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Original Articles
Complications
Risk of Depression according to Cumulative Exposure to a Low-Household Income Status in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide Population- Based Study
So Hee Park, You-Bin Lee, Kyu-na Lee, Bongsung Kim, So Hyun Cho, So Yoon Kwon, Jiyun Park, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Kyu Yeon Hur, Kyungdo Han, Jae Hyeon Kim
Received August 23, 2022  Accepted February 7, 2023  Published online January 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0299    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We aimed to identify the risk of incident depression according to cumulative exposure to a low-household income status in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
For this retrospective longitudinal population-based cohort study, we used Korean National Health Insurance Service data from 2002 to 2018. Risk of depression was assessed according to cumulative exposure to low-household income status (defined as Medical Aid registration) during the previous 5 years among adults (aged ≥20 years) with T2DM and without baseline depression who underwent health examinations from 2009 to 2012 (n=2,027,317).
Results
During an average 6.23 years of follow-up, 401,175 incident depression cases occurred. Advance in cumulative number of years registered for medical aid during the previous 5 years from baseline was associated with an increased risk of depression in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratio [HR], 1.44 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38 to 1.50]; HR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.35 to 1.46]; HR, 1.42, [95% CI, 1.37 to 1.48]; HR, 1.46, [95% CI, 1.40 to 1.53]; HR, 1.69, [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.74] in groups with 1 to 5 exposed years, respectively). Insulin users exposed for 5 years to a low-household income state had the highest risk of depression among groups categorized by insulin use and duration of low-household income status.
Conclusion
Cumulative duration of low-household income status, defined as medical aid registration, was associated with an increased risk of depression in a dose-response manner in individuals with T2DM.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Low Household Income Status and Death from Pneumonia in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide Study
You-Bin Lee, So Hee Park, Kyu-na Lee, Bongsung Kim, So Yoon Kwon, Jiyun Park, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Kyu Yeon Hur, Kyungdo Han, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(5):682-692.   Published online June 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0184
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We explored the risk of death from pneumonia according to cumulative duration in low household income state (LHIS) among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
Using Korean National Health Insurance Service data (2002 to 2018), the hazards of mortality from pneumonia were analyzed according to duration in LHIS (being registered to Medical Aid) during the 5 years before baseline (0, 1–4, and 5 years) among adults with T2DM who underwent health examinations between 2009 and 2012 (n=2,503,581). Hazards of outcomes were also compared in six groups categorized by insulin use and duration in LHIS.
Results
During a median 7.18 years, 12,245 deaths from pneumonia occurred. Individuals who had been exposed to LHIS had higher hazards of death from pneumonia in a dose-response manner (hazard ratio [HR], 1.726; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.568 to 1.899 and HR, 4.686; 95% CI, 3.948 to 5.562 in those exposed for 1–4 and 5 years, respectively) compared to the non-exposed reference. Insulin users exposed for 5 years to LHIS exhibited the highest outcome hazard among six groups categorized by insulin use and duration in LHIS.
Conclusion
Among adults with T2DM, cumulative duration in LHIS may predict increased risks of mortality from pneumonia in a graded dose-response manner. Insulin users with the longest duration in LHIS might be the group most vulnerable to death from pneumonia among adults with T2DM.
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Insulin Fact Sheet in Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Trends of Antidiabetic Medication Use in Insulin Users with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2002 to 2019
Jiyun Park, Gyuri Kim, Bong-Sung Kim, Kyung-Do Han, So Yoon Kwon, So Hee Park, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(2):211-219.   Published online February 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0346
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigated the trends of insulin use among Korean patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Changes in prescription of antidiabetic medications in T2DM patients taking insulin therapy were evaluated.
Methods
We analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Service database in Korea to evaluate the prevalence of insulin users and trends of insulin use in T1DM and T2DM patients from January 2002 to December 2019. We also investigated numbers and types of antidiabetic medications in insulin users with T2DM.
Results
The overall total number of insulin users increased from 2002 to 2019, reaching 348,254 for T2DM and 20,287 for T1DM in 2019 compared with 109,974 for T2DM and 34,972 for T1DM in 2002. The proportion of patients using basal analogs and short acting analogs have increased and those using human insulin, premixed insulin, or biphasic human insulin have decreased (rapid acting analogs: 71.85% and 24.12% in T1DM and T2DM, respectively, in 2019; basal analogs: 76.75% and 75.09% in T1DM and T2DM, respectively, in 2019). The use of other antidiabetic medication in addition to insulin increased for T2DM, especially in dual therapy, reaching up to 52.35% in 2019 compared with 16.72% in 2002.
Conclusion
The proportion of the patients using basal or rapid acting analogs increased among all insulin users in both T1DM and T2DM patients. Among patients with T2DM, the proportion of patients using antidiabetic medications in addition to insulin was significantly increased compared to those who used insulin alone.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Real-World Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data from a Population with Type 1 Diabetes in South Korea: Nationwide Single-System Analysis
    Ji Yoon Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Sarah Andrade, Boyang Chen, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of pharmacokinetic interactions between lobeglitazone, empagliflozin, and metformin in healthy subjects
    Heeyoung Kim, Choon Ok Kim, Hyeonsoo Park, Min Soo Park, Dasohm Kim, Taegon Hong, Yesong Shin, Byung Hak Jin
    Translational and Clinical Pharmacology.2023; 31(1): 59.     CrossRef
  • Smart Insulin Pen: Managing Insulin Therapy for People with Diabetes in the Digital Era
    Jee Hee Yoo, Jae Hyeon Kim
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(4): 190.     CrossRef
Short Communication
Technology/Device
A 4-Week, Two-Center, Open-Label, Single-Arm Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of EOPatch in Well-Controlled Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Jiyun Park, Nammi Park, Sangjin Han, You-Bin Lee, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Woo Je Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):941-947.   Published online March 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0299
  • 4,871 View
  • 263 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of tubeless patch pump called EOPatch in patients with well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This 4-week, two-center, open-label, single-arm study enrolled 10 adult patients diagnosed with T1DM with glycosylated hemoglobin less than 7.5%. The co-primary end points were patch pump usage time for one attachment and number of serious adverse events related to the patch pump. The secondary end points were total amount of insulin injected per patch and changes in glycemic parameters including continuous glucose monitoring data compared to those at study entry. The median usage time per patch was 84.00 hours (interquartile range, 64.50 to 92.50). Serious adverse events did not occur during the trial. Four weeks later, time in range 70 to 180 mg/dL was significantly improved (70.71%±17.14 % vs. 82.96%±9.14%, P=0.01). The times spent below range (<54 mg/dL) and above range (>180 mg/dL) also improved (All P<0.05). Four-week treatment with a tubeless patch pump was safe and led to clinical improvement in glycemic control.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A true continuous healthcare system for type 1 diabetes
    Jiyong Kim, Salman Khan, Eun Kyu Kim, Hye-Jun Kil, Bo Min Kang, Hyo Geon Lee, Jin-Woo Park, Jun Young Yoon, Woochul Kim
    Nano Energy.2023; 113: 108553.     CrossRef
  • Multilayer track‐etched membrane‐based electroosmotic pump for drug delivery
    Qian Yang, Zebo Zhang, Junshu Lin, Boyu Zhu, Rongying Yu, Xinru Li, Bin Su, Bo Zhao
    ELECTROPHORESIS.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Mean and Variability of Lipid Measurements and Risk for Development of Subclinical Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction
Jiyun Park, Mira Kang, Jiyeon Ahn, Min Young Kim, Min Sun Choi, You-Bin Lee, Gyuri Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim, Jeong Hoon Yang, Sang-Man Jin
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(2):286-296.   Published online November 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0080
  • 5,318 View
  • 194 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is an emerging consequence of increased insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia is one of the few correctable risk factors of LVDD. This study evaluated the role of mean and visit-to-visit variability of lipid measurements in risk of LVDD in a healthy population.
Methods
This was a 3.7-year (interquartile range, 2.1 to 4.9) longitudinal cohort study including 2,817 adults (median age 55 years) with left ventricular ejection fraction >50% who underwent an annual or biannual health screening between January 2008 and July 2016. The mean, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), variability independent of the mean (VIM), and average real variability of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), non-HDL-C, and triglycerides were obtained from three to six measurements during the 5 years preceding the first echocardiogram.
Results
Among the 2,817 patients, 560 (19.9%) developed LVDD. The mean of no component of lipid measurements was associated with risk of LVDD. CV (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.67), SD (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.57), and VIM (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.55) of LDL-C and all the variability parameters of apoB were significantly associated with development of LVDD. The association between CV-LDL and risk of LVDD did not have significant interaction with sex, increasing/decreasing trend at baseline, or use of stain and/or lipid-modifying agents.
Conclusion
The variability of LDL-C and apoB, rather than their mean, was associated with risk for LVDD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Separate and Joint Associations of Remnant Cholesterol Accumulation and Variability With Carotid Atherosclerosis: A Prospective Cohort Study
    Jinqi Wang, Rui Jin, Xiaohan Jin, Zhiyuan Wu, Haiping Zhang, Ze Han, Zongkai Xu, Yueruijing Liu, Xiaoyu Zhao, Xiuhua Guo, Lixin Tao
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors: Causative Factor or Epiphenomenon?
    Hye Jin Yoo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(2): 257.     CrossRef

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