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Epidemiology
Clinical Characteristics of People with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes between 2015 and 2016: Difference by Age and Body Mass Index
Kyoung Hwa Ha, Cheol Young Park, In Kyung Jeong, Hyun Jin Kim, Sang-Yong Kim, Won Jun Kim, Ji Sung Yoon, In Joo Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Sungrae Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(2):137-146.   Published online February 14, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.42.2.137
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  • 11 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We evaluated the clinical characteristics of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in newly diagnosed, drug-naive people with type 2 diabetes by analyzing nationwide cross-sectional data.

Methods

We collected the clinical data of 912 participants with newly diagnosed diabetes from 83 primary care clinics and hospitals nationwide from 2015 to 2016. The presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction was defined as a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥2.5 and fasting C-peptide levels <1.70 ng/mL, respectively.

Results

A total of 75.1% and 22.6% of participants had insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, respectively. The proportion of participants with insulin resistance but no β-cell dysfunction increased, and the proportion of participants with β-cell dysfunction but no insulin resistance decreased as body mass index (BMI) increased. People diagnosed with diabetes before 40 years of age had significantly higher HOMA-IR and BMI than those diagnosed over 65 years of age (HOMA-IR, 5.0 vs. 3.0; BMI, 28.7 kg/m2 vs. 25.1 kg/m2). However, the β-cell function indices were lower in people diagnosed before 40 years of age than in those diagnosed after 65 years of age (homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function, 39.3 vs. 64.9; insulinogenic index, 10.3 vs. 18.7; disposition index, 0.15 vs. 0.25).

Conclusion

We observed that the main pathogenic mechanism of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance in participants with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. In addition, young adults with diabetes are more likely to have higher insulin resistance with obesity and have higher insulin secretory defect with severe hyperglycemia in the early period of diabetes than older populations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A double‐blind, Randomized controlled trial on glucose‐lowering EFfects and safety of adding 0.25 or 0.5 mg lobeglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients with INadequate control on metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor therapy: REFIND study
    Soree Ryang, Sang Soo Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Ji Min Han, Su Kyoung Kwon, Young Il Kim, Il Seong Nam‐Goong, Eun Sook Kim, Mi‐kyung Kim, Chang Won Lee, Soyeon Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh, Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(9): 1800.     CrossRef
  • Apparent Insulin Deficiency in an Adult African Population With New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes
    Davis Kibirige, Isaac Sekitoleko, Priscilla Balungi, William Lumu, Moffat J. Nyirenda
    Frontiers in Clinical Diabetes and Healthcare.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Rising Incidence of Diabetes in Young Adults in South Korea: A National Cohort Study
    Hyun Ho Choi, Giwoong Choi, Hojun Yoon, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(5): 803.     CrossRef
  • A Real-World Study of Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Lobeglitazone in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Bo-Yeon Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Suk Kyeong Kim, Jung-Hyun Noh, Cheol-Young Park, Hyeong-Kyu Park, Kee-Ho Song, Jong Chul Won, Jae Myung Yu, Mi Young Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee, Soo Lim, Sung Wan Chun, In-Kyung Jeong, Choon Hee Chung, Seung Jin Han, Hee-Seok Kim, Ju-Y
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(6): 855.     CrossRef
  • The Potential Effect of Rhizoma coptidis on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking
    Liyun Duan, De Jin, Xuedong An, Yuehong Zhang, Shenghui Zhao, Rongrong Zhou, Yingying Duan, Yuqing Zhang, Xinmin Liu, Fengmei Lian, Wen yi Kang
    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • PRKAA2variation and the clinical characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
    Dita Maria Virginia, Mae Sri Hartati Wahyuningsih, Dwi Aris Agung Nugrahaningsih
    Asian Biomedicine.2021; 15(4): 161.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and Safety of Pioglitazone versus Glimepiride after Metformin and Alogliptin Combination Therapy: A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Parallel-Controlled Study
    Jeong Mi Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Jong Ho Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Tae Nyun Kim, Soon Hee Lee, Chang Won Lee, Ja Young Park, Eun Sook Kim, Kwang Jae Lee, Young Sik Choi, Duk Kyu Kim, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Favorable Glycemic Control with Once-Daily Insulin Degludec/Insulin Aspart after Changing from Basal Insulin in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes
    Han Na Jang, Ye Seul Yang, Seong Ok Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Bo Kyung Koo, Hye Seung Jung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2019; 34(4): 382.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Resistance versus β-Cell Failure: Is It Changing in Koreans?
    Mi-kyung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(2): 128.     CrossRef
  • Response: Clinical Characteristics of People with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes between 2015 and 2016: Difference by Age and Body Mass Index (Diabetes Metab J2018;42:137-46)
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Sungrae Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(3): 251.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Clinical Characteristics of People with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes between 2015 and 2016: Difference by Age and Body Mass Index (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:137-46)
    Ah Reum Khang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(3): 249.     CrossRef
Perception of Clinicians and Diabetic Patients on the Importance of Postprandial Glucose Control and Diabetes Education Status: A Cross Sectional Survey
Ji Hun Choi, Cheol Young Park, Bong Soo Cha, In Joo Kim, Tae Sun Park, Joong Yeol Park, Kyung Soo Park, Kun Ho Yoon, In Kyu Lee, Sung Woo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(2):120-127.   Published online April 17, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.2.120
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  • 34 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Recent studies have shown the importance of postprandial glucose (PPG) in the development of diabetes complications. This study was conducted in order to survey the perceptions of clinicians and diabetic patients with respect to PPG management and the current status of diabetes education.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study involving face-to-face interviews and an open questionnaire survey conducted in Korea. A total of 300 patients and 130 clinicians completed questionnaires, which included current education status, self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), criteria of diagnosis and management, and perceptions relating to PPG management.

Results

While there was a significantly higher perceived need for diabetes education, the sufficiency of the current education was considered to be severely lacking. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), PPG, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were all important considerations for clinicians when making a diagnosis of diabetes, although PPG was considered less important than FPG or HbA1c in the treatment of diabetes. Most clinicians and patients were aware of the importance of PPG, but actual education on the importance of PPG was not actively being delivered.

Conclusion

Our study showed that the current status of diabetes education is insufficient to meet the needs of the Korean population. A considerable gap was found to exist between awareness and what was actually taught in the current education program in regard to the importance of PPG. These results suggest that clinicians need to be more active in patient education, especially in regard to the importance of PPG.

Citations

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    Kevin Cowart, Rachel Franks, Olivia Pane, Ellen Murphy, Kelly Oldziej
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    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2019; 7(1): e000581.     CrossRef
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    Soo Jin Kang, Soo Jung Chang
    Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing.2016; 30(2): 221.     CrossRef
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    Ariel Zisman, Francienid Morales, John Stewart, Andreas Stuhr, Aleksandra Vlajnic, Rong Zhou
    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2016; 4(1): e000171.     CrossRef
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    Gillian S. Boyd-Woschinko, David L. Kaiser, Michael Diefenbach, Ronald Tamler
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  • Safety and effectiveness of insulin aspart in type 2 diabetic patients: Results from the ASEAN cohort of the A1chieve study
    Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar, Mary Anne Lim-Abrahan, Ananá B. Jain, Darren Seah, Pradana Soewondo
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2013; 100: S17.     CrossRef
Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Goal Attainment Rate and Physician Perceptions about Target Goal Achievement in Korean Patients with Diabetes
Jenie Yoonoo Hwang, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee, Cheol Young Park, Sung Rae Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon, Moon Kyu Lee, Sung Woo Park, Joong-Yeol Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):628-636.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.628
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  • 41 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study aims to investigate the discrepancy between clinicians' perceptions and actual achievement rates of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Korean patients with diabetes according to updated American Diabetes Association (ADA)/American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACC) recommendations.

Methods

This is a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional, observational study. Diabetic patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had been diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or were receiving a lipid-lowering therapy between May 2010 and August 2010. The information was obtained by reviewing medical records and using a self-completed questionnaire to examine physician perceptions.

Results

A total of 2,591 subjects who satisfied the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Highest-risk and high-risk patients accounted for 61.9% and 38.1% of the patients, respectively. Although most (96.3%) underwent a statin monotherapy or a statin-based combination therapy, just 47.4% of patients attained the LDL-C target. However, the physicians' perceptions on target achievement rate (70.6%) were different from the actual results (47.4%). Many patients (65.3%) remained on the starting doses of statins, despite evidence of poor achievement of lipid goals.

Conclusion

Only less than half of patients with diabetes attained the LDL-C goal. The surveys showed that poor physician performance might be due to the lack of recognition on ADA/ACC consensus causing a low LDL-C target attainment rate. Therefore, changes in doctor perception are needed to attain target LDL-C level and reduce cardiovascular risk in Korean patients with diabetes.

Citations

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  • Lipid Management in Korean People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
    Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2023; 12(1): 12.     CrossRef
  • Lipid Management in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
    Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    Juan Cosín-Sales, Raquel Campuzano Ruiz, José Luis Díaz Díaz, Carlos Escobar Cervantes, María Rosa Fernández Olmo, Juan José Gómez-Doblas, José María Mostaza, Juan Pedro-Botet, Núria Plana Gil, Pedro Valdivielso
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  • Current Status of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Achievement in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea Compared with Recent Guidelines
    Soo Jin Yun, In-Kyung Jeong, Jin-Hye Cha, Juneyoung Lee, Ho Chan Cho, Sung Hee Choi, SungWan Chun, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Ho-Cheol Kang, Sang Soo Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Gwanpyo Koh, Su Kyoung Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Min Kyong Moon, Junghyun Noh, Cheol-Young Park, Sung
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 464.     CrossRef
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Management of Blood Pressure in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide Survey in Korean
Mi Hae Seo, Woo Je Lee, Cheol Young Park, Sung Rae Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Kun-Ho Yoon, Moon Kyu Lee, Sung Woo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):348-353.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.348
  • 3,951 View
  • 33 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Hypertension is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, affecting up to 60% of patients. The Korean Diabetes Association performed a nationwide survey about prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension among diabetic Koreans.

Methods

The current survey included 3,859 diabetic patients recruited from 43 hospitals in Korea. Age, gender, height, weight and blood pressure (BP) were measured by standard methods. Data on fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), awareness of hypertension, and compliance of antihypertensive medication were collected via interview and reviewed using patient medical records.

Results

A total of 57.5% of all patients were >60 years old. Their mean HbA1c was 7.6±1.5%. Among antihypertensive medication users, 39.9% had <130 mm Hg and <80 mm Hg, whereas 60.1% had ≥130 mm Hg or ≥80 mm Hg. The answer "BP is under good control" was given by 75.1% of the antihypertensive medication users. Out of these patients, 26.4% had <130 mm Hg and <80 mm Hg, whereas 73.6% had ≥130 mm Hg or ≥80 mm Hg. A total of 75.5% of antihypertensive medication users answered that they had taken their antihypertensive medication every day for the past 2 weeks. "Forgetfulness" was most frequently the reason of non-compliance for patients that did not take their antihypertensive medication regularly.

Conclusion

Approximately one third of the patients with diabetes were found to reach target blood pressure control in the 43 hospitals across Korea. Stricter control is needed to reduce severe complications of diabetes in Korea.

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The Cutoff Value of HbA1c in Predicting Diabetes in Korean Adults in a University Hospital in Seoul.
Ji Cheol Bae, Eun Jung Rhee, Eun Suk Choi, Ji Hoon Kim, Won Jun Kim, Seung Hyun Yoo, Se Eun Park, Cheol Young Park, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Sun Woo Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):503-510.   Published online December 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.503
  • 2,948 View
  • 30 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels represent a 2~3 month average of blood glucose concentration. The use of HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes is gaining interest. Therefore, we determined the cutoff point of HbA1c for predicting abnormal glucose tolerance status in non-diabetic Korean subjects. METHODS: We analyzed the data from 1,482 subjects without diabetes mellitus in whom a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed due to suspected abnormal glucose tolerance. We obtained an HbA1c cutoff point for predicting diabetes using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: A cut-off point of 5.95% HbA1c yielded sensitivity of 60.8% and specificity of 85.6%, respectively, for predicting diabetes. There was a difference in HbA1c cut-off value between men and women, 5.85% and 6.05%, respectively. CONCLUSION: To use the cut-off point of 5.95% HbA1c for predicting undiagnosed diabetes in Koreans may be reliable. However, studies of different ethnic groups have reported disparate HbA1c cut-off points. Thus, ethnicity, age, gender, and population prevalence of diabetes are important factors to consider in using elevated HbA1c value as a tool to diagnose diabetes.

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  • 2011 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes in Korea
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Randomized Controlled Trial
Effects of Adding omega-3 Fatty Acids to Simvastatin on Lipids, Lipoprotein Size and Subspecies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Hypertriglyceridemia.
Won Jun Kim, Chang Beom Lee, Cheol Young Park, Se Eun Park, Eun Jung Rhee, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Dae Jung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Seung Jin Han, Hong Keum Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):494-502.   Published online December 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.494
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
omega-3 fatty acids are known to improve lipid profiles, the distribution of lipoprotein subclasses, and secondary prevention against post-myocardial infarction. Rare reports have emerged of synergistic results of omega-3 fatty acids with simvastatin in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertriglyceridemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined relationship of omega-3 fatty acids plus simvastatin on lipid, lipoprotein size and the types of subspecies. METHODS: This randomized, multi-center, comparison study evaluated eight weeks of combination therapy (omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor) 4 g/day plus simvastatin 20 mg/day) or monotherapy (simvastatin 20 mg/day) for at least six weeks in 62 diabetic patients. Subjects with a triglyceride concentration of more than 200 mg/dL were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: No significant differences for omega-3 fatty acids + simvastatin versus simvastatin alone were observed for triglycerides (-22.7% vs. -14.3%, P = 0.292), HDL peak particle size (+2.8% vs. -0.4%, P = 0.076), LDL mean particle size (+0.4% vs -0.1%, P = 0.376) or LDL subspecies types, although the combination therapy showed a tendency toward lower triglycerides, larger HDL, and LDL particle sizes than did the monotherapy. There were no significant differences between the two groups in regard to HDL-C, LDL-C, or HbA1c levels. There were no serious adverse events and no abnormalities in the laboratory values associated with this study. CONCLUSION: omega-3 fatty acids were a safeform of treatment in hypertriglyceridemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. But, regarding efficacy, a much larger sample size and longer-term follow-up may be needed to distinguish between the effects of combination therapy and monotherapy.
Original Articles
Adipokine Concentrations in Pregnant Korean Women with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
Eun Suk Oh, Jung Hee Han, Sung Min Han, Jee Aee Im, Eun Jung Rhee, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Won Young Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(4):279-288.   Published online August 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.4.279
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aims of this study were to compare adipokine concentrations of pregnant women in the 24th~28th weeks of gestation to those of non-pregnant women. We compared the concentrations of adipokines in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We also investigated the role of adipokines in the development of gestational glucose intolerance. METHODS: We surveyed 129 pregnant women who underwent a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the 24th~28th weeks of gestation. Participants were classified into three groups: (1) NGT (n = 40), (2) GIGT (n = 45), and (3) GDM (n = 44). Pregnant subjects with NGT were matched to non-pregnant controls for BMI and age (n = 41). RESULTS: Pregnant women with NGT exhibited significantly decreased adiponectin levels and elevated leptin levels compared to non-pregnant controls. Mean plasma resistin levels were significantly higher in women with GDM and GIGT than in women with NGT. Resistin and fasting glucose were significant predictors for the development of gestational glucose intolerance. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels were decreased and leptin levels were increased in pregnant subjects with NGT compared to BMI and age matched non-pregnant controls. Women with GDM and GIGT exhibit significantly elevated concentrations of resistin compared with women with NGT. Increased resistin levels were also associated with the development of gestational glucose intolerance. Resistin may play an important role on the development of gestational glucose intolerance in Korean women.

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  • Maternal serum level of resistin is associated with risk for gestational diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis
    Shi-Min Hu, Meng-Shi Chen, Hong-Zhuan Tan
    World Journal of Clinical Cases.2019; 7(5): 585.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Adipokines and Insulin Resistance According to Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:457-65)
    Ohk-Hyun Ryu
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(1): 87.     CrossRef
  • Adipokines and Insulin Resistance According to Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Eon Ju Jeon, Seong Yeon Hong, Ji Hyun Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(6): 457.     CrossRef
The Relationship between Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Korean Adults.
Ji Hoon Kim, Eun Jung Rhee, Eun Suk Choi, Jong Chul Won, Cheol Young Park, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Byung Jin Kim, Ki Chul Sung, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang, Sung Woo Park, Sun Woo Kim, Man Ho Lee, Jung Roe Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(2):105-112.   Published online April 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.2.105
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A recently discovered adipokine, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), is reportedly associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. This study was performed to analyze the relationship between serum RBP-4 levels and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Korean adults. METHODS: In 235 subjects (mean age 58 years) in whom coronary artery angiograms were performed due to complaints of chest pain, serum RBP-4 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Coronary artery angiograms were performed in all subjects and the severity of CAD was assessed by the number of stenotic vessels. The presence of metabolic syndrome was defined by AHA/NHLBI criteria with body mass index substituted for waist circumference. RESULTS: Coronary angiogram showed that 101 subjects (43%) had normal coronary vessel, 82 subjects (34.9%) had 1-vessel disease, 31 subjects (13.2%) had 2-vessel disease and 21 subjects (8.9%) had 3-vessel disease. Subjects with coronary artery stenosis showed a higher mean age (60.5 +/- 10.0 years), fasting glucose (123.3 mg +/- 45.0 mg/dL) and lower mean value for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level (49.0 +/- 13.2 mg/dL), although serum RBP-4 levels were not significantly different between those with and without CAD. Mean age and fasting glucose level increased significantly as the number of stenotic vessels increased, although serum RBP4 level showed no significant differences among the different groups. Among the metabolic parameters, only serum triglyceride levels showed a significant correlation with serum RBP-4 levels. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in mean serum RBP-4 levels between subjects with or without coronary artery disease in Korean adults. Further studies are warranted to draw a clear conclusion on the effect of RBP-4 on atherosclerosis.

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  • Retinol binding protein 4 levels relate to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease
    Gokay Nar, Sara Sanlialp, Rukiye Nar
    Journal of Medical Biochemistry.2021; 40(4): 384.     CrossRef
Effect of Valsartan on Blood Pressure and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetic Patients: An Open-Label, Multicenter Study.
Se Jun Park, Dae Jung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Yeon Park, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Hak Chul Jang, Seung Hyun Ko, Ki Ho Song, Yu Bae Ahn, Soo Kyoung Kim, Yong Wook Cho, Jun Goo Kang, Sung Hee Ihm, Cheol Young Park, Sung Woo Park, Dong Hyun Shin, Yong Hyun Kim, Kwan Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(6):513-521.   Published online December 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.6.513
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been an important mechanism of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. It has been reported that RAS blockades reduce the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduced blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. METHOD: Three hundred forty-seven hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients who had not taken angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or ARB for 6 months prior to this study were enrolled. We measured blood pressure and UAER before and after 24 weeks of valsartan treatment. RESULT: Baseline mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 143 +/- 15 and 87 +/- 11 mmHg, respectively and the median albumin excretion rate was 27 ug/mg. Reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 16 mmHg/10 mmHg and the median UAER was 19.3 ug/mg after 24 weeks (P < 0.01, respectively). When we divided the subjects into three groups according to the UAER (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria), significant changes were reported in the microalbuminuria and the macroalbuminuria groups. Thirty-eight (42%) patients with microalbuminuria improved to normoalbuminuria and twelve (41%) patients with macroalbuminuria improved to microalbuminuria. We found an association between the improvement of blood pressure and UAER (R = 0.165, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: We concluded that valsartan reduces urinary albumin excretion and blood pressure in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients.
Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion Determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment and Future Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men.
Eun Suk Choi, Eun Jung Rhee, Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Chul Won, Cheol Young Park, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Sun Woo Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(6):498-505.   Published online December 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.6.498
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance and progressive pancreatic beta cell dysfunction have been identified as the two fundamental features in the type 2 diabetes. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), based on plasma levels of fasting glucose and insulin, has been widely validated and applied for quantifying insulin resistance and secretion. This study was performed to assess the predictive value of HOMA indices for future diabetes risk. METHODS: In 14,976 Korean men, in which medical check-up was performed both in 2002 and 2006 in a university hospital health promotion center in Seoul, Korea, prospective assessment for diabetes risk was assessed. At baseline, anthropometric measurements were done and fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profiles were measured. HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA beta-cell) were calculated from fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS: After 4 years, 286 subjects (1.9%) were newly diagnosed as diabetes mellitus. These patients (mean age 40.3 years) were age-matched with 632 control subjects (mean age 39.8 years) and diabetes risk was assessed with HOMA indices. Among the parameters, body mass index, fasting glucose and HOMA beta-cell were the significant determinants for future diabetes risk. When the subjects were divided into two groups according to the baseline median values of HOMA-IR and HOMA beta-cell, and assessed jointly, those with the low HOMA beta-cell and high HOMA-IR showed the highest risk for future diabetes (RR 39.065, 95% CI 11.736~130.035, P < 0.01). The subjects with low baseline HOMA beta-cell showed higher RR for diabetes than those with high baseline HOMA-IR (4.413 vs. 3.379, P = 0.018, P = 0.051). CONCLUSION: High HOMA-IR and low HOMA beta-cell were associated with the highest risk for future diabetes in this prospective study of Korean male subjects. These data suggest the value of HOMA indices for diabetes risk in epidemiologic studies in Asian subjects.

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    Eun-mi Kim, Ki-tae Kim
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    Gut and Liver.2019; 13(2): 154.     CrossRef
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    Ja-Young Yoo, Keun-Sang Yum
    BioMed Research International.2018; 2018: 1.     CrossRef
  • Insulin resistance increases the risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Yuya Seko, Yoshio Sumida, Saiyu Tanaka, Kojiroh Mori, Hiroyoshi Taketani, Hiroshi Ishiba, Tasuku Hara, Akira Okajima, Atsushi Umemura, Taichiro Nishikawa, Kanji Yamaguchi, Michihisa Moriguchi, Kazuyuki Kanemasa, Kohichiroh Yasui, Shunsuke Imai, Keiji Shim
    Hepatology Research.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Distribution and Characteristics of Abnormal Findings Regarding Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c - Based on Adults Except for Known Diabetes
    Seyoung Kwon, Youngak Na
    The Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science.2017; 49(3): 239.     CrossRef
  • Association of arsenobetaine with beta-cell function assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) in nondiabetic Koreans: data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2009
    Kiook Baek, Namhoon Lee, Insung Chung
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Rimkyo Yeo, So Ra Yoon, Oh Yoen Kim
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    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(4): 283.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the Usefulness of the Updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) with the Original HOMA1 in the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Koreans
    Young Seok Song, You-Cheol Hwang, Hong-Yup Ahn, Cheol-Young Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(4): 318.     CrossRef
  • The effects of Atractylodes japonica Koidz. on type 2 diabetic rats
    Dae Hoon Lee, Jae Min Han, Woong Mo Yang
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  • Normal Glucose Tolerance with a High 1-Hour Postload Plasma Glucose Level Exhibits Decreased β-Cell Function Similar to Impaired Glucose Tolerance
    Tae Jung Oh, Se Hee Min, Chang Ho Ahn, Eun Ky Kim, Soo Heon Kwak, Hye Seung Jung, Kyong Soo Park, Young Min Cho
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(2): 147.     CrossRef
  • Relative contributions of insulin resistance and β‐cell dysfunction to the development of Type 2 diabetes in Koreans
    C.‐H. Kim, H.‐K. Kim, E. H. Kim, S. J. Bae, J.‐Y. Park
    Diabetic Medicine.2013; 30(9): 1075.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship between β-cell Function and Nutrient Intakes in Korean Adult - Using 4thKorea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 -
    You Mi Lee, Hye Kyung Chung, Heejin Kimm, Sun Ha Jee
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2012; 17(2): 243.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Complete Agenesis of the Dorsal Pancreas in a Patient with Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus
    Dong Pil Kim, Kang Seo Park, Dong Sun Kim, Bong Suk Ko, Ji Hae Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee, Jong Ho Shin, Byung Jun Kim, Hyun Jin Kim
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2010; 25(1): 78.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion Determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment and Future Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men (Korean Diabetes J 32(6):498-505, 2008)
    Sang Yong Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(1): 73.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion Determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment and Future Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men (Korean Diabetes J 32(6):498-505, 2008)
    Eun-Suk Choi, Eun-Jung Rhee
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(1): 75.     CrossRef
Comparison of the Predictability of Cardiovascular Disease Risk According to Different Metabolic Syndrome Criteria of American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and International Diabetes Federation in Korean Men.
Do Young Lee, Eun Jung Rhee, Eun Suk Choi, Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Chul Won, Cheol Young Park, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Sun Woo Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(4):317-327.   Published online August 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.4.317
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We compared the prevalences of two criteria of metabolic syndrome, that is, American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF), in Korean male adults and compared the predictability of insulin resistance and future cardiovascular diseases using Framingham Risk Score. METHODS: In total 23,467 male adults (mean age 43.3 years) who participated in medical check-up in 2005, the prevalences of metabolic syndrome according to AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria and the presence of insulin resistance, defined by the highest quartile of Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), were compared. The relative risk (calculated risk/average risk) for 10-year risk for coronary artery disease (CHD) assessed by Framingham Risk Score were compared. RESULTS: 5.8% of the subjects had diabetes mellitus. 20.7% and 13.2%of the subjects had metabolic syndrome defined by AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria, and the two criteria showed high agreement with kappa value of 0.737 (P < 0.01). More subjects in IDF-defined group had insulin resistance compared with AHA/NHLBI definition (59.8 vs. 54%, P < 0.01). The odds ratio for increased relative risk (> 1.0) for 10-year CHD were higher in AHA/NHLBI-defined subjects compared with IDF-defined subject (3.295 vs. 3.082). The Kappa values for the analysis of agreement between each criteria and prediction of insulin resistance or cardiovascular disease risk, were too low for comparison. CONCLUSION: In Korean males, the prevalence for metabolic syndrome defined by AHA/NHLBI criteria was higher than those defined by IDF criteria. IDF criteria detected more subjects with insulin resistance, but didn't have better predictability for CHD compared with AHA/NHLBI criteria.

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  • Relationship between Abdominal Fat Area Measured by Screening Abdominal Fat CT and Metabolic Syndrome in Asymptomatic Korean Individuals
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    Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology.2017; 77(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    Healthcare Informatics Research.2015; 21(3): 167.     CrossRef
  • Implication of high‐body‐fat percentage on cardiometabolic risk in middle‐aged, healthy, normal‐weight adults
    Ji Young Kim, Sang‐Hwan Han, Bong‐Min Yang
    Obesity.2013; 21(8): 1571.     CrossRef
  • Cardio-Metabolic Features of Type 2 Diabetes Subjects Discordant in the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome
    Sa Rah Lee, Ying Han, Ja Won Kim, Ja Young Park, Ji Min Kim, Sunghwan Suh, Mi-Kyoung Park, Hye-Jeong Lee, Duk Kyu Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2012; 36(5): 357.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Cardiovascular Health Status and Health Behaviors in Korean Women based on Household Income
    Young-Joo Park, Nah-Mee Shin, Ji-Won Yoon, Jiwon Choi, Sook-Ja Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2010; 40(6): 831.     CrossRef
Effects of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Risk Factors of Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Hong Ju Moon, Jun Goo Kang, Min Ho Jo, Byung Wan Lee, Cheol Young Park, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Kyung Hong, Jae Myoung Yu, Doo Man Kim, Sung Hee Ihm, Hyun Kyu Kim, Chong Yun Rhim, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):435-441.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.435
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is equivalent as well a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the effects of DM on clinical risk factors of acute coronary syndrome by comparing DM group with Non-DM group. METHODS: A total of 847 (514 males and 333 females) patients with acute coronary syndrome was selected from 1664 patients who had undergone coronary angiography (CAG). These patients comprised 105 subjects with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI), 313 with ST elevation MI and 429 with unstable angina. According to the presence of DM, we retrospectively reviewed the measured basic demographics, biochemical markers and coronary angiographic findings. RESULTS: In the multivariated analysis, history of hypertension (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) level (P = 0.001) and triglyceride level (P = 0.018) were independent risk factors in type 2 diabetic group. Also the frequency of multiple coronary vessel disease was higher in DM group than non-DM group on the coronary angiographic finding CONCLUSIONS: Classic risk factors for acute coronary syndrome are strong predictors in patients with type 2 DM. Among these factors, the most important powerful risk factor is history of hypertension.

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  • Gender-Based Differences in the Management and Prognosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Korea
    Hee Tae Yu, Kwang Joon Kim, Woo-Dae Bang, Chang-Myung Oh, Ji-Yong Jang, Sung-Soo Cho, Jung-Sun Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Donghoon Choi, Myeong-Ki Hong, Yangsoo Jang
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2011; 52(4): 562.     CrossRef
The Relationship Between the C1818T Polymorphism in Exon 4 of the klotho Gene with Fasting Glucose and Insulin Levels in Korean Women.
Ki Won Oh, Eun Joo Yun, Eun Jung Rhee, Won Young Lee, Ki Hyun Baek, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Seong Gyun Kim, Cheol Young Park, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(3):189-197.   Published online May 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A novel gene, termed klotho has been identified as a suppressor of several aging phenotypes, and a genetic defect of klotho in mice resulted in a syndrome resembling human aging, i.e., a short lifespan, infertility, arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis, and pulmonary emphysema. Since klotho mice also showed an abnormal glucose metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the C1818T polymorphism in exon 4 of the klotho gene and fasting glucose and insulin resistance in Korean women to observe its contribution to glucose metabolism. METHODS: The weight, height, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured in 241 women(mean age, 51.2+/-7.0yr) by using the standard methods. Homeostasis model assessment(HOMA)-insulin resistance(IR), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index(QUICKI) and HOMAbeta-cell were calculated. The genotyping of the C1818T polymorphism in exon 4 of the klotho gene was performed by allelic discrimination with using a 5' nuclease polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The allele frequencies were 0.805 for the C allele and 0.195 for the T allele, and they were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(P=0.290). The mean fasting blood glucose(P= 0.005) and HOMA IR(P=0.035) were significantly higher in the T allele carriers compared with the non-carriers. After adjustment was made for age, fasting blood glucose was persistently significant(P=0.015), but the HOMA-IR became marginally significant(P=0.063). In the premenopausal women, the T allele carriers showed a higher mean fasting blood glucose(P=0.038), insulin(P=0.024), HOMA-IR(P=0.010), total cholesterol(P=0.039), and triglyceride levels(P=0.031) than in the non-carriers. After adjustment was made for age, the fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and triglyceride were persistently significant(P= 0.043, P=0.026, P=0.011, P=0.040). Also, the QUICKI, total cholesterol and low-density ilpo-protein cholesterol became marginally significant(P=0.073, P=0.061, P=0.098). For the postmenopausal women, the T allele carriers showed a tendency for higher mean fasting blood glucose levels(P=0.065) and lower HOMA beta-cell levels(P=0.085) than in the noncarriers. These differences became non-significant after adjustment was made for age. CONCLUSION: We observed that the C1818T polymorphism in exon 4 of the klotho gene was partly associated with glucose metabolism in Korean women. Also, these data suggest that the C1818T polymorphism is related with some cardiovascular risk factors in Korean women. The mechanism linking this gene with glucose metabolism warrants further study
Effect of Glucose Concentrations on the Cell Proliferation and Expression of L-type Calcium Channel mRNA in Cultured Rat Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Young Jung Cho, Hyung Joon Yoo, Hong Woo Nam, Ji Young Suh, In Kyung Jeong, Sung Hee Ihm, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Cheol Young Park, Jae Myung Yoo, Doo Man Kim, Moon Gi Choi, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(3):253-259.   Published online June 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is one of the major pathogenic mechanisms for atherosclerosis. It is known that L-type calcium channels play a role in VSMC proliferation in diabetic rats. However, there have been no studies that show an association between the L-type calcium channels and the VSMC proliferation due to various glucose concentrations in the culture media. Therefore, the association between the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels of the VSMCs, and the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, was examined. METHODS: Rat aortic VSMCs were isolated from the aorta of Sprague-Dawley and OLETF rats, using an enzymic method. The VSMCs were cultured in various concentrations of glucose (5.5, 11.0, 16.6, 25, 30 and 40 mM). The VSMCs (1x10(4) cells in 24-well plates) were incubated in the presence of Bay K 8644 (10(-6)M), both with and without verapamil (10(-6)M), for 48 hours. The proliferation was then assessed by the MTT (methylthiazole tetrazolium) assay, and the expression of L-type calcium channel mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation was significantly increased, in a dose-dependent manner, with glucose concentrations below 25 mM in both in a dose-dependent manner, with glucose concentrations below 25 mM in both kinds of rat. However, the increase in the VSMC proliferation of the OLETF rat was significantly higher than in the Sprague-Dawley rat. After the Bay K 8644 treatment, with the same glucose concentration, the VSMC proliferation and the expression of L-type calcium channel mRNA were significantly increased in both kinds of rat. After treatment with verapamil, the increased VSMC proliferation and expression of L-type calcium channel mRNA, due to the Bay K 8644, were suppressed to control levels in both kinds of rat. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that below certain concentrations of glucose, 25 mM, the L-type calcium channels may play a role in the VSMC proliferation of OLETF and Sprague-Dawley rats. The growth of the VSMCs in OLETF rats, due to various glucose concentrations (< 25 mM), was significantly higher than in the Sprague-Dawley rats.
Homeostasis Model Assessment In Korean Type 2 Diabetes Patients.
Hyun Ha Chang, Jin Woo Kim, Mee Suk Rhu, Cheol Young Park, Seung Joon Oh, Jeong Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(4):296-305.   Published online August 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Both insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion have been known to be defects causing type 2 diabetes. However, decreased insulin secretion rather than insulin resistance has been suggested to be a more important factor in development of type 2 diabetes in Korea. Thus, we undertook this study to evaluate insulin resistance and beta cell function in Korean type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Retrospectively, we applied HOMA model to 1,233 type 2 diabetes pateints (575 males and 658 females) and assessed HOMA(beta cell) function and HOMA(IR). RESULTS: The HOMA(IR) of Korean male was 2.6 (0.05~39.53) and that of Korean female was 3.1 (0.04~53.54), and the HOMA(beta cell) of male was 22.3 (0.2~873.8)%, and that of female was 30.6 (0.37~1738.3)%. There was no significant difference. There was no significant correlation between HOMA(IR) and age and duration of diabetes, but there was significant correlation between HOMA(beta cell) and BMI, 0 min, 30 min insulin level and 0 min C-peptide level in oGTT. In the group of high HOMA(IR) than lower HOMA(IR), HOMA(beta cell) have more strong correlation with age at dignosis, BMI, duration of diabetes, FBS, 0 min and 60 min insulin, 0 min C-peptide and 24 hour urine C-peptide. CONCLUSION: In comparison with HOMA Model of San Antonio Heart Study, the HOMA(beta cell) and HOMA(IR) of Korean were lower, so the HOMA(beta cell) and HOMA(IR) may be different between ethnic groups. And further prospective analysis for the evaluation of insulin resistance and insulin secretion defect with HOMA model should be done in Korean type 2 diabeties.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal