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Original Article
Basic Research
Alantolactone Attenuates Renal Fibrosis via Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor β/Smad3 Signaling Pathway
Kyeong-Min Lee, Yeo Jin Hwang, Gwon-Soo Jung
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):72-82.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0231
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Renal fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and interstitial fibrosis. Alantolactone is known to exert anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antifungal effects; however, its effects on renal fibrosis remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether alantolactone attenuates renal fibrosis in mice unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and evaluated the effect of alantolactone on transforming growth factor (TGF) signaling pathway in renal cells.
Methods
To evaluate the therapeutic effect of alantolactone, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, histological staining, Western blot analysis, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed in UUO kidneys in vivo and in TGF-β-treated renal cells in vitro.
Results
Alantolactone (0.25 to 4 µM) did not affect the viability of renal cells. Mice orally administered 5 mg/kg of alantolactone daily for 15 days did not show mortality or liver toxicity. Alantolactone decreased UUO-induced blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. In addition, it significantly alleviated renal tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis and decreased collagen type I, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in UUO kidneys. In NRK-49F cells, alantolactone inhibited TGF-βstimulated expression of fibronectin, collagen type I, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and α-SMA. In HK-2 cells, alantolactone inhibited TGF-β-stimulated expression of collagen type I and PAI-1. Alantolactone inhibited UUO-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in UUO kidneys. In addition, it not only decreased TGF-β secretion but also Smad3 phosphorylation and translocation to nucleus in both kidney cell lines.
Conclusion
Alantolactone improves renal fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway in obstructive nephropathy. Thus, alantolactone is a potential therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease.
Brief Report
Drug/Regimen
Evogliptin, a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, Attenuates Renal Fibrosis Caused by Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Mice
Mi-Jin Kim, Na-young Kim, Yun-A Jung, Seunghyeong Lee, Gwon-Soo Jung, Jung-Guk Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Sungwoo Lee, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Keun-Gyu Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(1):186-192.   Published online October 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0271
  • 5,621 View
  • 97 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   

Renal fibrosis is considered to be the final common outcome of chronic kidney disease. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have demonstrated protective effects against diabetic kidney disease. However, the anti-fibrotic effect of evogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, has not been studied. Here, we report the beneficial effects of evogliptin on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis in mice. Evogliptin attenuated UUO-induced renal atrophy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that evogliptin treatment inhibits pro-fibrotic gene expressions and extracellular matrix production. In vitro findings showed that the beneficial effects of evogliptin on renal fibrosis are mediated by inhibition of the transforming growth factor-β/Smad3 signaling pathway. The present study demonstrates that evogliptin is protective against UUO-induced renal fibrosis, suggesting that its clinical applications could extend to the treatment of kidney disease of non-diabetic origin.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Yewon Na, Soo Wan Kim, Ie Byung Park, Soo Jung Choi, Seungyoon Nam, Jaehun Jung, Dae Ho Lee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2022; 107(11): 3022.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(19): 11636.     CrossRef
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    Analytical Biochemistry.2021; 612: 113952.     CrossRef
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    Sungjin Chung, Gheun-Ho Kim
    Life.2021; 11(5): 389.     CrossRef
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  • Efficacy and safety of evogliptin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes: A multicentre, active‐controlled, randomized, double‐blind study with open‐label extension (the EVERGREEN study)
    Gyuri Kim, Soo Lim, Hyuk‐Sang Kwon, Ie B. Park, Kyu J. Ahn, Cheol‐Young Park, Su K. Kwon, Hye S. Kim, Seok W. Park, Sin G. Kim, Min K. Moon, Eun S. Kim, Choon H. Chung, Kang S. Park, Mikyung Kim, Dong J. Chung, Chang B. Lee, Tae H. Kim, Moon‐Kyu Lee
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2020; 22(9): 1527.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Switching from Linagliptin to Teneligliptin Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors in Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


    Eugene Han, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Hye Soon Kim, Byung-wan Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Seok Kang
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2020; Volume 13: 4113.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of novel dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor evogliptin in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis
    Deep Dutta, Saptarshi Bhattacharya, Aishwarya Krishnamurthy, LokeshKumar Sharma, Meha Sharma
    Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 24(5): 434.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Complications
Gemigliptin Attenuates Renal Fibrosis Through Down-Regulation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome
Jung Beom Seo, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Hye-In Woo, Yun-A Jung, Sungwoo Lee, Seunghyeong Lee, Mihyang Park, In-Kyu Lee, Gwon-Soo Jung, Keun-Gyu Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(6):830-839.   Published online March 5, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0181
  • 5,376 View
  • 127 Download
  • 23 Web of Science
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The hypoglycemic drugs dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have proven protective effects on diabetic kidney disease, including renal fibrosis. Although NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation is known to play an important role in the progression of renal fibrosis, the impact of DPP-4 inhibition on NLRP3-mediated inflammation while ameliorating renal fibrosis has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that the renoprotective effect of gemigliptin is associated with a reduction in NLRP3-mediated inflammation in a murine model of renal fibrosis.

Methods

We examined the effects of gemigliptin on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced in mice by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Using immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis, we quantitated components of the NLRP3 inflammasome in kidneys with and without gemigliptin treatment, and in vitro in human kidney tubular epithelial human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2) cells, we further analyzed the effect of gemigliptin on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-stimulated production of profibrotic proteins.

Results

Immunohistological examination revealed that gemigliptin ameliorated UUO-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis. Gemigliptin-treated kidneys showed a reduction in levels of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and interleukin-1β, which had all been markedly increased by UUO. In line with the in vivo results, TGF-β markedly increased NLRP3 inflammasome markers, which were attenuated by gemigliptin treatment. Furthermore, gemigliptin treatment attenuated phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB levels, which had been increased in the UUO kidney as well as in TGF-β-treated cultured renal cells.

Conclusion

The present study shows that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to UUO-induced renal fibrosis and the renoprotective effect of gemigliptin is associated with attenuation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Seng Kiong Tan, Jairo A. Pinzon-Cortes, Mark E. Cooper
    Current Opinion in Nephrology & Hypertension.2024; 33(1): 13.     CrossRef
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    Fengxia Bai, Longchao Han, Jifeng Yang, Yuxiu Liu, Xiangmeng Li, Yaqin Wang, Ruijian Jiang, Zhaomu Zeng, Yan Gao, Haisong Zhang
    Frontiers in Immunology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Complications
Renoprotective Effect of Gemigliptin, a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, in Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Mice
Gwon-Soo Jung, Jae-Han Jeon, Mi Sun Choe, Sung-Woo Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Mi-Kyung Kim, Keun-Gyu Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(3):211-221.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.3.211
  • 6,301 View
  • 53 Download
  • 22 Web of Science
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and have proven protective effects on diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Whether DPP-4 inhibitors have renoprotective effects on insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes has not been comprehensively examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether gemigliptin, a new DPP-4 inhibitor, has renoprotective effects in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

Methods

Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of STZ. Mice with diabetes were treated without or with gemigliptin (300 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Morphological changes of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) were observed by electron microscopy and periodic-acid Schiff staining. In addition, we measured blood glucose and urinary albumin excretion and evaluated fibrotic markers using immunohistochemical staining, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, and Western blot analysis.

Results

Gemigliptin did not reduce the blood glucose levels of STZ-treated mice. In gemigliptin-treated mice with STZ, a significant reduction in urinary albumin excretion and GBM thickness was observed. Immunohistological examination revealed that gemigliptin attenuated renal fibrosis induced by STZ and decreased extracellular matrix protein levels, including those of type I collagen and fibronectin, and Smad3 phosphorylation. In cultured rat renal cells, gemigliptin inhibited transforming growth factor β-stimulated type I collagen and fibronectin mRNA and protein levels via down-regulation of Smad3 phosphorylation.

Conclusion

Our data demonstrate that gemigliptin has renoprotective effects on DKD, regardless of its glucose-lowering effect, suggesting that it could be used to prevent DKD, including in patients with type 1 diabetes.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal