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Pathophysiology
Attention to Innate Circadian Rhythm and the Impact of Its Disruption on Diabetes
Da Young Lee, Inha Jung, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):37-52.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0193
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Novel strategies are required to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and/or clinical outcomes and complications of diabetes. In this regard, the role of the circadian system may be a potential candidate for the prevention of diabetes. We reviewed evidence from animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies linking the circadian system to various aspects of the pathophysiology and clinical outcomes of diabetes. The circadian clock governs genetic, metabolic, hormonal, and behavioral signals in anticipation of cyclic 24-hour events through interactions between a “central clock” in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and “peripheral clocks” in the whole body. Currently, circadian rhythmicity in humans can be subjectively or objectively assessed by measuring melatonin and glucocorticoid levels, core body temperature, peripheral blood, oral mucosa, hair follicles, rest-activity cycles, sleep diaries, and circadian chronotypes. In this review, we summarized various circadian misalignments, such as altered light-dark, sleep-wake, rest-activity, fasting-feeding, shift work, evening chronotype, and social jetlag, as well as mutations in clock genes that could contribute to the development of diabetes and poor glycemic status in patients with diabetes. Targeting critical components of the circadian system could deliver potential candidates for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the future.
Original Articles
Technology/Device
Clinical and Lifestyle Determinants of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Metrics in Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Da Young Lee, Namho Kim, Inha Jung, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Jihee Kim, Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sung-Min Park, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):826-836.   Published online August 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0273
  • 2,061 View
  • 192 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There was limited evidence to evaluate the association between lifestyle habits and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics. Thus, we aimed to depict the behavioral and metabolic determinants of CGM metrics in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
This is a prospective observational study. We analyzed data from 122 insulin-treated patients with T2DM. Participants wore Dexcom G6 and Fitbit, and diet information was identified for 10 days. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed for the simultaneous achievement of CGM-based targets, defined by the percentage of time in terms of hyper, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability (GV). Intake of macronutrients and fiber, step counts, sleep, postprandial C-peptide-to-glucose ratio (PCGR), information about glucose lowering medications and metabolic factors were added to the analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of the distribution of energy and macronutrient during a day, and snack consumption on CGM metrics.
Results
Logistic regression analysis revealed that female, participants with high PCGR, low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and daytime step count had a higher probability of achieving all targets based on CGM (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] which were 0.24 [0.09 to 0.65], 1.34 [1.03 to 1.25], 0.95 [0.9 to 0.99], and 1.15 [1.03 to 1.29], respectively). And participants who ate snacks showed a shorter period of hyperglycemia and less GV compared to those without.
Conclusion
We confirmed that residual insulin secretion, daytime step count, HbA1c, and women were the most relevant determinants of adequate glycemic control in insulin-treated patients with T2DM. In addition, individuals with snack consumption were exposed to lower times of hyperglycemia and GV.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Explanatory variables of objectively measured 24-h movement behaviors in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review
    Lotte Bogaert, Iris Willems, Patrick Calders, Eveline Dirinck, Manon Kinaupenne, Marga Decraene, Bruno Lapauw, Boyd Strumane, Margot Van Daele, Vera Verbestel, Marieke De Craemer
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2024; 18(4): 102995.     CrossRef
Others
Fasting Glucose Variability and the Risk of Dementia in Individuals with Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Da Young Lee, Jaeyoung Kim, Sanghyun Park, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyungdo Han, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):923-935.   Published online May 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0346
  • 5,870 View
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  • 7 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We investigated whether fasting glucose (FG) variability could predict the risk of dementia.
Methods
This cohort study analyzed data from Koreans with diabetes after at least three health examinations by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation between 2005 and 2010, which included at least one examination between 2009 and 2010. A total of 769,554 individuals were included, excluding those aged <40 years and those with dementia. FG variability was measured using the variability independent of the mean (FG-VIM). The incidence of dementia was defined by the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes and prescription of anti-dementia medication and was subdivided into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD).
Results
During the 6.9-year follow-up, 54,837, 41,032, and 6,892 cases of all-cause dementia, AD, and VD, respectively, were identified. Cox proportional regression analyses showed that as the FG-VIM quartile increased, the risk of dementia serially increased after adjustment for metabolic factors, income status, and diabetes-related characteristics, including the mean FG. Participants in FG-VIM quartile 4 showed a 18%, 19%, and 17% higher risk for all-cause dementia, AD, and VD, respectively, than those in quartile 1; this particularly included non-obese patients with a longer duration of diabetes, high FG levels, dyslipidemia, and those taking glucose-lowering medications. Conversely, the baseline FG status and dementia showed a U-shaped association.
Conclusion
Increased FG variability over 5 years can predict the risk of dementia in individuals with diabetes in Korea. This finding was more pronounced in patients with less favorable metabolic profiles.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Fasting glucose variability and risk of dementia in Parkinson’s disease: a 9-year longitudinal follow-up study of a nationwide cohort
    Sung Hoon Kang, Yunjin Choi, Su Jin Chung, Seok-Joo Moon, Chi Kyung Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Kyungmi Oh, Joon Shik Yoon, Sang Won Seo, Geum Joon Cho, Seong-Beom Koh
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of a Diabetic Microenvironment on Neurodegeneration: Special Focus on Neurological Cells
    Vishal Chavda, Dhananjay Yadav, Snehal Patel, Minseok Song
    Brain Sciences.2024; 14(3): 284.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Glucose Variability and Dementia Incidence in Latinx Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Study
    Heather Cuevas, Elizabeth Muñoz, Divya Nagireddy, Jeeyeon Kim, Grace Ganucheau, Fathia Alomoush
    Clinical Nursing Research.2023; 32(2): 249.     CrossRef
  • The effects of long-term cumulative HbA1c exposure on the development and onset time of dementia in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Hospital based retrospective study (2005–2021)
    Sunyoung Cho, Choon Ok Kim, Bong-soo Cha, Eosu Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Min-Gul Kim, Min Soo Park
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 201: 110721.     CrossRef
  • Physiological Mechanisms Inherent to Diabetes Involved in the Development of Dementia: Alzheimer’s Disease
    Himan Mohamed-Mohamed, Victoria García-Morales, Encarnación María Sánchez Lara, Anabel González-Acedo, Teresa Pardo-Moreno, María Isabel Tovar-Gálvez, Lucía Melguizo-Rodríguez, Juan José Ramos-Rodríguez
    Neurology International.2023; 15(4): 1253.     CrossRef
  • Cumulative effect of impaired fasting glucose on the risk of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people: a nationwide cohort study
    Jin Yu, Kyu-Na Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Short Communication
Technology/Device
Comparison of Laser and Conventional Lancing Devices for Blood Glucose Measurement Conformance and Patient Satisfaction in Diabetes Mellitus
Jung A Kim, Min Jeong Park, Eyun Song, Eun Roh, So Young Park, Da Young Lee, Jaeyoung Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):936-940.   Published online March 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0293
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  • 1 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose is important for controlling diabetes. Recently, a laser lancing device (LMT-1000) that can collect capillary blood without skin puncture was developed. We enrolled 150 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood sampling was performed on the same finger on each hand using the LMT-1000 or a conventional lancet. The primary outcome was correlation between glucose values using the LMT-1000 and that using a lancet. And we compared the pain and satisfaction of the procedures. The capillary blood sampling success rates with the LMT-1000 and lancet were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r=0.974, P<0.001) between mean blood glucose levels in the LMT-1000 (175.8±63.0 mg/dL) and conventional lancet samples (172.5±63.6 mg/dL). LMT-1000 reduced puncture pain by 75.0% and increased satisfaction by 80.0% compared to a lancet. We demonstrated considerable consistency in blood glucose measurements between samples from the LMT-1000 and a lancet, but improved satisfaction and clinically significant pain reduction were observed with the LMT-1000 compared to those with a lancet.

Citations

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  • Comparison between a laser-lancing device and automatic incision lancet for capillary blood sampling from the heel of newborn infants: a randomized feasibility trial
    Chul Kyu Yun, Eui Kyung Choi, Hyung Jin Kim, Jaeyoung Kim, Byung Cheol Park, Kyuhee Park, Byung Min Choi
    Journal of Perinatology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Editorial
Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors: Causative Factor or Epiphenomenon?
Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(2):257-259.   Published online March 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0060
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  • 132 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between carotid atherosclerosis and presence of intracranial atherosclerosis using three-dimensional high-resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes
    Ji Eun Jun, You-Cheol Hwang, Kyu Jeong Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung, Geon-Ho Jahng, Soonchan Park, In-Kyung Jeong, Chang-Woo Ryu
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2022; 191: 110067.     CrossRef
  • Mean versus variability of lipid measurements over 6 years and incident cardiovascular events: More than a decade follow-up
    Soroush Masrouri, Leila Cheraghi, Niloofar Deravi, Neda Cheraghloo, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and All-Cause Mortality according to Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in the Elderly, a Nationwide Study
You-Bin Lee, Minji Koo, Eunjin Noh, Soon Young Hwang, Jung A Kim, Eun Roh, So-hyeon Hong, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Geum Joon Cho, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):722-732.   Published online March 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0225
  • 7,222 View
  • 333 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We assessed the myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause death risks during follow-up according to the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among older adults.
Methods
The Korean National Health Insurance Service datasets (2002 to 2020) were used for this population-based cohort study. The hazards of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality during follow-up were analyzed according to LDL-C level in individuals aged ≥65 years without baseline cardiovascular diseases (n=1,391,616).
Results
During a mean 7.55 years, 52,753 MIs developed; 84,224 strokes occurred over a mean 7.47 years. After a mean 8.50 years, 233,963 died. A decrease in LDL-C was associated with lower hazards of MI and stroke. The decreased hazard of stroke in lower LDL-C was more pronounced in statin users, and individuals with diabetes or obesity. The hazard of all-cause death during follow-up showed an inverted J-shaped pattern according to the LDL-C levels. However, the paradoxically increased hazard of mortality during follow-up in lower LDL-C was attenuated in statin users and individuals with diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In statin users, lower LDL-C was associated with a decreased hazard of mortality during follow-up.
Conclusion
Among the elderly, lower LDL-C was associated with decreased risks of MI and stroke. Lower LDL-C achieved by statins in the elderly was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause death during follow-up, suggesting that LDL-C paradox for the premature death risk in the elderly should not be applied to statin users. Intensive statin therapy should not be hesitated for older adults with cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Combination of low- or moderate-intensity statin and ezetimibe vs. high-intensity statin monotherapy on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and all-cause death: a propensity-matched nationwide cohort study
    Ji Eun Jun, In-Kyung Jeong, Kyu Jeong Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung, You-Cheol Hwang
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Associations of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With All-cause and Cause-specific Mortality in Older Adults in China
    Wenqing Ni, Yuebin Lv, Xueli Yuan, Yan Zhang, Hongmin Zhang, Yijing Zheng, Xiaoming Shi, Jian Xu
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The relationship of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective study
    Chin-Huan Chang, Shu-Tin Yeh, Seng-Wei Ooi, Chung-Yi Li, Hua-Fen Chen
    PeerJ.2023; 11: e14609.     CrossRef
  • ERCC1 polymorphism and its expression associated with ischemic stroke in Chinese population
    Xiao-Dong Deng, Jian-Lin Ke, Tai-Yu Chen, Qin Gao, Zhuo-Lin Zhao, Wei Zhang, Huan Liu, Ming-Liang Xiang, Li-Zhen Wang, Ying Ma, Yun Liu
    Frontiers in Neurology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • New, Novel Lipid-Lowering Agents for Reducing Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Statins
    Kyuho Kim, Henry N. Ginsberg, Sung Hee Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 517.     CrossRef
  • Association between the Diabetes Drug Cost and Cardiovascular Events and Death in Korea: A National Health Insurance Service Database Analysis
    Seung Min Chung, Ji-In Lee, Eugene Han, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eonju Jeon, Hye Soon Kim, Ji Sung Yoon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(5): 759.     CrossRef
Short Communication
Basic Research
GPR40 Agonism Modulates Inflammatory Reactions in Vascular Endothelial Cells
Joo Won Kim, Eun Roh, Kyung Mook Choi, Hye Jin Yoo, Hwan-Jin Hwang, Sei Hyun Baik
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):506-511.   Published online January 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0092
  • 4,989 View
  • 229 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Endothelial dysfunction is strongly linked with inflammatory responses, which can impact cardiovascular disease. Recently, G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) has been investigated as a modulator of metabolic stress; however, the function of GPR40 in vascular endothelial cells has not been reported. We analyzed whether treatment of GPR40-specific agonists modulated the inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with LY2922470, a GPR40 agonist, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation and movement into the nucleus from the cytosol. However, treatment with another GPR40 agonist, TAK875, did not inhibit LPS-induced NF-κB activation. LPS treatment induced expression of adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and attachment of THP-1 cells to HUVECs, which were all decreased by LY2922470 but not TAK875. Our results showed that ligand-dependent agonism of GPR40 is a promising therapeutic target for overcoming inflammatory reactions in the endothelium.

Citations

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  • Synthetic GPR40/FFAR1 agonists: An exhaustive survey on the most recent chemical classes and their structure-activity relationships
    Abhik Paul, Sourin Nahar, Pankaj Nahata, Arnab Sarkar, Avik Maji, Ajeya Samanta, Sanmoy Karmakar, Tapan Kumar Maity
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.2024; 264: 115990.     CrossRef
  • Metabolite-sensing GPCRs in rheumatoid arthritis
    Xuezhi Yang, Wankang Zhang, Luping Wang, Yingjie Zhao, Wei Wei
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences.2024; 45(2): 118.     CrossRef
  • GPR40 deficiency worsens metabolic syndrome‐associated periodontitis in mice
    Yanchun Li, Zhongyang Lu, Cameron L. Kirkwood, Keith L. Kirkwood, Stephen A. Wank, Ai‐Jun Li, Maria F. Lopes‐Virella, Yan Huang
    Journal of Periodontal Research.2023; 58(3): 575.     CrossRef
  • Signaling pathways and intervention for therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Rong Cao, Huimin Tian, Yu Zhang, Geng Liu, Haixia Xu, Guocheng Rao, Yan Tian, Xianghui Fu
    MedComm.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 40 Agonist LY2922470 Alleviates Ischemic-Stroke-Induced Acute Brain Injury and Functional Alterations in Mice
    Yingyu Lu, Wanlu Zhou, Qinghua Cui, Chunmei Cui
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(15): 12244.     CrossRef
  • AM1638, a GPR40-Full Agonist, Inhibited Palmitate- Induced ROS Production and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Enhancing HUVEC Viability in an NRF2-Dependent Manner
    Hwan-Jin Hwang, Joo Won Kim, SukHwan Yun, Min Jeong Park, Eyun Song, Sooyeon Jang, Ahreum Jang, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(6): 760.     CrossRef
  • Learn from failures and stay hopeful to GPR40, a GPCR target with robust efficacy, for therapy of metabolic disorders
    Hong-Ping Guan, Yusheng Xiong
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Response
Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:368-78)
Kyoung Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Jae Hyun Bae, Kyeong Jin Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):617-618.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0152
  • 3,891 View
  • 99 Download
  • 2 Crossref
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effect of close and intensive therapeutic monitoring of patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes with different glycemic background
    Ayşe Naciye Erbakan, Müzeyyen Arslan Bahadir, Fatoş Nimet Kaya, Büşra Güleç, Miraç Vural Keskinler, Özge Faydaliel, Banu Mesçi, Aytekin Oğuz
    Medicine.2023; 102(50): e36680.     CrossRef
  • Reduced macula microvascular densities may be an early indicator for diabetic peripheral neuropathy
    Xiaoyu Deng, Shiqi Wang, Yan Yang, Aizhen Chen, Jinger Lu, Jinkui Hao, Yufei Wu, Qinkang Lu
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Editorial
The Role of Adipose Tissue Lipolysis in Diet-Induced Obesity: Focus on Vimentin
Eun Roh, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):43-45.   Published online January 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0293
  • 4,144 View
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Citations

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  • 92A Systematic Review of Proteomics in Obesity: Unpacking the Molecular Puzzle
    Alba Rodriguez-Muñoz, Hanieh Motahari-Rad, Laura Martin-Chaves, Javier Benitez-Porres, Jorge Rodriguez-Capitan, Andrés Gonzalez-Jimenez, Maria Insenser, Francisco J. Tinahones, Mora Murri
    Current Obesity Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bioinformatics and Next-Generation Data Analysis for Identification of Genes and Molecular Pathways Involved in Subjects with Diabetes and Obesity
    Prashanth Ganekal, Basavaraj Vastrad, Satish Kavatagimath, Chanabasayya Vastrad, Shivakumar Kotrashetti
    Medicina.2023; 59(2): 309.     CrossRef
  • Selegiline Modulates Lipid Metabolism by Activating AMPK Pathways of Epididymal White Adipose Tissues in HFD-Fed Obese Mice
    Hye-Young Joung, Jung-Mi Oh, Min-Suk Song, Young-Bae Kwon, Sungkun Chun
    Pharmaceutics.2023; 15(11): 2539.     CrossRef
  • An analogue of the Prolactin Releasing Peptide reduces obesity and promotes adult neurogenesis
    Sara KM Jörgensen, Alena Karnošová, Simone Mazzaferro, Oliver Rowley, Hsiao-Jou Cortina Chen, Sarah J Robbins, Sarah Christofides, Florian T Merkle, Lenka Maletínská, David Petrik
    EMBO Reports.2023; 25(1): 351.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Complications
Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study
Kyoung Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Jae Hyun Bae, Kyeong Jin Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(3):368-378.   Published online October 20, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0046
  • 9,610 View
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  • 19 Web of Science
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To evaluate the association of time to reach the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with long-term durable glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
In a longitudinal observational cohort, 194 patients with T2DM newly diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013 were followed up over 6 years. Patients were classified according to the time needed to reach the target HbA1c (<7.0%): <3, 3 to 6 (early achievement group), and ≥6 months (late achievement group). Risks of microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well as macrovascular events including ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis.
Results
During a median follow-up of 6.53 years, 66 microvascular and 14 macrovascular events occurred. Maintenance of durable glycemic control over 6 years was more likely in the early achievement groups than in the late achievement group (34.5%, 30.0%, and 16.1% in <3, 3 to 6, and ≥6 months, respectively, P=0.039). Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with lower risk of composite diabetic complications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.86 in <3 months group) (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.10 in 3 to 6 months group, in reference to ≥6 months group). Similar trends were maintained for risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications, although statistical significance was not reached for macrovascular complications.
Conclusion
Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with long-term durable glycemic control and reduced risk of diabetic complications in newly diagnosed T2DM.

Citations

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  • HbA1c As Diabetes Mellitus Biomarker and Its Methods Evolution
    Liong Boy Kurniawan
    INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY AND MEDICAL LABORATORY.2024; 30(2): 191.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of enavogliflozin vs. dapagliflozin as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on renal function: a pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials
    Young Sang Lyu, Sangmo Hong, Si Eun Lee, Bo Young Cho, Cheol-Young Park
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The effect of health quotient and time management skills on self-management behavior and glycemic control among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Mengjie Chen, Man Liu, Ying Pu, Juan Wu, Mingjiao Zhang, Hongxia Tang, Laixi Kong, Maoting Guo, Kexue Zhu, Yuxiu Xie, Zhe Li, Bei Deng, Zhenzhen Xiong
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    I. V. Druk, S. S. Safronova
    Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council.2023; (13): 130.     CrossRef
  • Effect of viscous soluble dietary fiber on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized clinical trials
    Kun Lu, Tingqing Yu, Xinyi Cao, Hui Xia, Shaokang Wang, Guiju Sun, Liang Chen, Wang Liao
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Construction and validation of a clinical prediction model for asymptomatic obstructive coronary stenosis in patients with carotid stenosis
    Cuijie Qin, Chuang Li, Yunpeng Luo, Zhen Li, Hui Cao
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk assessment of rectal anastomotic leakage (RAREAL) after DIXON in non-emergency patients with rectal cancer
    Xue-Cong Zheng, Jin-Bo Su, Jin-Jie Zheng
    BMC Gastroenterology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Diabetes Patients with Microvascular Disease by Three-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Imaging
    青 周
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2023; 13(12): 18908.     CrossRef
  • Validity of the diagnosis of diabetic microvascular complications in Korean national health insurance claim data
    Hyung Jun Kim, Moo-Seok Park, Jee-Eun Kim, Tae-Jin Song
    Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology.2022; 24(1): 7.     CrossRef
  • Metformin plus a low hypoglycemic risk antidiabetic drug vs. metformin monotherapy for untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Wei-Tse Hung, Yuan-Jung Chen, Chun-Yu Cheng, Bruce Ovbiagele, Meng Lee, Chia-Yu Hsu
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2022; 189: 109937.     CrossRef
  • Peripheral arterial disease progression and ankle brachial index: a cohort study with newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes
    João Soares Felício, Franciane Trindade Cunha de Melo, Giovana Miranda Vieira, Vitória Teixeira de Aquino, Fernanda de Souza Parente, Wanderson Maia da Silva, Nivin Mazen Said, Emanuele Rocha da Silva, Ana Carolina Contente Braga de Souza, Maria Clara Ner
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of long-term visit-to-visit variability of HbA1c and fasting glycemia with hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Chen Long, Yaling Tang, Jiangsheng Huang, Suo Liu, Zhenhua Xing
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Degree of Glycemic Control for the First Three Months Determines the Next Seven Years
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Age- and Sex-Related Differential Associations between Body Composition and Diabetes Mellitus
Eun Roh, Soon Young Hwang, Jung A Kim, You-Bin Lee, So-hyeon Hong, Nam Hoon Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(2):183-194.   Published online June 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0171
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

The age- and sex-related differences on the impacts of body composition on diabetes mellitus (DM) remain uncertain.

Methods

The fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included 15,586 subjects over 30 years of age who completed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether muscle mass index (MMI), defined as appendicular skeletal muscle divided by body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI), defined as trunk fat mass divided by BMI, were differently associated with DM according to age and sex.

Results

In multivariate logistic regression, the risk for DM significantly increased across quartiles of FMI in men aged ≥70. Meanwhile, MMI showed a protective association with DM in men of the same age. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of FMI and MMI were 3.116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.405 to 6.914) and 0.295 (95% CI, 0.157 to 0.554), respectively. In women, the ORs of DM was significantly different across FMI quartiles in those over age 50. The highest quartile of FMI exhibited increased ORs of DM in subjects aged 50 to 69 (OR, 1.891; 95% CI, 1.229 to 2.908) and ≥70 (OR, 2.275; 95% CI, 1.103 to 4.69) compared to lowest quartile. However, MMI was not significantly associated with DM in women of all age groups.

Conclusion

Both FMI and MMI were independent risk factors for DM in men aged 70 years or more. In women over 50 years, FMI was independently associated with DM. There was no significant association between MMI and DM in women.

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    敏 张
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2024; 14(03): 936.     CrossRef
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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Proportion and Characteristics of the Subjects with Low Muscle Mass and Abdominal Obesity among the Newly Diagnosed and Drug-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Jung A Kim, Soon Young Hwang, Hye Soo Chung, Nam Hoon Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):105-113.   Published online September 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0036
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a serious public health concern, few studies have examined the clinical implications of SO in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We evaluated the prevalence of the newly diagnosed, drug-naïve T2DM patients with low muscle mass with abdominal obesity and its association with insulin resistance and other diabetic complications.

Methods

We classified 233 drug-naïve T2DM subjects into four groups according to abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥85 cm in women) and low muscle mass status (appendicular skeletal muscle <7.0 kg/m2 for men and <5.4 kg/m2 for women).

Results

The proportion of the subjects with low muscle mass and abdominal obesity among the newly diagnosed, drug-naïve T2DM patients was 8.2%. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) increased linearly according to body composition group from normal to abdominal obesity to both low muscle mass and abdominal obesity. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that subjects with low muscle mass and abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR], 9.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.41 to 36.56) showed a higher risk for insulin resistance, defined as HOMA-IR ≥3, than those with abdominal obesity (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 2.46 to 11.69), even after adjusting for other covariates. However, there were no differences in lipid profiles, microalbuminuria, or various surrogate markers for atherosclerosis among the four groups.

Conclusion

Subjects with both low muscle mass and abdominal obesity had a higher risk of insulin resistance than those with low muscle mass or abdominal obesity only.

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Review
Hepatokines as a Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases
Hye Jin Yoo, Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(1):10-15.   Published online February 16, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.1.10
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, independently increases the risks of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent emerging evidence suggests that a group of predominantly liver-derived proteins called hepatokines directly affect the progression of atherosclerosis by modulating endothelial dysfunction and infiltration of inflammatory cells into vessel walls. Here, we summarize the role of the representative hepatokines fibroblast growth factor 21, fetuin-A, and selenoprotein P in the progression of CVD.

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Original Articles
Adipose Gene Expression Profiles Related to Metabolic Syndrome Using Microarray Analyses in Two Different Models
Hye Jin Yoo, Hwan-Jin Hwang, Tae Woo Jung, Ja Young Ryu, Ho Cheol Hong, Hae Yoon Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(5):356-365.   Published online October 17, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.5.356
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist has a wide-ranging influence on multiple components of metabolic syndrome. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is a useful animal model of metabolic syndrome. To determine genes related to metabolic syndrome, we examined overlapping genes that are simultaneously decreased by PPAR-γ agonists and increased in OLETF rats using microarrays in two different models.

Methods

In the first microarray analysis, PPAR-γ agonist-treated db/db mice were compared to standard diet-fed db/db mice. In the second microarray analysis, OLETF rats were compared to Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (control of OLETF rats).

Results

Among the overlapping genes, in the present study, we validated that lipocalin-2 expression was significantly decreased in the visceral adipose tissue of PPAR-γ agonist-treated db/db mice compared to standard diet-fed db/db mice and increased in OLETF rats compared to LETO rats using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that lipocalin-2 expression was significantly increased in the visceral adipose tissues of obese humans compared with nonobese humans. In addition, the expression level of lipocalin-2 in human visceral adipose tissue had a significant positive correlation with body mass index, serum interleukin-6, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels, and white blood cell count.

Conclusion

Lipocalin-2 was confirmed to be a significant adipokine affected by PPAR-γ agonist and obesity in the present study. Also, for the first time in human visceral adipose tissue, it was determined that the expression of lipocalin-2 from obese humans was significantly increased and correlated with circulating inflammatory markers.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Safety and Efficacy of Modern Insulin Analogues
Hye Jin Yoo, Keun Yong Park, Kang Seo Park, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Kyung Wan Min, Jeong Hyun Park, Sang Ah Chang, Bong Soo Cha, Dong-Jun Kim, Yong Seong Kim, Tae Keun Oh, Suk Chon, Il Seong Nam-Goong, Mi Jin Kim, Hye-Soon Kim, Young Sik Choi, You Hern Ahn, Sora Lee, Sei Hyun Baik
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(3):181-189.   Published online June 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.3.181
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

A1chieve® was a noninterventional study evaluating the clinical safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30, insulin detemir, and insulin aspart.

Methods

Korean type 2 diabetes patients who have not been treated with the study insulin or have started it within 4 weeks before enrollment were eligible for the study. The patient selection and the choice of regimen were at the discretion of the physician. The safety and efficacy information was collected from the subjects at baseline, week 12, and week 24. The number of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) was the primary endpoint. The changes of clinical diabetic markers at week 12 and/or at week 24 compared to baseline were the secondary endpoints.

Results

Out of 4,058 exposed patients, 3,003 completed the study. During the study period, three SADRs were reported in three patients (0.1%). No major hypoglycemic episodes were observed and the rate of minor hypoglycemic episodes marginally decreased during 24 weeks (from 2.77 to 2.42 events per patient-year). The overall quality of life score improved (from 66.7±15.9 to 72.5±13.5) while the mean body weight was slightly increased (0.6±3.0 kg). The 24-week reductions in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose were 1.6%±2.2%, 2.5±4.7 mmol/L, and 4.0±6.4 mmol/L, respectively.

Conclusion

The studied regimens showed improvements in glycemic control with low incidence of SADRs, including no incidence of major hypoglycemic episodes in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

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