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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Higher Muscle Mass Protects Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus from Progression to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Yujin Shin, Joon Ho Moon, Tae Jung Oh, Chang Ho Ahn, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):890-900.   Published online April 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0334
  • 4,896 View
  • 228 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We evaluated whether postpartum muscle mass affects the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Methods
A total of 305 women with GDM (mean age, 34.9 years) was prospectively evaluated for incident prediabetes and T2DM from 2 months after delivery and annually thereafter. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis at the initial postpartum visit, and ASM, either divided by body mass index (BMI) or squared height, and the absolute ASM were used as muscle mass indices. The risk of incident prediabetes and T2DM was assessed according to tertiles of these indices using a logistic regression model.
Results
After a mean follow-up duration of 3.3 years, the highest ASM/BMI tertile group had a 61% lower risk of incident prediabetes and T2DM compared to the lowest tertile group, and this remained significant after we adjusted for covariates (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.92; P=0.032). Equivalent findings were observed in normal weight women (BMI <23 kg/m2), but this association was not significant for overweight women (BMI ≥23 kg/m2). Absolute ASM or ASM/height2 was not associated with the risk of postpartum T2DM.
Conclusion
A higher muscle mass, as defined by the ASM/BMI index, was associated with a lower risk of postpartum prediabetes and T2DM in Korean women with GDM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • More appendicular lean mass relative to body mass index is associated with lower incident diabetes in middle-aged adults in the CARDIA study
    Melanie S. Haines, Aaron Leong, Bianca C. Porneala, Victor W. Zhong, Cora E. Lewis, Pamela J. Schreiner, Karen K. Miller, James B. Meigs, Mercedes R. Carnethon
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2023; 33(1): 105.     CrossRef
  • The Association of the Triglyceride and Muscle to Fat Ratio During Early Pregnancy with the Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Fang Wang, Yuan-Yuan Bao, Kang Yu
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 3187.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of body composition in early pregnancy on gestational diabetes mellitus under different body weights before pregnancy
    Li Xintong, Xu Dongmei, Zhang Li, Cao Ruimin, Hao Yide, Cui Lingling, Chen Tingting, Guo Yingying, Li Jiaxin
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Epidemiology
Application of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guideline to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1998 to 2012
Young Shin Song, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang, Kyong Soo Park, Soo Lim
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(1):38-50.   Published online December 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.1.38
  • 4,395 View
  • 30 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline for the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends statin therapy for individuals at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The aim of this study was to investigate serial trends in the percentages of Korean adults considered eligible for statin therapy according to the new ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline.

Methods

Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I (1998, n=7,698), II (2001, n=5,654), III (2005, n=5,269), IV (2007 to 2009, n=15,727), and V (2010 to 2012, n=16,304), which used a stratified, multistage, probability sampling design, were used as representative of the entire Korean population.

Results

The percentage of adults eligible for statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline increased with time: 17.0%, 19.0%, 20.8%, 20.2%, and 22.0% in KNHANES I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively (P=0.022). The prevalence of ASCVD was 1.4% in KNHANES I and increased to 3.3% in KNHANES V. The percentage of diabetic patients aged 40 to 75 years with a low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of 70 to 189 mg/dL increased from 4.8% in KNHANES I to 6.1% in KNHANES V. People with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5% and aged 40 to 75 years accounted for the largest percentage among the four statin benefit groups: 9.1% in KNHANES I and 11.0% in KNHANES V.

Conclusion

Application of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline has found that the percentage of Korean adults in the statin benefit groups has increased over the past 15 years.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sex differences in risk factors for subclinical hypothyroidism
    Jeonghoon Ha, Jeongmin Lee, Kwanhoon Jo, Dong-Jun Lim, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Min-Hee Kim
    Endocrine Connections.2018; 7(4): 511.     CrossRef
Clinical Care/Education
Hyperglycemia Is Associated with Impaired Muscle Quality in Older Men with Diabetes: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging
Ji Won Yoon, Yong-Chan Ha, Kyoung Min Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Jae Young Lim, Ki Woong Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):140-146.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.140
  • 7,480 View
  • 79 Download
  • 86 Web of Science
  • 89 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on muscle quality in older men with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

This was a subsidiary study of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Health and Aging. Among 326 older men consenting to tests of body composition and muscle strength, 269 men were ultimately analyzed after the exclusion because of stroke (n=30) and uncertainty about the diagnosis of diabetes (n=27). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Muscle strength for knee extension was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle quality was assessed from the ratio of leg strength to the entire corresponding leg muscle mass.

Results

The muscle mass, strength, and quality in patients with type 2 diabetes did not differ significantly from controls. However, when patients with diabetes were subdivided according to their glycemic control status, patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of ≥8.5% showed significantly decreased leg muscle quality by multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 4.510; P=0.045) after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking amount, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and duration of diabetes. Physical performance status was also impaired in subjects with an HbA1c of ≥8.5%.

Conclusion

Poor glycemic control in these older patients with diabetes was associated with significant risk of decreased muscle quality and performance status. Glycemic control with an HbA1c of <8.5% might be needed to reduce the risk of adverse skeletal and functional outcomes in this population.

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Dietary Oleate Has Beneficial Effects on Every Step of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model
Ji Young Lee, Jae Hoon Moon, Jong Suk Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(5):489-496.   Published online October 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.5.489
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed animal model.

Methods

A total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group) and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day). Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.

Results

Additional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001). Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively). The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001). Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.

Conclusion

Dietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

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Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes
Seo Hee Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Hee Kwan Won, Jae Hoon Moon, Kwang Joon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):404-410.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.404
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Recent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG) had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.

Methods

In a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100) after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein).

Results

Fasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001) in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide) in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.

Conclusion

Postprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

Citations

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Long-term Effect of Pioglitazone Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Jae Hoon Moon, Hye Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Wan Sub Shim, Eun Seuk Kang, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(4):264-276.   Published online July 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.4.264
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones have been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long term serial effect of pioglitazone on anthropometrics and metabolic parameters in Korean type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: One hundred thirteen type 2 diabetes patients (male, 67; female, 46; mean age, 49.1+/-10.8 years) were evaluated before and after 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of treatment with pioglitazone (Actos(TM), 15 mg/day). Anthropometric parameters and metabolic variables were measured. RESULTS: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were increased in 3 months after pioglitazone treatment (body weight, 68.8+/-12.2 vs 69.8+/-11.9 kg, P < 0.01) without further increase. In women, body weight and BMI tended to increase more (body weight change after 3 months, 0.6+/-1.7 kg vs 1.6+/-1.7 kg, P < 0.01) and longer (3 months vs 6 months) than in men. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c were decreased in 3 months after pioglitazone treatment (FPG, 7.97+/-2.29 vs 6.94+/-2.01 mmol/L, P < 0.01; HbA1c, 7.7+/-1.5 vs 7.0+/-1.1%, P < 0.01). Hypoglycemic effect of pioglitazone was prominent in women than in men (FPG change after 12 months, -1.80+/-2.54 vs -0.09+/-1.72 mmol/L, P < 0.001; HbA1c change after 12 months, -0.9+/-1.3 vs -0.4+/-1.1%, P < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased after 3 months of pioglitazone treatment (1.16+/-0.24 vs 1.31+/-0.28 mmol/L, P < 0.01) without return until the end of this study. Serum triglycerides level decreased at 3 months (basal vs 3 months, 2.29+/-1.86 vs 1.88+/-1.21 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and 6 months (basal vs 6 months, 2.29+/-1.86 vs 1.97+/-1.40 mmol/L, P < 0.05) of pioglitazone treatment, but returned to basal level at 12 months. Liver enzyme, especially serum alanine transferase level decreased after 3 months of pioglitazone treatment (30.8+/-23.7 vs 24.5+/-18.5 IU/L, P < 0.01) without return until the end of this study. Hypoglycemic effect of pioglitazone was associated with basal BMI, fat contents and serum leptin level. CONCLUSION: Korean type 2 diabetes patients with pioglitazone use showed favorable metabolic effect for glycemic control, lipid metabolism and liverfunction, but pioglitazone induced body weight increase may be limited.

Citations

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  • Therapeutic Effect of Quadruple Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Who Have Insulin Limitations
    Won Sang Yoo, Do Hee Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Hyun Kyung Chung
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Analysis of the Relative Importance of Insulin Resistance and Insulin Secretion Defect by Homeostasis Model Assessment in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(3):206-214.   Published online May 1, 2005
  • 1,226 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defects in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, the relative importance of insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean type 2 diabetic patients has not been well characterized in any study that has included a large number of subjects. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of insulin sensitivity and the function of the beta cell in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We applied the HOMA model to 1,162 type 2 diabetic patients (654 males and, 508 females) who did not use insulin and we assessed HOMAIR and HOMAbetacell & its relation to the other parameters. RESULTS: The HOMAIR of Korean type 2 diabetic patients was 2.29(range: 0.31~37.17) and the HOMAbetacell of Korean type 2 diabetic patients was 32.17(range: 1.04~1310.79). The HOMAIR of Korean type 2 diabetic male patients was 2.15(range: 0.31~16.6) and that of Korean type 2 diabetic female patients was 2.47(range: 0.36~37.17). The HOMAbetacell of Korean type 2 diabetic male patients was 30.1(range: 1.04~462.34) and that of Korean type 2 diabetic female patients was 35.42(range: 2.60~1310.79). The HOMAIR and HOMAbetacell were significantly higher in females than males. There was no significant correlation between HOMAIR and age, and the duration of diabetes, but there was significant correlation between HOMAIR and BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c and the fasting insulin. There was no significant correlation between age and HOMAbetacell. However, there was significant correlation between HOMAbetacell and BMI, the duration of diabetes, the fasting glucose, HbA1c and the fasting insulin. The longer the duration of diabetes, the more the HOMAbetacell was decreased but there was no change of HOMAIR with respect to the duration of diabetes. As expected, the subjects with a lower HOMAIR and a higher HOMAbetacell had the best glycemic control. Those with a higher HOMAIR and lower HOMAbetacell had the worst glycemic control although they had taken larger amount of oral hypoglycemic agents. Interestingly, the patients with a lower HOMAIR and higher HOMAbetacell had better glycemic control than those patients with a higher HOMAIR and lower HOMAbetacell. CONCLUSION: Both insulin secretion and insulin resistance are important in glycemic control but it seems that insulin secretion is a more important factor in glycemic control than insulin resistance in the Korean type 2 diabetic patients

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal