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The Insulin Resistance but Not the Insulin Secretion Parameters Have Changed in the Korean Population during the Last Decade
Hae Kyung Yang, Jin Hee Lee, In-Young Choi, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Jeong Ah Shin, Seung Hee Jeong, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Ho Young Son, Kun Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(2):117-125.   Published online April 20, 2015
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  • 46 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

This study aimed to compare the patterns of insulin secretion and resistance between Korean subjects in the 1990s and 2000s.


Insulin secretion and resistance indices were calculated from subjects who underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests in the year 1997 to 1999 and 2007 to 2011 at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Korea.


A total of 578 subjects from the 1990s (mean age, 48.5 years) and 504 subjects from the 2000s (mean age, 50.2 years) were enrolled. Compared with the subjects from the 1990s, those from the 2000s exhibited increased insulin resistance (increased homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance), and reduced insulin sensitivity (reduced Matsuda index and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index), regardless of their glucose tolerance status. However, insulinogenic index did not reveal significant differences between the 2 decades in subjects with or without diabetes. A distinct relationship was confirmed between Matsuda index and total area under the curve (insulin/glucose) in each glucose tolerance group. The mean product of the Matsuda index and the total area under the curve (insulin/glucose) as well as the oral disposition index, was lower in subjects with normal glucose tolerance from the 2000s than in those from the 1990s.


After rapid economic growth and changes in lifestyle patterns, insulin resistance has worsened across the glucose tolerance status; however, the insulin secretory function remained unchanged, which resulted in an increase in the susceptibility to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Korean subjects without diabetes. We could not rule out the potential selection bias and therefore, further studies in general Korean population are needed.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Longitudinal Changes in Insulin Resistance, Beta-Cell Function and Glucose Regulation Status in Prediabetes
    Chul-Hee Kim, Hong-Kyu Kim, Eun-Hee Kim, Sung-Jin Bae, Jaewon Choe, Joong-Yeol Park
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.2018; 355(1): 54.     CrossRef
  • Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and diabetes-related factors in Korean adults without diabetes: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012
    Hyunah Kim, Hyunyong Lee, Hyeon Woo Yim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Primary Care Diabetes.2018; 12(1): 59.     CrossRef
  • Long‐term effects on glycaemic control and β‐cell preservation of early intensive treatment in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: A multicentre randomized trial
    Suk Chon, Sang Youl Rhee, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Moon Suk Nam, Kwan Woo Lee, Soon Jib Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh, Dae Ho Lee, Young Seol Kim, Jeong‐Taek Woo
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2018; 20(5): 1121.     CrossRef
  • Four Plasma Glucose and Insulin Responses to a 75 g OGTT in Healthy Young Japanese Women
    Kei Takahashi, Hidetaka Nakamura, Hiroshi Sato, Hideto Matsuda, Kazuo Takada, Tomiko Tsuji
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2018; 2018: 1.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of insulin intensification strategies with insulin lispro low mixture twice daily versus basal insulin glargine and prandial insulin lispro once daily in East Asian and Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    In‐Kyung Jeong, Choon Hee Chung, Zhiguang Zhou, Jeong Hee Han, Ran Duan, Diana M. Edralin, Angel Rodriguez
    Journal of Diabetes.2017; 9(4): 396.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Secretory Capacity and Insulin Resistance in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
    Jong-Dai Kim, Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 31(3): 354.     CrossRef
  • Antisenescence activity of G9a inhibitor BIX01294 on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells
    Min-Ji AHN, Sin-Gu JEONG, Goang-Won CHO
    TURKISH JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY.2016; 40: 443.     CrossRef
  • Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, an early marker of diabetic kidney disease, might reflect glucose excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes
    So Ra Kim, Yong-ho Lee, Sang-Guk Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Jeong-Ho Kim, Byung-Wan Lee
    Medicine.2016; 95(27): e4114.     CrossRef
Clustering Characteristics of Risk Variables of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Rural Populations.
Yong Moon Park, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Sun Young Lim, Jin Hee Lee, Sung Rae Kim, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Yong Gyu Park, Dong Suk Kim, Kwang ho Meng, Won Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):177-189.   Published online May 1, 2006
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  • 17 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The risks of both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease are mainly associated with the metabolic syndrome which is characterized by clustering of metabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This study aimed to examine the relations among metabolic risk variables and the underlying structure of the metabolic syndrome that unites related components. METHODS: Subjects were selected by stratified random cluster sampling among persons aged over 40 years from a rural area. Waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were used as risk variables of metabolic syndrome. Factor analysis, a multivariate correlation statistical technique, was performed on a dataset from nondiabetic 3,443 men and women without history of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors in both gender (obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia-insulin resistance in men; obesity-insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in women). Fasting insulin was a common contributor to the structure of metabolic syndrome in male subjects, smokers and alcohol drinking group. Confirmatory factor analysis based on the results of exploratory factor analysis revealed that metabolic syndrome was represented primarily by obesity factor in men, obesity-insulin resistance factor in women, and that dyslipidemia factor was highly correlated with obesity factor in men, with insulin resistance factor in women. CONCLUSION: Underlying structure of metabolic syndrome was different between men and women, and obesity might be a primary target for prevention of both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in Korea.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Disjoint factor analysis with cross-loadings
    Maurizio Vichi
    Advances in Data Analysis and Classification.2017; 11(3): 563.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with control of blood pressure among elderly people diagnosed with hypertension in a rural area of South Korea: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort Study (CMC study)
    Hong-Seok Lee, Yong-Moon Park, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Jin Hee Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ho Young Son, Dong Suk Kim, Hyeon Woo Yim, Won-Chul Lee
    Blood Pressure.2010; 19(1): 31.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study
    Yong-Moon Park, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Sun Young Lim, Jin-Hee Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ho-Young Son, Hyeon Woo Yim, Won-Chul Lee
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2010; 51(4): 511.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among People Over 40 Years Old in a Rural Area of South Korea: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study
    Hong-Seok Lee, Yong-Moon Park, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Jin-Hee Lee, Young Joon Park, Sun Young Lim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ho-Young Son, Dong Suk Kim, Hyeon Woo Yim, Won-Chul Lee
    Clinical and Experimental Hypertension.2010; 32(3): 166.     CrossRef
Effect of Captopril on Insulin Sensitivity for Subjects with Insulin Resistance.
Hye Jung Lee, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Jin Hee Lee, Sung Koo Kang, Yoon Hee Choi, Sung Ha Hwang, Seung Hyun Ko, Jung Min Lee, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Won Chul Lee, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):416-424.   Published online October 1, 2004
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  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are becoming increasingly popular as the first-choice antihypertensive agents for diabetic patients. This could be partly related to their suggested beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. This study was designed to compare the effect of captopril with that of control (nitrendipine) on insulin sensitivity for subjects with insulin resistance. METHODS: 24 subjects, aged less than 60 years, with their insulin resistance being defined as the area under the curve (AUCi) of insulin that was 2 standard deviations (SD) more than that of the control subjects during oral glucose tolerance test were recruited. A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted for an 8 weeks treatment period with captopril and the control (nitrendipine) that was given after an initial 6 weeks run-in period. Anthropometric measurement including weight, height, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure (systolic & diastolic), lipid profile blood chemistry, electrolytes levels & renal function testing, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGT) for the insulin sensitivity index (SI) & acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were also done before and after treatment, respectively. RESULTS: 18 subjects (6 males, 12 females) completed the study. The mean age of the study subjects was 47.9+/-2.9 years (mean+/-SEM), and their BMI was 28.0+/-0.7 kg/m2 (mean+/-SEM).There was a significant decrease in weight (baseline; 71.5+/-9.2 kg vs. captopril; 70.7+/-9.0 kg and nitrendipine; 709+/-9.2 kg, p<0.05, respectively) and BMI (baseline; 28.0+/-3.0 kg/m2 vs. captopril; 27.7+/-2.8 kg/m2 and nitrendipine; 27.8+/-2.9 kg/m2, p<0.05, respectively) for both groups compared with the baseline, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. Triglyceride was significantly decreased after treatment with captopril compared to the baseline and nitrendipine (187.0+/-99.5 mg/dL vs. 224.5+/-134.2 mg/dL, respectively, p<0.05). The SI was significantly increased after captopril treatment compared with the baseline (1.4+/-1.0 vs. 2.5+/-0.8 min-1 per mU/ml, respectively, p<0.05), and the captopril group was significantly higher than that of nitrendipine (1.5+/-1.0 min-1 per mU/ml, p <0.05). Acute insulin response to glucose in both groups was also increased after treatment, but there was no statistically significance. CONCLUSION: Captopril therapy improved insulin sensitivity, and it decreased the concentration of fasting insulin in subjects with insulin resistance.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Establishment of Blood Glucose Monitoring System using Internet.
Hee Soo Kim, Jae Hyoung Cho, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Jin Hee Lee, Bok Re Song, Jung A Oh, Kun Ho Yoon, Ho Young Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(3):280-287.   Published online June 1, 2003
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  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The internet has been used world wide as a communication tool. To improve the quality of glucose control, the effectiveness of an Internet-based Blood Glucose Monitoring System (IBGMS), on changes in HbA1c levels, was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomized clinical trial, involving 110 patients who had visited outpatient's clinic at the Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital diabetes center for 3 months, was conducted. The study subjects were treated with IBGMS for 12 weeks, with a control group receiving the usual outpatient management for the same period. HbA1C and other laboratory tests were performed at the baseline and at the end of the study. RESULTS: There were no significant differences found between the two groups at the baseline measurements, with respect to age, sex, diabetes duration, body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C and other laboratory data. In the follow up tests, the study group showed a significant reduction in the HbA1C level, by 7.1% (0.54% absolute, p=0.001), while the control group showed an increased HbA1C level (p=0.054). Moreover, there was an 11.1% reduction (0.92% absolute, p<0.001) in the HbA1C level in the patients with HbA1C levels > or =7.0% at baseline in the study group, but those with HbA1C levels <7.0% maintained good HbA1c levels, 6.32%, by the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: This new IBGMS resulted in a significant reduction in the HbA1C levels during the study period. We propose this IBGMS as a new method for glycemic control.

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