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Complications
Presence of Carotid Plaque Is Associated with Rapid Renal Function Decline in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Normal Renal Function
Da Hea Seo, So Hun Kim, Joon Ho Song, Seongbin Hong, Young Ju Suh, Seong Hee Ahn, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Kwan Woo Lee, Young Seol Kim, Moonsuk Nam
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(6):840-853.   Published online March 12, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0186
  • 5,410 View
  • 57 Download
  • 17 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Recent evidences indicate that early rapid renal function decline is closely associated with the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease. We have investigated the association between carotid atherosclerosis and rapid renal function decline in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function.

Methods

In a prospective, multicenter cohort, a total of 967 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function were followed for 6 years with serial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements. Common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and presence of carotid plaque were assessed at baseline. Rapid renal function decline was defined as an eGFR decline >3.3% per year.

Results

Over a median follow-up of 6 years, 158 participants (16.3%) developed rapid renal function decline. While there was no difference in CIMT, the presence of carotid plaque in rapid decliners was significantly higher than in non-decliners (23.2% vs. 12.2%, P<0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, presence of carotid plaque was an independent predictor of rapid renal function decline (odds ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.48 to 3.68; P<0.0001) after adjustment for established risk factors. The model including the carotid plaque had better performance for discrimination of rapid renal function decline than the model without carotid plaque (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.772 vs. 0.744, P=0.016).

Conclusion

Close monitoring of renal function and early intensive management may be beneficial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and carotid plaques.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of diabetes distress on glycemic control and diabetic complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Hye-Sun Park, Yongin Cho, Da Hea Seo, Seong Hee Ahn, Seongbin Hong, Young Ju Suh, Suk Chon, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sei Hyun Baik, Kwan Woo Lee, So Hun Kim
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Huijun Wen, Hai Yu
    Vascular.2023; 31(1): 90.     CrossRef
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    Yiwen Li, Yanfei Liu, Shiwei Liu, Mengqi Gao, Wenting Wang, Keji Chen, Luqi Huang, Yue Liu
    Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerotic plaques are associated with renal function decline: a 14-year longitudinal population-based study
    Miriam Goepfert, Till Ittermann, Marcus Dörr, Nele Friedrich, Henry Völzke, Thomas Dabers, Stephan B Felix, Ulf Schminke, Sylvia Stracke, Sabrina von Rheinbaben
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.2023; 38(11): 2598.     CrossRef
  • Blood pressure and vascular determinants of glomerular filtration rate decline in diabetic kidney disease
    Luca Truscello, Dina Nobre, Vehashini Sabaratnam, Olivier Bonny, Grégoire Wuerzner, Michel Burnier, Fadi Fakhouri, Menno Pruijm, Anne Zanchi
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Explainable Artificial Intelligence Paves the Way in Precision Diagnostics and Biomarker Discovery for the Subclass of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetics
    Fatma Hilal Yagin, Seyma Yasar, Yasin Gormez, Burak Yagin, Abdulvahap Pinar, Abedalrhman Alkhateeb, Luca Paolo Ardigò
    Metabolites.2023; 13(12): 1204.     CrossRef
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    Christodoula Kourtidou, Vasileios Rafailidis, Garyfallia Varouktsi, Efthimios Kanakis, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Timoleon-Achilleas Vyzantiadis, Maria Stangou, Smaragdi Marinaki, Konstantinos Tziomalos
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(7): 1139.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Renal Disease in a National Representative Sample of the Romanian Adult Population: Data from the SEPHAR IV Survey
    Călin Pop, Oana Florentina Gheorghe Fronea, Ioana Antonia Branea, Lucian Mihai Itu, Roxana Darabont, Irinel Parepa, Theodora Benedek, Maria Dorobantu
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(12): 3199.     CrossRef
  • Clinical features of and risk factors for normoalbuminuric diabetic kidney disease in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cross-sectional study
    Qi Dai, Nan Chen, Ling Zeng, Xin-Jie Lin, Feng-Xiu Jiang, Xiong-Jie Zhuang, Ze-Yuan Lu
    BMC Endocrine Disorders.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Predictive Value of Carotid Ultrasonography With Cardiovascular Risk Factors—A “SPIDER” Promoting Atherosclerosis
    Hongwei Li, Xiaolin Xu, Baoming Luo, Yuling Zhang
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Update on pathogenesis and diagnosis flow of normoalbuminuric diabetes with renal insufficiency
    Le Deng, Wenjie Li, Gaosi Xu
    European Journal of Medical Research.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 with kidney function in a population-based Chinese cohort
    Rui Zhang, Yufeng Li, Xianghai Zhou, Fang Zhang, Meng Li, Simin Zhang, Xiuying Zhang, Xin Wen, Linong Ji
    Medicine.2021; 100(50): e28238.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Presence of Carotid Plaque Is Associated with Rapid Renal Function Decline in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Normal Renal Function (Diabetes Metab J 2019;43:840–53)
    Min-Ji Kim, Jae-Han Jeon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(1): 201.     CrossRef
  • Response: Presence of Carotid Plaque Is Associated with Rapid Renal Function Decline in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Normal Renal Function (Diabetes Metab J 2019;43:840–53)
    Da Hea Seo, So Hun Kim, Moonsuk Nam
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(1): 205.     CrossRef
  • Serum Levels of Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Are Associated with Rapid Renal Function Decline in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Preserved Renal Function
    Da Hea Seo, Moonsuk Nam, Mihye Jung, Young Ju Suh, Seong Hee Ahn, Seongbin Hong, So Hun Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(6): 875.     CrossRef
  • Proteinuria Is Associated with Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in Non-Albuminuric Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Jaehyun Bae, Yong-ho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2020; 9(1): 136.     CrossRef
Clinical Diabetes and Therapeutics
Hospital-Based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study: A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized, Open-Label Controlled Study
Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Jeong-Taek Woo
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):49-58.   Published online November 2, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0033
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  • 130 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to increase, and the disease burden is the highest of any medical condition in Korea. However, large-scale clinical studies have not yet conducted to establish the basis for diabetes prevention in Korea.

Methods

The hospital-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (H-KDPS) is a prospective, multi-center, randomized, open-label controlled study conducted at university hospitals for the purpose of gathering data to help in efforts to prevent type 2 DM. Ten university hospitals are participating, and 744 subjects will be recruited. The subjects are randomly assigned to the standard care group, lifestyle modification group, or metformin group, and their clinical course will be observed for 36 months.

Results

All intervention methodologies were developed, validated, and approved by Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) multi-disciplinary team members. The standard control group will engage in individual education based on the current KDA guidelines, and the lifestyle modification group will participate in a professionally guided healthcare intervention aiming for ≥5% weight loss. The metformin group will begin dosing at 250 mg/day, increasing to a maximum of 1,000 mg/day. The primary endpoint of this study is the cumulative incidence of DM during the 3 years after randomization.

Conclusion

The H-KDPS study is the first large-scale clinical study to establish evidence-based interventions for the prevention of type 2 DM in Koreans. The evidence gathered by this study will be useful for enhancing the health of Koreans and improving the stability of the Korean healthcare system (Trial registration: CRIS KCT0002260, NCT02981121).

Citations

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  • Estimating insulin sensitivity and β-cell function from the oral glucose tolerance test: validation of a new insulin sensitivity and secretion (ISS) model
    Joon Ha, Stephanie T. Chung, Max Springer, Joon Young Kim, Phil Chen, Aaryan Chhabra, Melanie G. Cree, Cecilia Diniz Behn, Anne E. Sumner, Silva A. Arslanian, Arthur S. Sherman
    American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.2024; 326(4): E454.     CrossRef
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    Myoung Soo Kim, Jung Mi Ryu, Minkyeong Kang, Jiwon Park, Yeh Chan Ahn, Yang Seok Kim
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2023; 48(1): 36.     CrossRef
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    Juyoung Shin, Joonyub Lee, Taehoon Ko, Kanghyuck Lee, Yera Choi, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(11): 1899.     CrossRef
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    Jin-Hee Lee, Suk Chon, Seon-Ah Cha, Sun-Young Lim, Kook-Rye Kim, Jae-Seung Yun, Sang Youl Rhee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Yu-Bae Ahn, Jeong-Taek Woo, Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2021; 36(2): 382.     CrossRef
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    Sang Youl Rhee, Ji Min Sung, Sunhee Kim, In-Jeong Cho, Sang-Eun Lee, Hyuk-Jae Chang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 515.     CrossRef
  • 2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Kyu Yeon Hur, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Jong Ha Baek, Junghyun Noh, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Ye Seul Yang, Jang Won Son, Jong Han Choi, Kee Ho Song, Nam Hoon Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Jin Wha Kim,
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 461.     CrossRef
  • Short-Term Effects of the Internet-Based Korea Diabetes Prevention Study: 6-Month Results of a Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial
    Jin-Hee Lee, Sun-Young Lim, Seon-Ah Cha, Chan-Jung Han, Ah Reum Jung, Kook-Rye Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(6): 960.     CrossRef
  • 2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
    Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2021; 22(4): 244.     CrossRef
  • Optimal fasting plasma glucose and haemoglobin A1c levels for screening of prediabetes and diabetes according to 2‐hour plasma glucose in a high‐risk population: The Korean Diabetes Prevention Study
    Seon‐Ah Cha, Suk Chon, Jae‐Seung Yun, Sang Youl Rhee, Sun‐Young Lim, Kun‐Ho Yoon, Yu‐Bae Ahn, Seung‐Hyun Ko, Jeong‐Taek Woo, Jin‐Hee Lee
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • How was the Diabetes Metabolism Journal added to MEDLINE?
    Hye Jin Yoo
    Science Editing.2020; 7(2): 201.     CrossRef
  • Commercial Postural Devices: A Review
    Nicole Kah Mun Yoong, Jordan Perring, Ralph Jasper Mobbs
    Sensors.2019; 19(23): 5128.     CrossRef
  • Changes in Metabolic Profile Over Time: Impact on the Risk of Diabetes
    Yunjung Cho, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(4): 407.     CrossRef
  • Metformin for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in persons at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Kasper S Madsen, Yuan Chi, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter, Bianca Hemmingsen
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Clinical Diabetes and Therapeutics
Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index as a Surrogate Marker of Early Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
So Young Park, Sang Ook Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Suk Chon
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(4):285-295.   Published online July 27, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0080
  • 4,767 View
  • 51 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are commonly used surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a complement to the baPWV, which is affected by blood pressure. However, it is unclear which marker is the most sensitive predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).

Methods

This was a retrospective non-interventional study that enrolled 219 patients with T2DM. The correlations among IMT, ABI, and CAVI as well as the relationship of these tests to the 10-year ASCVD risk were also analyzed.

Results

Among the 219 patients, 39 (17.8%) had ASCVD. In the non-ASCVD group, CAVI correlated significantly with IMT after adjusting for confounding variables, but ABI was not associated with CAVI or IMT. The analyses after dividing the non-ASCVD group into three subgroups according to the CAVI score (<8, ≥8 and <9, and ≥9) demonstrated the significant increase in the mean IMT, 10-year ASCVD risk and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decrease in the mean ABI in the high-CAVI group. A high CAVI was an independent risk factor in the non-ASCVD group for both a high 10-year ASCVD risk (≥7.5%; odds ratio [OR], 2.42; P<0.001) and atherosclerosis (mean IMT ≥1 mm; OR, 1.53; P=0.007).

Conclusion

In Korean patients with T2DM without ASCVD, CAVI was the most sensitive of several surrogate markers for the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis.

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  • The effects of severe periodontitis on arterial stiffness using cardio‐ankle vascular index in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Gizem Torumtay Cin, Semin Melahat Fenkci, Ismail Doğu Kiliç, Halil Serdar Aslan, Cihan İlyas Sevgican, Hande Şenol
    Journal of Periodontal Research.2024; 59(1): 74.     CrossRef
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    Thapanee Roengrit, Ruchada Sri-Amad, Nawiya Huipao, Suphawadee Phababpha, Piyapong Prasertsri, Francesco Giallauria
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  • Response: Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index as a Surrogate Marker of Early Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:285-95)
    So Young Park, Suk Chon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(5): 449.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index as a Surrogate Marker of Early Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:285-95)
    Dongwon Yi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(5): 447.     CrossRef
Clinical Care/Education
Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Health Behaviors, Metabolic Control, and Chronic Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
So Hun Kim, Seung Youn Lee, Chei Won Kim, Young Ju Suh, Seongbin Hong, Seong Hee Ahn, Da Hae Seo, Moon-Suk Nam, Suk Chon, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Kwan Woo Lee, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):380-393.   Published online June 29, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0102
  • 4,772 View
  • 65 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

The aim of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on health behaviors, metabolic control, and chronic complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from South Korea, a country with universal health insurance coverage and that has experienced rapid economic and social transition.

Methods

A total of 3,294 Korean men and women with T2DM aged 30 to 65 years, participating in the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) cohort who reported their SES and had baseline clinical evaluation were included in the current cross-sectional analysis. SES included the level of education and monthly household income.

Results

Lower education level and lower income level were closely related, and both were associated with older age in men and women. Women and men with lower income and education level had higher carbohydrate and lower fat intake. After adjustment for possible confounding factors, higher education in men significantly lowered the odds of having uncontrolled hyperglycemia (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥7.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.91 for highest education; Ptrend=0.048), while higher household income in men significantly lowered the odds of having diabetic retinopathy (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.95 for highest income level; Ptrend=0.048). In women, lower income was associated with a higher stress level.

Conclusion

Men with lower SES had higher odds of having diabetic retinopathy and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, showing the need to improve care targeted to this population.

Citations

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    Şuheda ÜSTÜNDAĞ, Nuray DAYAPOĞLU
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    R. Lauretta, M. Sansone, A. Sansone, F. Romanelli, M. Appetecchia
    International Journal of Endocrinology.2018; 2018: 1.     CrossRef
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Air Pollution Has a Significant Negative Impact on Intentional Efforts to Lose Weight: A Global Scale Analysis
Morena Ustulin, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Jeong-taek Woo, Sang Youl Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(4):320-329.   Published online April 24, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0104
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Air pollution causes many diseases and deaths. It is important to see how air pollution affects obesity, which is common worldwide. Therefore, we analyzed data from a smartphone application for intentional weight loss, and then we validated them.

Methods

Our analysis was structured in two parts. We analyzed data from a cohort registered to a smartphone application in 10 large cities of the world and matched it with the annual pollution values. We validated these results using daily pollution data in United States and matching them with user information. Body mass index (BMI) variation between final and initial login time was considered as outcome in the first part, and daily BMI in the validation. We analyzed: daily calories intake, daily weight, daily physical activity, geographical coordinates, seasons, age, gender. Weather Underground application programming interface provided daily climatic values. Annual and daily values of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were extracted. In the first part of the analysis, we used 2,608 users and then 995 users located in United States.

Results

Air pollution was highest in Seoul and lowest in Detroit. Users decreased BMI by 2.14 kg/m2 in average (95% confidence interval, −2.26 to −2.04). From a multilevel model, PM10 (β=0.04, P=0.002) and PM2.5 (β=0.08, P<0.001) had a significant negative effect on weight loss when collected per year. The results were confirmed with the validation (βAQI*time=1.5×10–5; P<0.001) by mixed effects model.

Conclusion

This is the first study that shows how air pollution affects intentional weight loss applied on wider area of the world.

Citations

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Response
Response: Features of Long-Standing Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy: A Study Based on Standardized Clinical Data (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:393-404)
Sang Youl Rhee, Jeong-Taek Woo
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(6):494-495.   Published online December 19, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.6.494
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PDFPubReader   
Original Articles
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Effects of Lobeglitazone, a Novel Thiazolidinedione, on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus over 52 Weeks
Soo Lim, Kyoung Min Kim, Sin Gon Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jeong-Taek Woo, Choon Hee Chung, Kyung Soo Ko, Jeong Hyun Park, Yongsoo Park, Sang Jin Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Dong Seop Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):377-385.   Published online October 24, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.5.377
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The aim of this multicenter, randomized, double-blind study was to examine the effect of lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione, on the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

A 24-week, double-blinded phase was followed by a 28-week, open-label phase, in which the placebo group also started to receive lobeglitazone. A total of 170 patients aged 34 to 76 years were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive lobeglitazone 0.5 mg or a matching placebo orally, once daily. BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at week 24 and at the end of the study (week 52).

Results

During the double-blinded phase, the femur neck BMD showed decreasing patterns in both groups, without statistical significance (−0.85%±0.36% and −0.78%±0.46% in the lobeglitazone and placebo groups, respectively). The treatment difference between the groups was 0.07%, which was also not statistically significant. Further, minimal, nonsignificant decreases were observed in both groups in the total hip BMD compared to values at baseline, and these differences also did not significantly differ between the groups. During the open-label phase, the BMD was further decreased, but not significantly, by −0.32% at the femur neck and by −0.60% at the total hip in the lobeglitazone group, and these changes did not significantly differ compared with the original placebo group switched to lobeglitazone.

Conclusion

Our results indicate that treatment with lobeglitazone 0.5 mg over 52 weeks showed no detrimental effect on the BMD compared to the placebo.

Citations

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    Deep Dutta, Saptarshi Bhattacharya, Manoj Kumar, Priyankar K. Datta, Ritin Mohindra, Meha Sharma
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Complications
Features of Long-Standing Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy: A Study Based on Standardized Clinical Data
Sejeong Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Su Jin Jeong, Kiyoung Kim, Suk Chon, Seung-Young Yu, Jeong-Taek Woo
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):393-404.   Published online September 5, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.5.393
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This is part of a prospective study carried out as a national project to secure standardized public resources for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Korea. We compared various characteristics of long-standing T2DM patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and macular edema (ME).

Methods

From September 2014 to July 2015, T2DM patients with disease duration of at least 15 years were recruited at a single university hospital. Clinical data and samples were collected according to the common data elements and standards of procedure developed by the Korean Diabetes Association Research Council. Each participant was assessed by ophthalmologists for DR and ME.

Results

Among 220 registered patients, 183 completed the ophthalmologic assessment. DR was associated with longer disease duration (odds ratio [OR], 1.071; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001 to 1.147 for non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR]) (OR, 1.142; 95% CI, 1.051 to 1.242 for proliferative diabetic retinopathy [PDR]) and the use of long-acting insulin (OR, 4.559; 95% CI, 1.672 to 12.427 for NPDR) (OR, 4.783; 95% CI, 1.581 to 14.474 for PDR), but a lower prevalence of a family history of cancer (OR, 0.310; 95% CI, 0.119 to 0.809 for NPDR) (OR, 0.206; 95% CI, 0.063 to 0.673 for PDR). ME was associated with higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels (OR, 1.380; 95% CI, 1.032 to 1.845) and the use of rapid-acting insulin (OR, 5.211; 95% CI, 1.445 to 18.794).

Conclusion

Various clinical features were associated with DR and ME. Additional epidemiological and biorepository-based studies using this cohort are being conducted to deepen our understanding of diabetic complications in Korea.

Citations

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    Jae-Seung Yun
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  • Response: Features of Long-Standing Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy: A Study Based on Standardized Clinical Data (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:393-404)
    Sang Youl Rhee, Jeong-Taek Woo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(6): 494.     CrossRef
Others
Effects of Rebamipide on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sejeong Park, So Young Park, Yu Jin Kim, Soo Min Hong, Suk Chon, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-taek Woo, Sung-Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Sang Youl Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(3):240-247.   Published online April 5, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.3.240
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rebamipide is an effective gastric cytoprotective agent, but there are few data on its usefulness in T2DM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the improvement of GI symptoms after rebamipide treatment in patients with T2DM.

Methods

Patients with T2DM and atypical GI symptoms were enrolled. They took rebamipide (100 mg thrice daily) for 12 weeks and filled out the diabetes bowel symptom questionnaire (DBSQ) before and after rebamipide treatment. The DBSQ consisted of 10 questions assessing the severity of GI symptoms by a 1 to 6 scoring system. Changes in the DBSQ scores before and after rebamipide treatment were analyzed to evaluate any improvements of GI symptoms.

Results

A total of 107 patients were enrolled, and 84 patients completed the study. The mean age was 65.0±7.8, 26 patients were male (24.8%), the mean duration of T2DM was 14.71±9.12 years, and the mean glycosylated hemoglobin level was 6.97%±0.82%. The total DBSQ score was reduced significantly from 24.9±8.0 to 20.4±7.3 before and after rebamipide treatment (P<0.001). The DBSQ scores associated with reflux symptoms, indigestion, nausea or vomiting, abdominal bloating or distension, peptic ulcer, abdominal pain, and constipation were improved after rebamipide treatment (P<0.05). However, there were no significant changes in symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, and anal incontinence. No severe adverse events were reported throughout the study.

Conclusion

Rebamipide treatment for 12 weeks improved atypical GI symptoms in patients with T2DM.

Citations

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    Dmitry N. Andreev, Igor V. Maev, Dmitry S. Bordin, Svetlana V. Lyamina, Diana T. Dicheva, Aleksei K. Fomenko, Armine S. Bagdasarian
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    D. N. Andreev, I. V. Maev
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  • Letter: Effects of Rebamipide on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2016;40:240-7)
    Jin Hwa Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(4): 334.     CrossRef
  • Response: Effects of Rebamipide on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2016;40:240-7)
    Sejeong Park, So Young Park, Sang Youl Rhee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(4): 336.     CrossRef
A Smartphone Application Significantly Improved Diabetes Self-Care Activities with High User Satisfaction
Yu Jin Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Jong Kyu Byun, So Young Park, Soo Min Hong, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(3):207-217.   Published online April 22, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.3.207
  • 9,793 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We developed for the first time a smartphone application designed for diabetes self-management in Korea and registered a patent for the relevant algorithm. We also investigated the user satisfaction with the application and the change in diabetes related self-care activities after using the application.

Methods

We conducted a questionnaire survey on volunteers with diabetes who were using the application. Ninety subjects responded to the questionnaire between June 2012 and March 2013. A modified version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) was used in this study.

Results

The survey results exhibited a mean subject age of 44.0 years old, and males accounted for 78.9% of the subjects. Fifty percent of the subjects had diabetes for less than 3 years. The majority of respondents experienced positive changes in their clinical course after using the application (83.1%) and were satisfied with the structure and completeness of the application (86.7%). Additionally, the respondents' answers indicated that the application was easy to use (96.7%) and recommendable to others (97.7%) and that they would continue using the application to manage their diabetes (96.7%). After using the Diabetes Notepad application, diabetes related self-care activities assessed by SDSCA displayed statistically significant improvements (P<0.05), except for the number of days of drinking.

Conclusion

This smartphone-based application can be a useful tool leading to positive changes in diabetes related self-care activities and increase user satisfaction.

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Risk Factors for the Progression of Intima-Media Thickness of Carotid Arteries: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes
Sang Ouk Chin, Jin Kyung Hwang, Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon, You-Cheol Hwang, Seungjoon Oh, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung, Jeong-taek Woo, Sung-Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Ja-Heon Kang, In-Kyung Jeong
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(5):365-374.   Published online October 17, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.5.365
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries is known to have a positive correlation with the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to identify risk factors affecting the progression of carotid IMT in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM with carotid IMT measurements were enrolled, and their clinical data and carotid IMT results at baseline and 2 years later were compared.

Results

Of the 171 patients, 67.2% of males and 50.8% of females had abnormal baseline IMT of the left common carotid artery. At baseline, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and smoking in male participants, and fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in females were significantly higher in patients with abnormal IMT than in those with normal IMT. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in males and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in females at the 2-year follow-up were significantly different between the nonprogression and the progression groups. Reduction of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score after 2 years was generally higher in the nonprogression group than the progression group.

Conclusion

LDL-C levels in males and HDL-C levels in females at the 2-year follow-up were significantly different between participants with and without progression of carotid IMT. Furthermore, a reduction in the UKPDS 10-year CHD risk score appeared to delay the advancement of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the importance of establishing the therapeutic goal of lipid profiles should be emphasized to prevent the progression of carotid IMT in newly diagnosed T2DM patients.

Citations

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Hemoglobin A1c May Be an Inadequate Diagnostic Tool for Diabetes Mellitus in Anemic Subjects
Jung Il Son, Sang Youl Rhee, Jeong-taek Woo, Jin Kyung Hwang, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Seungjoon Oh, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(5):343-348.   Published online October 17, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.5.343
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Recently, a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5% has been determined to be a criterion for diabetes mellitus (DM), and it is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of DM. However, HbA1c may be influenced by a number of factors. Anemia is one of the most prevalent diseases with an influence on HbA1c; however, its effect on HbA1c varies based on the variable pathophysiology of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anemia on HbA1c levels.

Methods

Anemic subjects (n=112) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=217) who were drug naive and suspected of having DM were enrolled. The subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and HbA1c simultaneously. We compared mean HbA1c and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DM between each subgroup.

Results

Clinical characteristics were found to be similar between each subgroup. Also, when glucose levels were within the normal range, the difference in mean HbA1c was not significant (P=0.580). However, when plasma glucose levels were above the diagnostic cutoff for prediabetes and DM, the mean HbA1c of the anemic subgroup was modestly higher than in the nonanemic group. The specificity of HbA1c for diagnosis of DM was significantly lower in the anemic subgroup (P<0.05).

Conclusion

These results suggest that the diagnostic significance of HbA1c might be limited in anemic patients.

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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) cohort study is performing an ongoing large-scale prospective multicenter investigation to discover the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in Korean patients. This study was performed to examine the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes among those registered in the KNDP cohort within the past 4 years.

Methods

This study was performed between June 2006 and September 2009 at 13 university hospitals and included 4,265 KNDP cohort participants. Among the participants, the crude prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular diseases of those checked for diabetes-related complications was determined, and the adjusted standard prevalence and standardization of the general population prevalence ratio (SPR) was estimated based on the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) population demographics.

Results

Among the KNDP registrants, 43.2% had hypertension, 34.8% had dyslipidemia, 10.8% had macrovascular disease, and 16.7% had microvascular disease. The SPR of the KNDP registrants was significantly higher than that of the KNHANES subjects after adjusting for demographics in the KNHANES 2005 population. However, with the exception of cardiovascular disease in females, the standardized prevalence for the most complicated items in the survey was significantly higher than that in the KNHANES subjects.

Conclusion

The prevalence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease were significantly higher in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes than in the normal population. However, no significant difference was noted in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in females.

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Review
The Prediabetic Period: Review of Clinical Aspects
Sang Youl Rhee, Jeong-Taek Woo
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(2):107-116.   Published online April 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.2.107
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Hyperglycemia that does not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus (DM) is generally called prediabetes (preDM). The global prevalence of preDM has been increasing progressively in the past few decades, and it has been established that preDM status is a strong risk factor for DM and cardiovascular disease. Currently, preDM status is classified into two subtypes: impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Currently, preDM is not regarded as an independent clinical entity, but only as a risk factor for others. In this article, we review various clinical aspects of preDM in terms of the working definition, changes in criteria over the years, epidemiology, and pathophysiological characteristics, and its clinical significance in current medicine.

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Original Article
Autoimmune Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Characterization of Insulin Receptor Autoantibodies
Suk Chon, Moon Chan Choi, Yun Jung Lee, You Cheol Hwang, In-Kyung Jeong, Seungjoon Oh, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sung-Woon Kim, Jin-Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(1):80-85.   Published online February 28, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.1.80
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Type B insulin resistance syndrome is a manifestation of autoantibodies to the insulin receptor that results in severe hyperglycemia and acanthosis nigricans. However, the mechanisms by which these autoantibodies induce hypoglycemia are largely unknown. In this paper, we report the case of patient with type B insulin resistance syndrome who presented with frequent severe fasting hypoglycemia and acanthosis nigricans.

Methods

To evaluate the mechanism of hypoglycemia, we measured the inhibition of insulin binding to erythrocytes and IM9 lymphocytes in a sample of the patient's dialyzed serum before and after immunosuppressive therapy.

Results

In the patient's pre-treatment serum IgG, the binding of 125I-insulin to erythrocytes was markedly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner until the cold insulin level reached 10-9 mol/L. We also observed dose-dependent inhibition of insulin binding to IM9 lymphocytes, which reached approximately 82% inhibition and persisted even when diluted 1:20. After treatment with glucocorticoids, insulin-erythrocyte binding activity returned to between 70% and 80% of normal, while the inhibition of insulin-lymphocyte binding was reduced by 17%.

Conclusion

We treated a patient with type B insulin resistance syndrome showing recurrent fasting hypoglycemia with steroids and azathioprine. We characterized the patient's insulin receptor antibodies by measuring the inhibition of insulin binding.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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