ji-Yong Jang, Sung-Soo Cho, Jung-Sun Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Donghoon Choi, Myeong-Ki Hong, Yangsoo Jang
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2011; 52(4): 562.     CrossRef

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