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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal



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4 "Hyun-Jin Kim"
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Original Article
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Harnessing Metabolic Indices as a Predictive Tool for Cardiovascular Disease in a Korean Population without Known Major Cardiovascular Event
Hyun-Jin Kim, Byung Sik Kim, Yonggu Lee, Sang Bong Ahn, Dong Wook Kim, Jeong-Hun Shin
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(3):449-462.   Published online February 1, 2024
  • 1,126 View
  • 42 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
This study evaluated the usefulness of indices for metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance (IR), as predictive tools for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged Korean adults.
The prospective data obtained from the Ansan-Ansung cohort database, excluding patients with major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary outcome was the incidence of MACCE during the follow-up period.
A total of 9,337 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 1,130 (12.1%) experienced MACCE during a median follow-up period of 15.5 years. The metabolic syndrome severity Z-score, metabolic syndrome severity score, hepatic steatosis index, and NAFLD liver fat score were found to significantly predict MACCE at values above the cut-off point and in the second and third tertiles. Among these indices, the hazard ratios of the metabolic syndrome severity score and metabolic syndrome severity Z-score were the highest after adjusting for confounding factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score for predicting MACCE was 0.716, and the metabolic syndrome severity Z-score had an AUC of 0.619.
The metabolic syndrome severity score is a highly reliable indicator and was closely associated with the 10-year ASCVD risk score in predicting MACCE in the general population. Given the specific characteristics and limitations of metabolic syndrome severity scores as well as the indices of NAFLD and IR, a more practical scoring system that considers these factors is essential to achieve greater accuracy in forecasting cardiovascular outcomes.
Blood Pressure Target in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hyun-Jin Kim, Kwang-il Kim, on Behalf of the Policy Committee of Korean Society of Hypertension
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):667-674.   Published online September 19, 2022
  • 6,589 View
  • 514 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continues to increase worldwide, and it is a well-established cardiovascular risk factor. Hypertension is also an important cardiovascular risk factor to be controlled and is common among patients with diabetes mellitus. Optimal blood pressure (BP) goals have been the subject of great debate in the management of hypertension among patients with diabetes mellitus. This review provides detailed results from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of clinical outcomes according to the target BP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, the target BP in patients with diabetes mellitus recommended by different guidelines was summarized and presented. A target BP of <140/90 mm Hg is recommended for patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and BP should be controlled to <130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes mellitus who have high-risk clinical features. We hope that this review will be helpful to clinicians and patients by promoting the understanding and appropriate application of BP control in the comprehensive management of patients with diabetes mellitus.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Recent evidence on target blood pressure in patients with hypertension
    Hack-Lyoung Kim
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Using Generative AI to Improve the Performance and Interpretability of Rule-Based Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Leon Kopitar, Iztok Fister, Gregor Stiglic
    Information.2024; 15(3): 162.     CrossRef
  • Additive interaction of family medical history of diabetes with hypertension on the diagnosis of diabetes among older adults in India: longitudinal ageing study in India
    Waquar Ahmed
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Emerging roles of interferon-stimulated gene-15 in age-related telomere attrition, the DNA damage response, and cardiovascular disease
    María González-Amor, Beatriz Dorado, Vicente Andrés
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Diabetes and Voluntary Exercise on IgA Concentration and Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor Expression in the Submandibular Gland of Rats
    Jaebum Park, Yuko Yamamoto, Kouki Hidaka, Satoko Wada-Takahashi, Shun-suke Takahashi, Toshiya Morozumi, Nobuhisa Kubota, Makiko Saita, Juri Saruta, Wakako Sakaguchi, Masahiro To, Tomoko Shimizu, Yuko Mikuni-Takagaki, Keiichi Tsukinoki
    Medicina.2023; 59(4): 789.     CrossRef
  • A diabetes update
    Zachary Bloomgarden
    Journal of Diabetes.2023; 15(7): 542.     CrossRef
    I. P. Dunaieva, N. O. Kravchun, І. A. Ilchenko
    Bulletin of Problems Biology and Medicine.2023; 1(2): 211.     CrossRef
  • Hypertensive Heart Failure
    Filippos Triposkiadis, Pantelis Sarafidis, Alexandros Briasoulis, Dimitrios E. Magouliotis, Thanos Athanasiou, John Skoularigis, Andrew Xanthopoulos
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(15): 5090.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes
    Min Kyong Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 120.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Effect of Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets and Intermittent Fasting on Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Hypertension Management: Consensus Statement of the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, Korean Diabetes Association, and Korean Society of Hypertension
Jong Han Choi, Yoon Jeong Cho, Hyun-Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Suk Chon, Jee-Hyun Kang, Kyoung-Kon Kim, Eun Mi Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Ga Eun Nam, Kwang Il Kim, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO), Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines and Committee of Food and Nutrition, Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), Policy Committee of Korean Society of Hypertension (KSH), Policy Development Committee of National Academy of Medicine of Korea (NAMOK)
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):355-376.   Published online May 25, 2022
  • 11,520 View
  • 600 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting (IF) have been rapidly gaining interest among the general population and patients with cardiometabolic disease, such as overweight or obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, there are limited expert recommendations for these dietary regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the level of scientific evidence on the benefits and harms of carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF to make responsible recommendations. A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of 66 articles on 50 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carbohydrate-restricted diets and 10 articles on eight RCTs of IF was performed. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations are suggested. In adults with overweight or obesity, a moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet (mLCD) can be considered as a dietary regimen for weight reduction. In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mLCD can be considered as a dietary regimen for improving glycemic control and reducing body weight. In contrast, a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) and IF are recommended against in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no recommendations are suggested for VLCD and IF in adults with overweight or obesity, and carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF in patients with hypertension. Here, we describe the results of our analysis and the evidence for these recommendations.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Metabolic changes with intermittent fasting
    Maria G. Lange, Alice A. Coffey, Paul C. Coleman, Thomas M. Barber, Thijs Van Rens, Oyinlola Oyebode, Sally Abbott, Petra Hanson
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics.2024; 37(1): 256.     CrossRef
  • Papel do Jejum Intermitente e da Dieta Restrita em Carboidratos na Prevenção de Doenças Cardiovasculares em Pacientes Pré-Diabéticos
    Mohamed Khalfallah, Basma Elnagar, Shaimaa S. Soliman, Ahmad Eissa, Amany Allaithy
    Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus
    Suk Chon
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(7): 421.     CrossRef
  • Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis development in a patient with type 2 diabetes receiving a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor and a carbohydrate-restricted diet
    Gwanpyo Koh, Jisun Bang, Soyeon Yoo, Sang Ah Lee
    Journal of Medicine and Life Science.2023; 20(3): 126.     CrossRef
  • Comprehensive Understanding for Application in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus of the Consensus Statement on Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets by Korean Diabetes Association, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, and Korean Society of Hyperte
    Jong Han Choi, Jee-Hyun Kang, Suk Chon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 377.     CrossRef
  • The Related Metabolic Diseases and Treatments of Obesity
    Ming Yang, Shuai Liu, Chunye Zhang
    Healthcare.2022; 10(9): 1616.     CrossRef
  • Updated Meta-Analysis of Studies from 2011 to 2021 Comparing the Effectiveness of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Continuous Energy Restriction
    Kyoung-Kon Kim, Jee-Hyun Kang, Eun Mi Kim
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2022; 31(3): 230.     CrossRef
Original Article
Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Weight, Glucose and Lipid Control in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Hee-Jung Ahn, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Bo-Kyung Koo, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):86-94.   Published online April 30, 2010
  • 3,311 View
  • 28 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys reported 65% of daily energy intake (EI) as carbohydrate (CHO) in the Korean population and main source of CHO was cooked rice. We used a standardized-small sized rice bowl for diet education and investigated its effectiveness on body weight, glucose and lipid, compared to the conventional food exchange system in type 2 diabetes obese women.


Type 2 diabetic women with body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to small rice bowl-based meal plan (BM) and food exchange-based meal plan (ExM) group. Both groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks. The macronutrient composition was instructed: 55 to 60% of EI as CHO, 15 to 20% as protein, and 20 to 25% as fat. BM group received only a simple instruction for application of the rice bowl. Nutrient intake was estimated with the 3-day dietary records.


Finally, 44 subjects finished the study. The percent reduction of body weight was significant both BM group (-5.1 ± 2.6%) and ExM group (-4.8 ± 2.8%) after 12 weeks (P < 0.001) but there was no difference between the groups. There was no difference in the proportional change of CHO, protein and fat in EI between the groups. Additionally, the change of HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.


The BM group was as effective as ExM for body weight and glucose control in type 2 diabetes obese women.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Development of a Sport Food Exchange List for Dietetic Practice in Sport Nutrition
    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Susana Menal-Puey, Isabel Sospedra, Giuseppe Russolillo, Aurora Norte, Iva Marques-Lopes
    Nutrients.2020; 12(8): 2403.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Combined Therapy with Fenugreek and Nutrition Training Based on Iranian Traditional Medicine on FBS, HgA1c, BMI, and Waist Circumference in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: a Randomized Double Blinded Clinical Trial
    Seyyedeh Seddigheh Hassani, Arezodar Fallahi, Seyyed Saeid Esmaeili, Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki
    Journal of Advances in Medical and Biomedical Research.2019; 27(120): 37.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Spanish Food Exchange List: Application of Statistical Criteria to a Rationale Procedure
    Iva Marques-Lopes, Susana Menal-Puey, J. Alfredo Martínez, Giuseppe Russolillo
    Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.2018; 118(7): 1161.     CrossRef
  • A Practical Approach to the Management of Micronutrients and Other Nutrients of Concern in Food Exchange Lists for Meal Planning
    Giuseppe Russolillo-Femenías, Susana Menal-Puey, J. Alfredo Martínez, Iva Marques-Lopes
    Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.2018; 118(11): 2029.     CrossRef
  • Anemia is inversely associated with serum C-peptide concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes
    Jin Ook Chung, Seon-Young Park, Dong Hyeok Cho, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
    Medicine.2018; 97(32): e11783.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between serum C-peptide level and diabetic retinopathy according to estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Jin Ook Chung, Dong Hyeok Cho, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2015; 29(3): 350.     CrossRef
  • Serum bilirubin concentrations are positively associated with serum C‐peptide levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes
    J. O. Chung, D. H. Cho, D. J. Chung, M. Y. Chung
    Diabetic Medicine.2014; 31(11): 1316.     CrossRef
  • Association between serum C-peptide levels and chronic microvascular complications in Korean type 2 diabetic patients
    Bo-Yeon Kim, Chan-Hee Jung, Ji-Oh Mok, Sung-Koo Kang, Chul-Hee Kim
    Acta Diabetologica.2012; 49(1): 9.     CrossRef
  • Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(3): 273.     CrossRef
  • The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 340.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal