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Original Article
Complications
Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Undiagnosed Diabetic Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Han Na Jang, Min Kyong Moon, Bo Kyung Koo
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(4):620-629.   Published online February 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0099
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  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We investigated the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with undiagnosed diabetes through a nationwide survey, compared to those with known diabetes.
Methods
Among the participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) from 2017 to 2018, individuals aged ≥40 years with diabetes and fundus exam results were enrolled. Sampling weights were applied to represent the entire Korean population. Newly detected diabetes patients through KNHANES were classified under “undiagnosed diabetes.”
Results
Among a total of 9,108 participants aged ≥40 years, 951 were selected for analysis. Of them, 31.3% (standard error, ±2.0%) were classified under “undiagnosed diabetes.” The prevalence of DR in patients with known and undiagnosed diabetes was 24.5%±2.0% and 10.7%±2.2%, respectively (P<0.001). The DR prevalence increased with rising glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in patients with known and undiagnosed diabetes (P for trend=0.001 in both). Among those with undiagnosed diabetes, the prevalence of DR was 6.9%±2.1%, 8.0%±3.4%, 5.6%±5.7%, 16.7%±9.4%, and 42.6%±14.8% for HbA1c levels of <7.0%, 7.0%–7.9%, 8.0%–8.9%, 9.0%–9.9%, and ≥10.0% respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or obesity according to the presence or absence of DR.
Conclusion
About one-third of patients with diabetes were unaware of their diabetes, and 10% of them have already developed DR. Considering increasing the prevalence of DR according to HbA1c level was found in patients with undiagnosed diabetes like those with known diabetes, screening and early detection of diabetes and DR are important.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk factors of peripheral occlusive arterial disease in patients with diabetic retinopathy due to type 2 diabetes
    Milos Maksimovic
    Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo.2024; 152(1-2): 50.     CrossRef
  • Gene Expression Analysis in T2DM and Its Associated Microvascular Diabetic Complications: Focus on Risk Factor and RAAS Pathway
    Laxmipriya Jena, Prabhsimran Kaur, Tashvinder Singh, Kangan Sharma, Sushil Kotru, Anjana Munshi
    Molecular Neurobiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Novel Asian-Specific Visceral Adiposity Indices Are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Korean Adults
    Jonghwa Jin, Hyein Woo, Youngeun Jang, Won-Ki Lee, Jung-Guk Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(3): 426.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity and related factors among Iranian older people: Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) program
    Mozhgan Ahmadinezhad, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Noushin Fahimfar, Gita Shafiee, Iraj Nabipour, Mahnaz Sanjari, Kazem Khalagi, Mohammad Javad Mansourzadeh, Bagher Larijani, Afshin Ostovar
    Archives of Osteoporosis.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Letter
Metformin Preserves Peripheral Nerve Damage with Comparable Effects to Alpha Lipoic Acid in Streptozotocin/High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Rats (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:842-53)
Bo Kyung Koo
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):125-126.   Published online January 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0280
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Effect of Metformin on Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicities in Non-diabetic Breast Cancer Patients: A Randomised Controlled Study
    Manar A. Serageldin, Amira B. Kassem, Yasser El-Kerm, Maged W. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El-Mas, Noha A. El-Bassiouny
    Drug Safety.2023; 46(6): 587.     CrossRef
Original Article
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Validation of Risk Prediction Models for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in a Prospective Korean Community-Based Cohort
Jae Hyun Bae, Min Kyong Moon, Sohee Oh, Bo Kyung Koo, Nam Han Cho, Moon-Kyu Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):458-469.   Published online January 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0061
  • 6,816 View
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  • 14 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

To investigate the performance of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) in a large, prospective, community-based cohort in Korea and to compare it with that of the Framingham Global Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the Korean Risk Prediction Model (KRPM).

Methods

In the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KOGES)-Ansan and Ansung study, we evaluated calibration and discrimination of the PCE for non-Hispanic whites (PCE-WH) and for African Americans (PCE-AA) and compared their predictive abilities with the FRS-CVD and the KRPM.

Results

The present study included 7,932 individuals (3,778 men and 4,154 women). The PCE-WH and PCE-AA moderately overestimated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) for men (6% and 13%, respectively) but underestimated the risk for women (−49% and −25%, respectively). The FRS-CVD overestimated ASCVD risk for men (91%) but provided a good risk prediction for women (3%). The KRPM underestimated ASCVD risk for men (−31%) and women (−31%). All the risk prediction models showed good discrimination in both men (C-statistic 0.730 to 0.735) and women (C-statistic 0.726 to 0.732). Recalibration of the PCE using data from the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study substantially improved the predictive accuracy in men.

Conclusion

In the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study, the PCE overestimated ASCVD risk for men and underestimated the risk for women. The PCE-WH and the FRS-CVD provided an accurate prediction of ASCVD in men and women, respectively.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk Factors for Infertility in Korean Women
    Juyeon Lee, Chang-Woo Choo, Kyoung Yong Moon, Sang Woo Lyu, Hoon Kim, Joong Yeup Lee, Jung Ryeol Lee, Byung Chul Jee, Kyungjoo Hwang, Seok Hyun Kim, Sue K. Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluating cardiovascular disease risk stratification using multiple-polygenic risk scores and pooled cohort equations: insights from a 17-year longitudinal Korean cohort study
    Yi Seul Park, Hye-Mi Jang, Ji Hye Park, Bong-Jo Kim, Hyun-Young Park, Young Jin Kim
    Frontiers in Genetics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Moderation of Weight Misperception on the Associations Between Obesity Indices and Estimated Cardiovascular Disease Risk
    Kayoung Lee
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.2023; 30(1): 89.     CrossRef
  • Validation of the general Framingham Risk Score (FRS), SCORE2, revised PCE and WHO CVD risk scores in an Asian population
    Sazzli Shahlan Kasim, Nurulain Ibrahim, Sorayya Malek, Khairul Shafiq Ibrahim, Muhammad Firdaus Aziz, Cheen Song, Yook Chin Chia, Anis Safura Ramli, Kazuaki Negishi, Nafiza Mat Nasir
    The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific.2023; 35: 100742.     CrossRef
  • Principles of cardiovascular risk management in perimenopausal women with type 2 diabetes
    F. O. Ushanova, T. Yu. Demidova, T. N. Korotkova
    FOCUS. Endocrinology.2023; 4(2): 19.     CrossRef
  • Prediction of the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the Korean population
    Sangwoo Park, Yong-Giun Kim, Soe Hee Ann, Young-Rak Cho, Shin-Jae Kim, Seungbong Han, Gyung-Min Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023052.     CrossRef
  • Triglyceride-Glucose Index Predicts Future Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases: A 16-Year Follow-up in a Prospective, Community-Dwelling Cohort Study
    Joon Ho Moon, Yongkang Kim, Tae Jung Oh, Jae Hoon Moon, Soo Heon Kwak, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Sung Hee Choi, Nam H. Cho
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 406.     CrossRef
  • Validity of the models predicting 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases in Asia: A systematic review and prediction model meta-analysis
    Mahin Nomali, Davood Khalili, Mehdi Yaseri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Aryan Ayati, Hossein Navid, Saharnaz Nedjat, Hean Teik Ong
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(11): e0292396.     CrossRef
  • Assessing the Validity of the Criteria for the Extreme Risk Category of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2022; 11(1): 73.     CrossRef
  • Mediation of Grip Strength on the Association Between Self-Rated Health and Estimated Cardiovascular Disease Risk
    Kayoung Lee
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2022; 20(6): 344.     CrossRef
  • Implications of the heterogeneity between guideline recommendations for the use of low dose aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
    Xiao-Ying Li, Li Li, Sang-Hoon Na, Francesca Santilli, Zhongwei Shi, Michael Blaha
    American Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2022; 11: 100363.     CrossRef
  • The Risk of Cardiovascular Disease According to Chewing Status Could Be Modulated by Healthy Diet in Middle-Aged Koreans
    Hyejin Chun, Jongchul Oh, Miae Doo
    Nutrients.2022; 14(18): 3849.     CrossRef
  • Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Perimenopausal Women with Diabetes
    Catherine Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 492.     CrossRef
  • Comparative performance of the two pooled cohort equations for predicting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
    Alessandra M. Campos-Staffico, David Cordwin, Venkatesh L. Murthy, Michael P. Dorsch, Jasmine A. Luzum
    Atherosclerosis.2021; 334: 23.     CrossRef
  • Usefulness of Relative Handgrip Strength as a Simple Indicator of Cardiovascular Risk in Middle-Aged Koreans
    Won Bin Kim, Jun-Bean Park, Yong-Jin Kim
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences.2021; 362(5): 486.     CrossRef
Response
Response: Effects of Dapagliflozin on Endothelial Function, Renal Injury Markers, and Glycemic Control in Drug-Naïve Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2019:43:711–7)
Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(6):913-914.   Published online December 26, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0149
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Letter
Short Communication
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Effects of Dapagliflozin on Endothelial Function, Renal Injury Markers, and Glycemic Control in Drug-Naïve Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):711-717.   Published online March 20, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0208
  • 3,575 View
  • 58 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The study aimed to evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin and metformin on vascular endothelial function and renal injury markers.

Methods

This prospective, randomized, open-label, crossover study included drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who were randomized to receive 8 weeks of initial treatment using metformin or dapagliflozin and crossed over for another 8 weeks of treatment after a 1-week washout period. Systemic endothelial function was evaluated via the reactive hyperemic index (RHI).

Results

The 22 participants included 10 males (45.5%) and had a median age of 58 years. The RHI values were not significantly changed during both 8-week treatment periods and there was no significant difference between the treatments. Relative to the metformin group, 8 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment produced significantly higher median N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase levels (10.0 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 6.8 to 12.1 ng/mL] vs. 5.6 ng/mL [IQR, 3.8 to 8.0 ng/mL], P=0.013). Only the dapagliflozin group exhibited improved homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and body weight, while serum ketone and β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased.

Conclusion

Dapagliflozin treatment did not affect systemic endothelial function or renal injury markers except N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Dapagliflozin protects the kidney in a non-diabetic model of cardiorenal syndrome
    Konrad Urbanek, Donato Cappetta, Gabriella Bellocchio, Maria Antonietta Coppola, Paola Imbrici, Marialucia Telesca, Maria Donniacuo, Maria Antonietta Riemma, Elena Mele, Eleonora Cianflone, Silvio Naviglio, Elena Conte, Giulia Maria Camerino, Marco Mele,
    Pharmacological Research.2023; 188: 106659.     CrossRef
  • Novel use of structural equation modelling to examine diet and metabolic traits associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged Chinese males: a cross-sectional study
    Rujia Miao, Renhe Yu, Hui Zhou, Lei Liu, Ting Peng, Jiangang Wang
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(9): e073357.     CrossRef
  • Endothelial Dysfunction and Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction—An Updated Review of the Literature
    Mariarosaria De Luca, Giulia Crisci, Giuseppe Armentaro, Sebastiano Cicco, Giovanni Talerico, Emanuele Bobbio, Lorena Lanzafame, Christopher G. Green, Abbie G. McLellan, Radek Debiec, Paolo Caferra, Roberto Scicali, Antonio Cannatà, Muhammad Zubair Israr,
    Life.2023; 14(1): 30.     CrossRef
  • Renoprotection by Dapagliflozin in a Non-Diabetic Model of Cardiorenal Syndrome
    Konrad Urbanek, Donato Cappetta, Gabriella Bellocchio, Maria Antonietta Coppola, Paola Imbrici, Marialucia Telesca, Maria Donniacuo, Maria Antonietta Riemma, Eleonora Cianflone, Silvio Naviglio, Elena Conte, Giulia Maria Camerino, Marco Mele, Mariarosaria
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dapagliflozin increases the lean-to total mass ratio in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Vaneza Lira W. Wolf, Ikaro Breder, Luiz Sérgio F. de Carvalho, Alexandre A. S. Soares, Riobaldo M. Cintra, Joaquim Barreto, Daniel B. Munhoz, Sheila T. Kimura-Medorima, Wilson Nadruz, Gil Guerra-Júnior, Thiago Quinaglia, Elza Muscelli, Andrei C. Sposito
    Nutrition & Diabetes.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Ion Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress associated Mechanisms in Heart Failure
    Gloria M. Gager, Dirk von Lewinski, Harald Sourij, Bernd Jilma, Ceren Eyileten, Krzysztof Filipiak, Martin Hülsmann, Jacek Kubica, Marek Postula, Jolanta M. Siller-Matula
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2021; 143: 112169.     CrossRef
  • Association of Circulating Ketone Bodies With Functional Outcomes After ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
    Marie-Sophie L.Y. de Koning, B. Daan Westenbrink, Solmaz Assa, Erwin Garcia, Margery A. Connelly, Dirk J. van Veldhuisen, Robin P.F. Dullaart, Erik Lipsic, Pim van der Harst
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology.2021; 78(14): 1421.     CrossRef
  • Prognostic value of arterial stiffness measurements in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and its complications: The potential role of sodium‐glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitors
    Dimitrios Patoulias, Christodoulos Papadopoulos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Ioanna Zografou, Michael Doumas, Asterios Karagiannis
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2020; 22(4): 562.     CrossRef
  • Rationale for the Early Use of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Yehuda Handelsman
    Advances in Therapy.2019; 36(10): 2567.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Effects of Dapagliflozin on Endothelial Function, Renal Injury Markers, and Glycemic Control in Drug-Naïve Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2019:43:711–7)
    Dimitrios Patoulias, Michael Doumas
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 906.     CrossRef
  • Response: Effects of Dapagliflozin on Endothelial Function, Renal Injury Markers, and Glycemic Control in Drug-Naïve Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2019:43:711–7)
    Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 913.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Real-World Clinical Practice
A Ram Hong, Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):590-606.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0134
  • 6,712 View
  • 103 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in Korean patients who had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in real-world clinical practice.

Methods

We included 410 patients who started SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin or dapagliflozin) as add-on therapy or switch therapy between February 2015 and June 2017. The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 12. The secondary endpoints were patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% and changes in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profiles, body weight, and blood pressure (BP).

Results

The mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.5% (8.6% in the add-on group and 8.4% in the switch group). At week 12, the mean adjusted HbA1c decreased by −0.68% in the overall patients (P<0.001), by −0.94% in the add-on group, and by −0.42% in the switch group. Significant reductions in FPG were also observed both in the add-on group and switch group (−30.3 and −19.8 mg/dL, respectively). Serum triglyceride (−16.5 mg/dL), body weight (−2.1 kg), systolic BP (−4.7 mm Hg), and diastolic BP (−1.3 mm Hg) were significantly improved in the overall patients. Approximately 18.3% of the patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% at week 12. A low incidence of hypoglycemia and genital tract infection was observed (6.3% and 2.2%, respectively).

Conclusion

SGLT2 inhibitors can be a suitable option as either add-on or switch therapy for Korean patients with inadequately controlled T2DM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effectiveness and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors Added to Dual or Triple Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Yesol Hong, Yoomin Jeon, Yoona Choi, Tae Kyu Chung, Howard Lee
    Diabetes Therapy.2024; 15(2): 487.     CrossRef
  • Real-world assessment of effectiveness and safety profile of remogliflozin etabonate in management of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Bipin Sethi, Subhankar Chowdhury, Supratik Bhattacharya, Sagar Katare, Sachin Suryawanshi, Hanmant Barkate
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023; 43(2): 214.     CrossRef
  • Effects of dapagliflozin compared with glimepiride on body composition in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin: The BEYOND study
    Hyeong Kyu Park, Kyoung‐Ah Kim, Kyung‐Wan Min, Tae‐Seo Sohn, In Kyung Jeong, Chul Woo Ahn, Nan‐Hee Kim, Ie Byung Park, Ho Chan Cho, Choon Hee Chung, Sung Hee Choi, Kang Seo Park, Seoung‐Oh Yang, Kwan Woo Lee
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(9): 2743.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and Safety of Evogliptin Add-on Therapy to Dapagliflozin/Metformin Combinations in Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 24-Week Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Parallel-Design Phase-3 Trial with a 28-Week Extensio
    Jun Sung Moon, Il Rae Park, Hae Jin Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Kyu Chang Won, Kyung Ah Han, Cheol-Young Park, Jong Chul Won, Dong Jun Kim, Gwan Pyo Koh, Eun Sook Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Eun-Gyoung Hong, Chang Beom Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(6): 808.     CrossRef
  • Real-world Data of Glycemic Control in a Suburban Population in Northern India during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Jaydip V. Revale, Preeti J. Revale
    International Journal of Diabetes and Technology.2023; 2(2): 60.     CrossRef
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    Satilmis Bilgin, Ozge Kurtkulagi, Tuba Taslamacioglu Duman, Burcin Meryem Atak Tel, Gizem Kahveci, Murat Kiran, Eray Erge, Gulali Aktas
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    Nauman Wazir, Shafqat Ur Rehman
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  • Five comparative cohorts to assess the risk of genital tract infections associated with sodium‐glucose cotransporter‐2 inhibitors initiation in type 2 diabetes mellitus
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    Da Hea Seo, Young Ju Suh, Yongin Cho, Seong Hee Ahn, Seongha Seo, Seongbin Hong, Yong-ho Lee, Young Ju Choi, Eunjig Lee, So Hun Kim
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    Muhammad Afzal, Fahad Al-Abbasi, Muhammad Nadeem, Sultan Alshehri, Mohammed Ghoneim, Syed Imam, Waleed Almalki, Imran Kazmi
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    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 489.     CrossRef
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  • Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of SGLT-2 Inhibitors in an Italian Cohort of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Maria Mirabelli, Eusebio Chiefari, Patrizia Caroleo, Raffaella Vero, Francesco Saverio Brunetti, Domenica Maria Corigliano, Biagio Arcidiacono, Daniela Patrizia Foti, Luigi Puccio, Antonio Brunetti
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    Ji A Seo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(5): 578.     CrossRef
Clinical Care/Education
Improvement of Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus under Insulin Treatment by Reimbursement for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose
Young Shin Song, Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Kichul Shin, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(1):28-42.   Published online September 28, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.42.1.28
  • 4,043 View
  • 39 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

In Korea, the costs associated with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) under insulin treatment have been reimbursed since November 2015. We investigated whether this new reimbursement program for SMBG has improved the glycemic control in the beneficiaries of this policy.

Methods

Among all adult T2DM patients with ≥3 months of reimbursement (n=854), subjects without any changes in anti-hyperglycemic agents during the study period were selected. The improvement of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was defined as an absolute reduction in HbA1c ≥0.6% or an HbA1c level at follow-up <7%.

Results

HbA1c levels significantly decreased from 8.5%±1.3% to 8.2%±1.2% during the follow-up (P<0.001) in all the study subjects (n=409). Among them, 35.5% (n=145) showed a significant improvement in HbA1c. Subjects covered under the Medical Aid system showed a higher prevalence of improvement in HbA1c than those with medical insurance (52.2% vs. 33.3%, respectively, P=0.012). In the improvement group, the baseline HbA1c (P<0.001), fasting C-peptide (P=0.016), and daily dose of insulin/body weight (P=0.024) showed significant negative correlations with the degree of HbA1c change. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects in the Medical Aid system were about 2.5-fold more likely to improve in HbA1c compared to those with medical insurance (odds ratio, 2.459; 95% confidence interval, 1.138 to 5.314; P=0.022).

Conclusion

The reimbursement for SMBG resulted in a significant improvement in HbA1c in T2DM subjects using insulin, which was more prominent in subjects with poor glucose control at baseline or covered under the Medical Aid system.

Citations

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  • Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Insulin Glargine Biosimilar Ezelin versus Originator Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Tri Juli Edi Tarigan, Adisti Dwijayanti, Susie Setyowati, Melva Louisa
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2021; Volume 14: 107.     CrossRef
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    Kyung-Soo Kim
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Letter
Response
Response: Efficacy of Moderate Intensity Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:23-30)
Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(2):152-153.   Published online April 14, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.2.152
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  • Letter: Comparison of the Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy 20 mg with Rosuvastatin 5 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg Combination Therapy on Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2019;43:582–9)
    Tae Seo Sohn
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 909.     CrossRef
Original Article
Clinical Care/Education
Efficacy of Moderate Intensity Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(1):23-30.   Published online December 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.1.23
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

There has been evidences of ethnic differences in the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effect of statin. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of moderate-intensity statins in the treatment of dyslipidemia among Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

We analyzed a retrospective cohort that consisted of Korean patients with T2DM aged 40 to 75 years who had been prescribed any of the moderate-intensity statins (atorvastatin 10 or 20 mg, rosuvastatin 5 or 10 mg, pitavastatin 2 mg, or pravastatin 40 mg). Among them, only patients with baseline lipid profiles before starting statin treatment were selected, and changes in their lipid profiles before and 6 months after statin therapy were analyzed.

Results

Following the first 6 months of therapy, the overall LDL-C reduction was −47.4% (interquartile range, −56.6% to −34.1%). In total, 92.1% of the participants achieved an LDL-C level of <100 mg/dL, 38.3% had a 30% to 50% reduction in their LDL-C levels, and 42.3% had a reduction in their LDL-C levels greater than 50%. The response rates of each drug for achieving a LDL-C level <100 mg/dL were 81.7%, 93.1%, 95.0%, 95.0%, 96.5%, and 91.7% for treatment with atorvastatin doses of 10 or 20 mg, rosuvastatin 5 or 10 mg, pitavastatin 2 mg, and pravastatin 40 mg, respectively.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the use of moderate-intensity statins reduced LDL-C levels less than 100 mg/dL in most of the Korean patients studied with T2DM. The efficacies of those statins were higher than expected in about 42% of Korean patients with T2DM.

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  • Letter: Efficacy of Moderate Intensity Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:23-30)
    Jae-Han Jeon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(2): 150.     CrossRef
  • Response: Efficacy of Moderate Intensity Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:23-30)
    Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(2): 152.     CrossRef
Editorial
Complications
Determinants of the Risk of Diabetic Kidney Disease and Diabetic Retinopathy Independent of Glucose Exposure
Bo Kyung Koo
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(6):444-446.   Published online December 14, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.6.444
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  • 28 Download
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Review
Epidemiology
Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population
Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(3):175-181.   Published online May 24, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.3.175
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes.

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Original Articles
The Level of Autoantibodies Targeting Eukaryote Translation Elongation Factor 1 α1 and Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 2L3 in Nondiabetic Young Adults
Eunhee G. Kim, Soo Heon Kwak, Daehee Hwang, Eugene C. Yi, Kyong Soo Park, Bo Kyung Koo, Kristine M. Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):154-160.   Published online November 13, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.154
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The prevalence of novel type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) antibodies targeting eukaryote translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 autoantibody (EEF1A1-AAb) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2L3 autoantibody (UBE2L3-AAb) has been shown to be negatively correlated with age in T1DM subjects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether age affects the levels of these two antibodies in nondiabetic subjects.

Methods

EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels in nondiabetic control subjects (n=150) and T1DM subjects (n=101) in various ranges of age (18 to 69 years) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cutoff point for the presence of each autoantibody was determined based on control subjects using the formula: [mean absorbance+3×standard deviation].

Results

In nondiabetic subjects, there were no significant correlations between age and EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels. However, there was wide variation in EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels among control subjects <40 years old; the prevalence of both EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb in these subjects was 4.4%. When using cutoff points determined from the control subjects <40 years old, the prevalence of both autoantibodies in T1DM subjects was decreased (EEFA1-AAb, 15.8% to 8.9%; UBE2L3-AAb, 10.9% to 7.9%) when compared to the prevalence using the cutoff derived from the totals for control subjects.

Conclusion

There was no association between age and EEF1A1-AAb or UBE2L3-AAb levels in nondiabetic subjects. However, the wide variation in EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels apparent among the control subjects <40 years old should be taken into consideration when determining the cutoff reference range for the diagnosis of T1DM.

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  • An autoantigen-ome from HS-Sultan B-Lymphoblasts offers a molecular map for investigating autoimmune sequelae of COVID-19
    Julia Y. Wang, Wei Zhang, Victor B. Roehrl, Michael W. Roehrl, Michael H. Roehrl, Mibel Aguilar
    Australian Journal of Chemistry.2023; 76(8): 525.     CrossRef
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    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Low Economic Status Is Identified as an Emerging Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men Aged 30 to 59 Years in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010
Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(2):137-146.   Published online March 11, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.2.137
  • 3,178 View
  • 27 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We compared the association between economic status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) using large nationwide datasets covering the previous 10 years in Korea.

Methods

We analyzed the association between economic status and DM using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2001 to 2010 weighted to represent the Korean population between 30 and 59 years of age. The economic status of participants was classified into quartiles according to monthly family income with an equivalence scale.

Results

In men, the prevalence of diabetes in the lowest income quartile (Q1) was significantly higher than that in the other quartiles in 2008 (age and body mass index-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.846; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.126 to 3.027; P=0.015), 2009 (OR, 1.706; 95% CI, 1.094 to 2.661; P=0.019), and 2010 (OR, 1.560; 95% CI, 1.024 to 2.377; P=0.039) but not in 2001 or 2005. The data indicated that classification in the lowest economic status was an independent risk factor for diabetes even after adjusting for abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and education level in men of KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Although economic status was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in women (P<0.001), there was no significant association between economic status and DM in women.

Conclusion

Korean men between 30 and 59 years of age with the lowest economic status had a significantly higher prevalence of DM in 2008 to 2010 even after adjusting for other risk factors.

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    Bo Kyung Koo, Seoil Moon, Min Kyong Moon
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    Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(3): 175.     CrossRef
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