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12 "Chang Won Lee"
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Drug/Regimen
Efficacy and Safety of Treatment with Quadruple Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Multi-Center, Retrospective, Observational Study
Jun Sung Moon, Sunghwan Suh, Sang Soo Kim, Heung Yong Jin, Jeong Mi Kim, Min Hee Jang, Kyung Ae Lee, Ju Hyung Lee, Seung Min Chung, Young Sang Lyu, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Jung Eun Jang, Tae Nyun Kim, Sung Woo Kim, Eonju Jeon, Nan Hee Cho, Mi-Kyung Kim, Hye Soon Kim, Il Seong Nam-Goong, Eun Sook Kim, Jin Ook Chung, Dong-Hyeok Cho, Chang Won Lee, Young Il Kim, Dong Jin Chung, Kyu Chang Won, In Joo Kim, Tae Sun Park, Duk Kyu Kim, Hosang Shon
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):675-683.   Published online August 12, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0107
  • 35,269 View
  • 366 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.

Results

In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy.

Conclusion

This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Estimating Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence: A Model of Drug Consumption Data
    Rita Oliveira, Matilde Monteiro-Soares, José Pedro Guerreiro, Rúben Pereira, António Teixeira-Rodrigues
    Pharmacy.2024; 12(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of enavogliflozin versus dapagliflozin added to metformin plus gemigliptin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes: A double-blind, randomized, comparator-active study: ENHANCE-D study
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Tae Nyun Kim, Cheol-Young Park, Jung Hwan Park, Sang Yong Kim, Yong Hyun Kim, Kee Ho Song, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Gwanpyo Koh, Jun Goo Kang, Mi Kyung Kim, Ji Min Han, Nan Hee Kim, Ji Oh Mok, Jae Hyuk Lee, Soo Lim, Sang S
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2023; 49(4): 101440.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness and safety of teneligliptin added to patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by oral triple combination therapy: A multicentre, randomized, double‐blind, and placebo‐controlled study
    Minyoung Lee, Woo‐je Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Byung‐Wan Lee
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(6): 1105.     CrossRef
  • A double‐blind, Randomized controlled trial on glucose‐lowering EFfects and safety of adding 0.25 or 0.5 mg lobeglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients with INadequate control on metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor therapy: REFIND study
    Soree Ryang, Sang Soo Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Ji Min Han, Su Kyoung Kwon, Young Il Kim, Il Seong Nam‐Goong, Eun Sook Kim, Mi‐kyung Kim, Chang Won Lee, Soyeon Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh, Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(9): 1800.     CrossRef
  • Glycaemic control with add‐on thiazolidinedione or a sodium‐glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes after the failure of an oral triple antidiabetic regimen: A 24‐week, randomized controlled trial
    Jaehyun Bae, Ji Hye Huh, Minyoung Lee, Yong‐Ho Lee, Byung‐Wan Lee
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2021; 23(2): 609.     CrossRef
Drug/Regimen
Efficacy and Safety of Pioglitazone versus Glimepiride after Metformin and Alogliptin Combination Therapy: A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Parallel-Controlled Study
Jeong Mi Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Jong Ho Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Tae Nyun Kim, Soon Hee Lee, Chang Won Lee, Ja Young Park, Eun Sook Kim, Kwang Jae Lee, Young Sik Choi, Duk Kyu Kim, In Joo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(1):67-77.   Published online July 11, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0274
  • 7,441 View
  • 154 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

There is limited information regarding the optimal third-line therapy for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that is inadequately controlled using dual combination therapy. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of pioglitazone or glimepiride when added to metformin plus alogliptin treatment for T2DM.

Methods

This multicenter, randomized, active-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02426294) recruited 135 Korean patients with T2DM that was inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin. The patients were then randomized to also receive pioglitazone (15 mg/day) or glimepiride (2 mg/day) for a 26-week period, with dose titration was permitted based on the investigator's judgement.

Results

Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exhibited similar significant decreases in both groups during the treatment period (pioglitazone: −0.81%, P<0.001; glimepiride: −1.05%, P<0.001). However, the pioglitazone-treated group exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P<0.001) and significantly lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (P<0.001). Relative to pioglitazone, adding glimepiride to metformin plus alogliptin markedly increased the risk of hypoglycemia (pioglitazone: 1/69 cases [1.45%], glimepiride: 14/66 cases [21.21%]; P<0.001).

Conclusion

Among patients with T2DM inadequately controlled using metformin plus alogliptin, the addition of pioglitazone provided comparable glycemic control and various benefits (improvements in lipid profiles, insulin resistance, and hypoglycemia risk) relative to the addition of glimepiride.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis of fixed combination of alogliptin and pioglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Yu.V. Strunina, N.A. Petunina
    Medical Technologies. Assessment and Choice.2023; (3): 70.     CrossRef
  • Pioglitazone-Enhanced Brown Fat Whitening Contributes to Weight Gain in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
    Piaojian Yu, Wei Wang, Wanrong Guo, Lidan Cheng, Zhiping Wan, Yanglei Cheng, Yunfeng Shen, Fen Xu
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes.2023; 131(11): 595.     CrossRef
  • Compliance with Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines in Type 2 Diabetes Individuals in a Middle-Income Region: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
    Joaquim Barreto, Beatriz Luchiari, Vaneza L. W. Wolf, Isabella Bonilha, Ticiane G. Bovi, Barbara S. Assato, Ikaro Breder, Sheila T. Kimura-Medorima, Daniel B. Munhoz, Thiago Quinaglia, Otavio R. Coelho-Filho, Luiz Sergio F. Carvalho, Wilson Nadruz, Andrei
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(4): 814.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Glimepiride Combined with Recombinant Human Insulin Injection on Serum IGF-1, VEGF and TRACP-5b Oxidative Stress Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Xue Chen, Sheng Kang, Zeqing Bao, Ciara Hughes
    Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Glycaemic control with add‐on thiazolidinedione or a sodium‐glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes after the failure of an oral triple antidiabetic regimen: A 24‐week, randomized controlled trial
    Jaehyun Bae, Ji Hye Huh, Minyoung Lee, Yong‐Ho Lee, Byung‐Wan Lee
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2021; 23(2): 609.     CrossRef
  • Development and validation of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for pioglitazone: application towards pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study in rats
    Kusuma Kumari G., Praveen Thaggikuppe Krishnamurthy, Ravi Kiran Ammu V. V. V., Kurawattimath Vishwanath, S. T. Narenderan, B. Babu, Nagappan Krishnaveni
    RSC Advances.2021; 11(19): 11437.     CrossRef
  • Compliance with Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes in a Middle-Income Region: Cross-Sectional Analysis
    Joaquim Barreto, Beatriz Luchiari, Vaneza Lira W. Wolf, Isabella Bonilha, Ticiane G. Bovi, Barbara S. Assato, Ikaro Breder, Sheila T. Kimura-Medorima, Daniel B. Munhoz, Thiago Quinaglia, Otavio R. Coelho-Filho, Luiz Sérgio Fernandes de Carvalho, Wilson Na
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Response
Response: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2016;40:297-307)
Jun Ouk Ha, Tae Hee Lee, Chang Won Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(5):420-421.   Published online October 12, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.5.420
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  • 32 Download
PDFPubReader   
Original Articles
Complications
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Jun Ouk Ha, Tae Hee Lee, Chang Won Lee, Ja Young Park, Seong Ho Choi, Hee Seung Park, Jae Seung Lee, Seung Heon Lee, Eun Hee Seo, Young Hwan Kim, Young Woo Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(4):297-307.   Published online June 8, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.4.297
  • 4,815 View
  • 55 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Korea appears to be increasing. Some studies have shown that T2DM is a risk factor for symptomatic GERD. However, this possibility is still debated, and the pathogenesis of GERD in T2DM is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors (including autonomic neuropathy) of GERD in patients with T2DM.

Methods

This cross-sectional case-control study enrolled T2DM patients (n=258) and healthy controls (n=184). All participants underwent physical examinations and laboratory tests. We evaluated medical records and long-term diabetes complications, including peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in patients with T2DM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in all patients. The Los Angeles (LA) classification was used to grade GERD. GERD was defined as LA grade A (or higher) or minimal change with GERD symptoms. GERD symptoms were examined using a frequency scale. Data were expressed as mean±standard error. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups.

Results

The prevalence of GERD (32.6% vs. 35.9%, P=0.266) and GERD symptoms (58.8% vs. 59.2%, P=0.503) was not significantly different between T2DM patients and controls. We found no significant differences between T2DM patients with GERD and T2DM patients without GERD with respect to diabetic complications, including autonomic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, duration of DM, and glucose control.

Conclusion

The prevalence of GERD in patients with T2DM showed no difference from that of controls. GERD was also not associated with peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, age, or duration of DM in patients with T2DM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Ураження органів травлення при цукровому діабеті
    M.O. Borovets , О.М. Radchenko , Kh.A. Moskva , O.Yo. Komarytsya , A.M. Urbanovych
    Endokrynologia.2023; 28(3): 270.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic effects of bariatric surgery on patients with type 2 diabetes: a population-based study
    Erman O. Akpinar, Ronald S.L. Liem, Simon W. Nienhuijs, Jan Willem M. Greve, Perla J. Marang-van de Mheen, L.M. de Brauw, S.M.M. de Castro, S.L. Damen, A. Demirkiran, M. Dunkelgrun, I.F. Faneyte, G. van ‘t Hof, I.M.C. Janssen, R.A. Klaassen, E.A.G.L. Laga
    Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.2021; 17(7): 1349.     CrossRef
  • The effect of proton pump inhibitors on glycaemic control in diabetic patients
    Muhammad Ali Rajput, Fizzah Ali, Tabassum Zehra, Shahid Zafar, Gunesh Kumar
    Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences.2020; 15(3): 218.     CrossRef
  • Prediabetes and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms; a cross-sectional study
    Akram Ghadiri-Anari, Somaye Gholami, Fariba Zolfaghari, Nasim Namiranian
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2019; 13(1): 844.     CrossRef
  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Diabetes: Prevalence, Assessment, Pathogenesis, and Management
    Yang T. Du, Christopher K. Rayner, Karen L. Jones, Nicholas J. Talley, Michael Horowitz
    Diabetes Care.2018; 41(3): 627.     CrossRef
  • Features of Endoscopic Changes in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus
    Ye. S. Sirchak, M. P. Stan, Yo. I. Pichkar, V. V. Vajs
    Ukraïnsʹkij žurnal medicini, bìologìï ta sportu.2018; 3(5): 166.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Correlates of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Southern Iran: Pars Cohort Study
    Zohre Khodamoradi, Abdullah Gandomkar, Hossein Poustchi, Alireza Salehi, Mohammad Hadi Imanieh, Arash Etemadi, Reza Malekzadeh
    Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases.2017; 9(3): 129.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2016;40:297-307)
    Dongwon Yi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(5): 418.     CrossRef
  • Response: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2016;40:297-307)
    Jun Ouk Ha, Tae Hee Lee, Chang Won Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(5): 420.     CrossRef
Others
Comparison of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Metformin
Jong Ho Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Hong Sun Baek, In Kyu Lee, Dong Jin Chung, Ho Sang Sohn, Hak Yeon Bae, Mi Kyung Kim, Jeong Hyun Park, Young Sik Choi, Young Il Kim, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Chang Won Lee, Sung Rae Jo, Mi Kyung Park, Kwang Jae Lee, In Joo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(3):230-239.   Published online April 5, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.3.230
  • 5,106 View
  • 48 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

We compared the efficacies of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) relative to pioglitazone (15 mg once daily) as an add-on treatment to metformin for reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

The present study was a multicenter, randomized, active-controlled investigation comparing the effects of vildagliptin and pioglitazone in Korean patients receiving a stable dose of metformin but exhibiting inadequate glycemic control. Each patient underwent a 16-week treatment period with either vildagliptin or pioglitazone as an add-on treatment to metformin.

Results

The mean changes in HbA1c levels from baseline were –0.94% in the vildagliptin group and –0.6% in the pioglitazone group and the difference between the treatments was below the non-inferiority margin of 0.3%. The mean changes in postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels were –60.2 mg/dL in the vildagliptin group and –38.2 mg/dL in the pioglitazone group and these values significantly differed (P=0.040). There were significant decreases in the levels of total, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and non-HDL cholesterol in the vildagliptin group but increases in the pioglitazone group. The mean change in body weight was –0.07 kg in the vildagliptin group and 0.69 kg in the pioglitazone group, which were also significantly different (P=0.002).

Conclusion

As an add-on to metformin, the efficacy of vildagliptin for the improvement of glycemic control is not inferior to that of pioglitazone in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, add-on treatment with vildagliptin had beneficial effects on PPG levels, lipid profiles, and body weight compared to pioglitazone.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Factors contributing to the adverse drug reactions associated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors: A scoping review
    Swetha R. Reghunath, Muhammed Rashid, Viji Pulikkel Chandran, Girish Thunga, K.N. Shivashankar, Leelavathi D. Acharya
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2023; 17(7): 102790.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of evogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease: A multicentre, double‐blind, randomized, comparative trial
    Eugene Han, Ji Hye Huh, Eun Y. Lee, Ji C. Bae, Sung W. Chun, Sung H. Yu, Soo H. Kwak, Kyong S. Park, Byung‐Wan Lee
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(4): 752.     CrossRef
  • A double‐blind, Randomized controlled trial on glucose‐lowering EFfects and safety of adding 0.25 or 0.5 mg lobeglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients with INadequate control on metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor therapy: REFIND study
    Soree Ryang, Sang Soo Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Ji Min Han, Su Kyoung Kwon, Young Il Kim, Il Seong Nam‐Goong, Eun Sook Kim, Mi‐kyung Kim, Chang Won Lee, Soyeon Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh, Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(9): 1800.     CrossRef
  • The rs12617336 and rs17574 Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Polymorphisms Are Associated With Hypoalphalipoproteinemia and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Serum Levels: A Case-Control Study of the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Cohort
    Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, María del Carmen González-Salazar, Christian Vázquez-Vázquez, Adrián Hernández-Díaz Couder, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Juan Reyes-Barrera, Sergio A. Criales-Vera, Marco Sánchez-Guerra, Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez, Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez
    Frontiers in Genetics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Reduction in HbA1c with SGLT2 inhibitors vs. DPP-4 inhibitors as add-ons to metformin monotherapy according to baseline HbA1c: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    A.J. Scheen
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2020; 46(3): 186.     CrossRef
  • Combination Therapy of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Min Kyong Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2018; 19(1): 23.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Cardiovascular Risks of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: Analyses of Real-world Data in Korea
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Bongseong Kim, Hae Sol Shin, Jinhee Lee, Hansol Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim, Dae Jung Kim
    Korean Circulation Journal.2018; 48(5): 395.     CrossRef
  • Safety and efficacy of low dose pioglitazone compared with standard dose pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes with chronic kidney disease: A randomized controlled trial
    Bancha Satirapoj, Khanin Watanakijthavonkul, Ouppatham Supasyndh, Stephen L Atkin
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(10): e0206722.     CrossRef
  • Combination therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Min Kyong Moon, Kyu Yeon Hur, Seung-Hyun Ko, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Nan-Hee Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 974.     CrossRef
  • Combination Therapy of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Min Kyong Moon, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Seung-Hyun Ko, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Nan-Hee Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 357.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of adding evogliptin versus sitagliptin for metformin‐treated patients with type 2 diabetes: A 24‐week randomized, controlled trial with open label extension
    Sang‐Mo Hong, Cheol‐Young Park, Dong‐Min Hwang, Kyung Ah Han, Chang Beom Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Kun‐Ho Yoon, Ji‐Oh Mok, Kyong Soo Park, Sung‐Woo Park
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2017; 19(5): 654.     CrossRef
  • Antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2017: a position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 947.     CrossRef
  • Antihyperglycemic Agent Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 337.     CrossRef
Current Status of Prescription in Type 2 Diabetic Patients from General Hospitals in Busan
Ji Hye Suk, Chang Won Lee, Sung Pyo Son, Min Cheol Kim, Jun Hyeob Ahn, Kwang Jae Lee, Ja Young Park, Sun Hye Shin, Min Jeong Kwon, Sang Soo Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Soon Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Park, In Joo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(3):230-239.   Published online June 17, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.3.230
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  • 9 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Data regarding the prescription status of individuals with diabetes are limited. This study was an analysis of participants from the relationship between cardiovascular disease and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with type 2 diabetes (REBOUND) Study, which was a prospective multicenter cohort study recruited from eight general hospitals in Busan, Korea. We performed this study to investigate the current status of prescription in Korean type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods

Type 2 diabetic patients aged 30 years or more were recruited and data were collected for demographics, medical history, medications, blood pressure, and laboratory tests.

Results

Three thousands and fifty-eight type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Mean age, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c were 59 years, 7.6 years, and 7.2%, respectively. Prevalence of hypertension was 66%. Overall, 7.3% of patients were treated with diet and exercise only, 68.2% with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) only, 5.3% with insulin only, and 19.2% with both insulin and OHA. The percentage of patients using antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, antiplatelet agents was similar as about 60%. The prevalence of statins and aspirin users was 52% and 32%, respectively.

Conclusion

In our study, two thirds of type 2 diabetic patients were treated with OHA only, and one fifth with insulin plus OHA, and 5% with insulin only. More than half of the patients were using each of antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, or antiplatelet agents. About a half of the patients were treated with statins and one third were treated with aspirin.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A double‐blind, Randomized controlled trial on glucose‐lowering EFfects and safety of adding 0.25 or 0.5 mg lobeglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients with INadequate control on metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor therapy: REFIND study
    Soree Ryang, Sang Soo Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Ji Min Han, Su Kyoung Kwon, Young Il Kim, Il Seong Nam‐Goong, Eun Sook Kim, Mi‐kyung Kim, Chang Won Lee, Soyeon Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh, Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(9): 1800.     CrossRef
  • Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for risk of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the REBOUND study
    Jeong Mi Kim, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Jong Ho Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Soon Hee Lee, Chang Won Lee, Min Chul Kim, Jun Hyeob Ahn, Jinmi Kim
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and Safety of Pioglitazone versus Glimepiride after Metformin and Alogliptin Combination Therapy: A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Parallel-Controlled Study
    Jeong Mi Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Jong Ho Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Tae Nyun Kim, Soon Hee Lee, Chang Won Lee, Ja Young Park, Eun Sook Kim, Kwang Jae Lee, Young Sik Choi, Duk Kyu Kim, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of sitagliptin/metformin fixed‐dose combination compared with glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes: A multicenter randomized double‐blind study
    Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Kwang Jae Lee, Jeong Hyun Park, Young Il Kim, Young Sil Lee, Sung Chang Chung, Sang Jin Lee
    Journal of Diabetes.2017; 9(4): 412.     CrossRef
  • Arterial Stiffness Is More Associated with Albuminuria than Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The REBOUND Study
    Jong Ho Kim, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Ja Young Park, Chang Won Lee, Ji Hye Suk, Sun Hae Shin, Sung Pyo Son, Min Chul Kim, Jun Hyeob Ahn, Kwang Jae Lee, Min Jung Kwon, Soon Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Park
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2017; 2017: 1.     CrossRef
  • Insulin therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2017
    Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Kyung Mook Choi
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 967.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2017
    Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Kyung Mook Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 367.     CrossRef
  • Reduction of Sulfonylurea with the Initiation of Basal Insulin in Patients with Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Long-Term Sulfonylurea-Based Treatment
    Yeoree Yang, Jeong-Ah Shin, Hae Kyung Yang, Seung-Hwan Lee, Seung-Hyun Ko, Yu-Bae Ahn, Kun-Ho Yoon, Jae-Hyoung Cho
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(6): 454.     CrossRef
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    Jong Ho Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Hong Sun Baek, In Kyu Lee, Dong Jin Chung, Ho Sang Sohn, Hak Yeon Bae, Mi Kyung Kim, Jeong Hyun Park, Young Sik Choi, Young Il Kim, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Chang Won Lee, Sung Rae Jo, Mi Kyung Park, Kwang Jae Lee, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(3): 230.     CrossRef
Relationships between Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes
Byung Kil Ha, Bong Gun Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Soon Il Lee, Soon Myung Jung, Ja Young Park, Chang Won Lee, Sang Soo Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, In Ju Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(6):443-451.   Published online December 12, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.6.443
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is known to be a good surrogate marker of clinical atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a major predictor for developing neuropathy. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between baPWV and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted involving 692 patients with type 2 diabetes. The correlation between increased baPWV and DPN, neurological symptoms, and neurological assessment was analyzed. DPN was examined using the total symptom score (TSS), ankle reflexes, the vibration test, and the 10-g monofilament test. DPN was defined as TSS ≥2 and an abnormal neurological assessment. Data were expressed as means±standard deviation for normally distributed data and as median (interquartile range) for non-normally distributed data. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups, and a multiple logistic regression test was used to evaluate independent predictors of DPN. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test was used to adjust for age.

Results

Patients with DPN had higher baPWV and systolic blood pressure, and were more likely to be older and female, when compared to the control group. According to univariate analysis of risk factors for DPN, the odds ratio of the baPWV ≥1,600 cm/sec was 1.611 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.072 to 2.422; P=0.021) and the odds ratio in female was 1.816 (95% CI, 1.195 to 2.760; P=0.005).

Conclusion

Increased baPWV was significantly correlated with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Cause-of-Death Trends for Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years.
Su Kyung Park, Mi Kyoung Park, Ji Hye Suk, Mi Kyung Kim, Yong Ki Kim, In Ju Kim, Yang Ho Kang, Kwang Jae Lee, Hyun Seung Lee, Chang Won Lee, Bo Hyun Kim, Kyung Il Lee, Mi Kyoung Kim, Duk Kyu Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(1):65-72.   Published online February 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.1.65
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Recently, diabetic mortality is lower than ever before, likely due to dramatic improvements in diabetes care. This study set to analyze changes in the cause of death in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the past 10 years. METHODS: All subjects were T2DM patients over the age of 30 whose death certificates were issued at six hospitals in the Busan metropolitan area from 2000 to 2004. The patients were excluded if they had been clinically diagnosed with significant tuberculosis, liver, thyroid, renal, connective tissue diseases and cancers, prior to T2DM diagnosis. We classified the cause of death into several groups by KCD-4. The results were compared with published data on the period from 1990 to 1994. RESULTS: The study comprised 680 patients, of which 374 (55.0%) were male. The average age of death was 66.3 +/- 10.7 years. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease (30.6%), followed by infectious disease (25.3%), cancer (21.9%), congestive heart failure (7.1%), renal disease (4.7%), liver disease (2.7%), and T2DM itself (1.9%). In the study from the earlier period, the most common cause of death was also cardiovascular disease (37.6%), followed by infectious disease (24.2%), T2DM (6.0%), liver disease (5.4%), cancer (4.7%), and renal disease (3.3%). CONCLUSION: Over both study periods, the first and second cause of death in T2DM were cardiovascular disease and infectious disease, respectively. However, death by cerebral infarction among cardiovascular disease patients was significantly lower in the latter period, while death by malignancy was markedly increased.

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Determinants of 1-Year Changes of Brachial Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (baPWV) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Kyung Won Yun, Bo Hyun Kim, Young Pil Bae, Byeong Do Yi, Seung Woo Lee, Hong Kyu Lim, Yeon Sik Ryu, Chang Won Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(4):346-357.   Published online August 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.4.346
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes. PWV correlates well with arterial distensibility and stiffness and a useful approach for evaluating the severity of systemic atherosclerosis in adults, and, in particular, the measurement of brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) has been commonly reported as a simple, noninvasive and practicable method. baPWV was mainly affected by age, SBP and sex. And also, baPWV was affected by many different factors such as body weight, BMI, waist to hip ratio, HbA1c, microalbuminuria, triglyceride, gammaGTP, duration of DM. We evaluated determinants of 1-year changes of baPWV in patients with type 2 DM. METHODS: The study group comprised 189 diabetic patients who measured ankle brachial pressure index (ABI), baPWV at base line and 1-year later. The anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, pulse pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FBS), fasting insulin, A1c, lipid profile, hsCRP, microalbuminuria, AST/ALT, gammaGTP were also checked concurrently. We also analyzed correlation between change of baPWV and subject's medications. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the 1-year changes of baPWV and the other factors. All analyses were performed with the SPSS Version 14.0 and P values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: baPWV change was affected by systolic blood pressure change, diastolic blood pressure change, pulse pressure change, body weight, BMI, triglyceride change, insulin treatment and total cholesterol. Multiple regression analysis of the relationship between change of baPWV and other associated variables shows that the 1-year change of baPWV was significantly associated with the changes of blood pressure and insulin treatment in patients with type 2 DM. CONCLUSION: 1-year change of baPWV was significantly associated with the changes of blood pressure in patients with type 2 DM.

Citations

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  • Independent association between glycated hemoglobin and arterial stiffness in healthy men
    Jin‐Won Noh, Eun‐Jung Kim, Hyun‐Ju Seo, Soo Geun Kim
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2016; 7(2): 241.     CrossRef
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    Dae Young Kim, Sung Yeol Kong, Sung Ja Lee, Ha Do Song, Eun Jin Han, Ji Hoon Yang, Ji Yeon Kim, Dong Hyun Lee, Hyun Ho Shin
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    Young Pil Bae, Byeong Do Yi, Bong-Gun Kim, Jong-Hwa Park, Yong Seop Kwon, Ja Young Park, Chang Won Lee, Bo Hyun Kim, Jae-Sik Jang
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    Chul Woo Ahn
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High Glucose Modulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Through Activation of PKC-sigma-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase.
Bo Hyun Kim, Chang Won Lee, Jung Lae Park, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):416-427.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.416
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the causative factors contributing to macrovascular complications in diabetes. However, the mechanisms of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications are poorly understood. We hypothesized that PKC-sigma isozyme contributes to ROS generation and determined their roles in the critical intermediary signaling events in high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. METHODS: We treated primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells for 72 hours with medium containing 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose (normal glucose), 30 mmol/L D-glucose (high glucose) or 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose plus 24.5 mmol/L mannitol (osmotic control). We then measured cell number, BrdU incorporation, cell cycle and superoxide production in VSM cells. Immunoblotting of PKC isozymes using phoshospecific antibodies was performed, and PKC activity was also measured. RESULTS: High glucose increased VSM cell number and BrdU incorporation and displayed significantly greater percentages of S and G2/M phases than compared to 5.5 mmol/L glucose and osmotic control. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) staining in high glucose-treated VSM cell was more prominent compared with normal glucose-treated VSM cell, which was significantly inhibited by DPI (10 micrometer), but not by inhibitors for other oxidases. High glucose also markedly increased activity of PKC-sigma isozyme. When VSM cells were treated with rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-sigma or transfected with PKC-sigma siRNA, NBT staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were significantly attenuated in the high glucose-treated VSM cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC-sigma markedly decreased VSM cell number by high glucose. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose-induced VSM cell proliferation is dependent upon activation of PKC-sigma, which may responsible for elevated intracellular ROS production in VSM cells, and this is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase.

Citations

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  • High Glucose and/or Free Fatty Acid Damage Vascular Endothelial Cells via Stimulating of NAD(P)H Oxidase-induced Superoxide Production from Neutrophils
    Sang Soo Kim, Sun Young Kim, Soo Hyung Lee, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(2): 94.     CrossRef
Study on the Mechanism of Neutrophil Adhesion to Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cells under High Glucose Condition.
Seok Man Son, Young Sil Lee, Chang Won Lee, Seok Dong Yoo, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(1):35-49.   Published online February 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of adult vision loss and blindness. Much of the retinal damage that characterizes the disease results from retinal vascular leakage and occlusion. Capillary occlusion is the result of microvascular thrombi in which erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes each may play a major role. Thus, we investigated the pathogenesis of leukocyte stasis by exposing bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRCECs) for high glucose concentration. METHODS: We examined the adhesion of neutrophils to BRCECs incubated in media containing 5.5-30 mmol/L D-glucose for 24 hours. We also measured the expression of E-selectin on endothelial cells and the activation of NF(nuclear transcription factor)-kappaB in nuclear fractions of endothelial cells by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: We observed that 30 mmol/L D-glucose significantly increased the adhesion of neutrophils to BRCECs (12.5% vs. 3.0%, p<0.01) and migration of neutrophil across cultured BRCEC monolayers (41.0% vs. 21.0%, p<0.05) in respect to 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose. The expression of E-selectin was increased incubated with 30 mmol/L D-glucose compared with 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose (1.45 OD vs. 0.54 OD, p<0.01). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay of nuclear extracts of BRCECs exposed for 24 h to 30 mmol/L D-glucose revealed an intense NF-kappaB activation compared with cells cultured in 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose (8.72x104 countsxmm2 vs.1.88x104 countsxmm2, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose concentration promote neutrophil adhesion to the BRCECs through upregulation of cell surface expression of E-selectin, possibly depending on NF-kappaB activation and may have implications for the induction of microvasculopathy of diabetic retinopathy.
Solyble ICAM-1 and BCAM-1 in Patients with NIDDM.
Young Min Kim, Yong Gi Kim, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Seok Dong Yoo, Young Keun Choi, Chang Won Lee, Jun Hyup Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(3):315-325.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The development of vascular complications in diabetic patients changess their quality of life, as well as shortens their life expectancy. It has been recently discovered that the expressions of the cell adhesion molecules initiate vascular complications and have major effects on the progress of atherosclerosis. We measured soluble forms of intercelluar adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), the immunoglobulin superfamily members of the cell adhesion molecules concerning firm adhesion and transendothelial migration during leukocyte- endothelial cell interactions to clarify their concentrations and their relation with glycemic control and plasma lipoproteins as well as differences in concentration according to the presence of diabetic microvascular complcations in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. METHODS: Serum sICAM-1and sVCAM-1 levels were measured by commercial ELISA kits in 35 NIDDM patients without overt macrovascular complications of diabetes or acute inflammation and 10 normal controls matched with body mass index and plasma lipoprotein levels. The mean age of the patient group and control group was 55.82+3.43 years and 46.30+15.15 years, respectively. Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters such as fasting plasma glucose, HbAplasma lipoproteins and status of diabetic microvascular complications were evaluated and their relations with the levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were analyzed. RESULTS: 1) The level of sICAM-1 in NIDDM patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls (15.79+6.21 ng/mL vs. 11.98+2.35, p<0.05). sVCAM-1 showed the trend in elevation in NIDDM patients, but had no statistical significance (p=0.053). 2) The level of soluble ICAM-1 was positively correlated with HbAlc>, and plasma triglyceride levels (r=0.38, p<0.05, r=0.36, p<0.05, respectively) and negatively correlated with HDL (r=-0.44, p<0.01) in the patient group. There were no differences in their age, sex, and the presence of hypertension with the levels of sICAM-1 and no relation between sICAM-1 level and body mass index, plasma total cholesterol, Lp (a), fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma C-peptide levels. Plasma LDL was partially correlated with the level of sICAM-1, but failed to reveal statistical significance. sVCAM-1 level was not correlated with any parameters discussed above, but had a tendency of correlation with HbAlc level (r=0.31, p=0.06). 3) No significant correlation was noted between the levels of sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1 and the duration of diabetes. 4) Both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy when compared to patients without nephropathy (21.58+7.11 ng/mL vs. 14.06+4.84 ng/mL, p<0.05, 37.51+16.91 ng/mL vs. 22.26+8.89 ng/mL, p<0.05, respectively, but such differences were not noted when patients were classifed according to the presence of retinopathy or neuropathy. 5) Both sICAM-1and sVCAM-1 levels did not correlate in the patient group or in the normal control group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that enhanced expression of the the endothelial cell adhesion molecules in diabetic patients can be explained by endothelial dysfunction caused by persistent hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, it can be suggested that endothelial dysfunction may be initiated by diabetes itself and can be deteriorated by combined dyslipidemia. From the result of the elevated concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in patients with diabetic nephropathy, we can suggest that the elevation of these cell adhesion molecules may be useful as markers in diabetic nephropathy. More selective and prospective studies are necessary in order to reveal thesignificance of these cell adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal