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Volume 44(3); June 2020
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Sulwon Lecture 2019
Pathophysiology
The Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in Energy Metabolism
Joon Young Chang, Hyun Jung Hong, Seul Gi Kang, Jung Tae Kim, Ben Yuan Zhang, Minho Shong
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):363-371.   Published online June 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0087
  • 7,995 View
  • 225 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is receiving great interest beyond its role as an aging and disease-related biomarker. Recent discovery of its receptor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor α-like (GFRAL), suggests a central role in appetite regulation. However, there is also considerable evidence that GDF15 may have peripheral activity through an as-of-yet undiscovered mode of action. This raises the question as to whether increased GDF15 induction during pathophysiologic conditions also suppresses appetite. The present review will briefly introduce the discovery of GDF15 and describe the different contexts under which GDF15 is induced, focusing on its induction during mitochondrial dysfunction. We will further discuss the metabolic role of GDF15 under various pathophysiological conditions and conclude with possible therapeutic applications.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Jojo Reyes, Yanlin Zhao, Krushang Pandya, George S. Yap
    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.2024; 116: 24.     CrossRef
  • Biomarkers of disability worsening in inactive primary progressive multiple sclerosis
    Maria-Elizabeth Baeva, Isabelle Tottenham, Marcus Koch, Carlos Camara-Lemarroy
    Journal of Neuroimmunology.2024; 387: 578268.     CrossRef
  • Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates and Individual Ageing
    Natalia Kurhaluk
    Biomolecules.2024; 14(3): 260.     CrossRef
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    Songmao Zheng, David Polidori, Yuanping Wang, Brian Geist, Xiefan Lin‐Schmidt, Jennifer L. Furman, Serena Nelson, Andrea R. Nawrocki, Simon A. Hinke
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    Samuel N. Breit, Rakesh Manandhar, Hong-Ping Zhang, Michelle Lee-Ng, David A. Brown, Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai
    Cell Metabolism.2023; 35(8): 1341.     CrossRef
  • Serum growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a biomarker of cardiac manifestations in children with COVID-19
    Sally Raafat Ishak, Mona Mostafa El Ganzoury, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Maha Ahmad Anwar, Amany Moustafa Kamal, Heba Mostafa Hamza, Nehad Ahmed Bakry
    European Journal of Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Understanding the molecular basis of anorexia and tissue wasting in cancer cachexia
    Eunbyul Yeom, Kweon Yu
    Experimental & Molecular Medicine.2022; 54(4): 426.     CrossRef
  • Investigating the combination of plasma amyloid-beta and geroscience biomarkers on the incidence of clinically meaningful cognitive decline in older adults
    Wan-Hsuan Lu, Kelly Virecoulon Giudici, John E. Morley, Sophie Guyonnet, Angelo Parini, Geetika Aggarwal, Andrew D. Nguyen, Yan Li, Randall J. Bateman, Bruno Vellas, Philipe de Souto Barreto, Bruno Vellas, Sophie Guyonnet, Isabelle Carrié, Lauréane Brigit
    GeroScience.2022; 44(3): 1489.     CrossRef
  • The Potential Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in COVID-19: A Corollary Subjective Effect or Not?
    Ahmad O. Babalghith, Hayder M. Al-kuraishy, Ali I. Al-Gareeb, Michel De Waard, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Hebatallah M. Saad, Gaber El-Saber Batiha
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(9): 2051.     CrossRef
  • Metformin and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A hidden treasure
    Hayder M. Al‐kuraishy, Ali I. Al‐Gareeb, Athanasios Alexiou, Marios Papadakis, Eman Hassan Nadwa, Sarah M. Albogami, Mohammed Alorabi, Hebatallah M. Saad, Gaber El‐Saber Batiha
    Journal of Diabetes.2022; 14(12): 806.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Exercise Intervention on Mitochondrial Stress Biomarkers in Metabolic Syndrome Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Jae Seung Chang, Jun Namkung
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(5): 2242.     CrossRef
  • Neurological & psychological aspects of Barth syndrome: Clinical manifestations and potential pathogenic mechanisms
    Melissa Olivar-Villanueva, Mindong Ren, Colin K.L. Phoon
    Mitochondrion.2021; 61: 188.     CrossRef
  • The metabolic role of spermidine in obesity: Evidence from cells to community
    Yanee Choksomngam, Sintip Pattanakuhar, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C. Chattipakorn
    Obesity Research & Clinical Practice.2021; 15(4): 315.     CrossRef
  • The Role of GDF15 as a Myomitokine
    Kornelia Johann, Maximilian Kleinert, Susanne Klaus
    Cells.2021; 10(11): 2990.     CrossRef
Reviews
Complications
Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Diabetes: The Epidemic and the Korean Diabetes Association Perspective
Junghyun Noh, Hyun-Ha Chang, In-Kyung Jeong, Kun Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):372-381.   Published online June 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0138
  • 8,124 View
  • 138 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Diabetes has been associated with more severe outcomes and higher mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients compare to morbidity and mortality in patients without diabetes. Several mechanisms may play a role in this greater morbidity and mortality, especially uncontrolled hyperglycemia, an impaired immune system, pre-existing proinflammatory states, multiple comorbidities, and dysregulated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 signaling. Thus, the diabetes medical community emergently needs to know about COVID-19 and its effects on patients with diabetes, as they must take precautions to carefully manage these patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Korean Diabetes Association provides some guidance and practical recommendations for the management of diabetes during the pandemic. This report provides insight into the association between diabetes and COVID-19, proper management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19 and an official suggestion by the Korean Diabetes Association for managing the COVID-19 outbreak.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Medical comorbidities as predictors of COVID-19 short-term mortality: A historical cohort study in Indonesia
    RizaldyTaslim Pinzon, Vanessa Veronica
    Tzu Chi Medical Journal.2023; 35(1): 53.     CrossRef
  • A year of experience with COVID‐19 in patients with cancer: A nationwide study
    Mina Khosravifar, Sogol Koolaji, Negar Rezaei, Ali Ghanbari, Seyedeh Melika Hashemi, Erfan Ghasemi, Ali Bitaraf, Ozra Tabatabaei‐Malazy, Nazila Rezaei, Sahar Mohammadi Fateh, Arezou Dilmaghani‐Marand, Rosa Haghshenas, Ameneh Kazemi, Erfan Pakatchian, Farz
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  • Impact of COPD on clinical and CT characteristics of COVID-19-associated pneumonia: single tertiary center experience
    Yevgeniya Filippenko, Marianna Zagurovskaya, Aigul Abdrakhmanova, Saule Kassenova, Zhanar Zhakenova, Aizat Aimakhanova, Zhamilya Zholdybay
    Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Yunjung Cho, Kun‐Ho Yoon
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2021; 12(3): 297.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 associated with diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases led to a global health crisis
    Mark Thomaz Ugliara Barone, Belinda Ngongo, Simone Bega Harnik, Lucas Xavier de Oliveira, Dániel Végh, Patrícia Vieira de Luca, Hermelinda Cordeiro Pedrosa, Franco Giraudo, Roque Cardona-Hernandez, Nayanjeet Chaudhury, Luiz Menna-Barreto
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 171: 108587.     CrossRef
  • Impact of COPD on COVID-19 prognosis: A nationwide population-based study in South Korea
    Sang Chul Lee, Kang Ju Son, Chang Hoon Han, Seon Cheol Park, Ji Ye Jung
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of a DPP-4 Inhibitor and RAS Blockade on Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Diabetes and COVID-19
    Sang Youl Rhee, Jeongwoo Lee, Hyewon Nam, Dae-Sung Kyoung, Dong Wook Shin, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(2): 251.     CrossRef
  • Towards Telemedicine Adoption in Korea: 10 Practical Recommendations for Physicians
    Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Nutritional information access and dietary behavior among people with diabetes during Covid-19 pandemic
    Yovita Puri Subardjo, Gumintang Ratna Ramadhan, Dika Betaditya, Muflihatus Syarifah, Nurafifah Fauziana Abidin
    IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.2021; 746(1): 012027.     CrossRef
  • Dissection of non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented by Iran, South Korea, and Turkey in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic
    Mohammad Keykhaei, Sogol Koolaji, Esmaeil Mohammadi, Reyhaneh Kalantar, Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam, Arya Aminorroaya, Shaghayegh Zokaei, Sina Azadnajafabad, Negar Rezaei, Erfan Ghasemi, Nazila Rezaei, Rosa Haghshenas, Yosef Farzi, Sina Rashedi, Bagher Larijan
    Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders.2021; 20(2): 1919.     CrossRef
  • 2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
    Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2021; 22(4): 244.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Characteristics and Mortality Predictors of COVID-19 Patients Hospitalized at Nationally-Designated Treatment Hospitals
    Seong-Su Moon, Kwan Lee, Jungi Park, Seongcheol Yun, Yun Sik Lee, Dong Seok Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Response: The Risk of Diabetes on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:405–13)
    Seung Min Chung, June Hong Ahn, Jun Sung Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 625.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19
    Jeong Hyun Park
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2020; 21(3): 116.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Byung-Wan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Bong-Soo Cha, Dae Ho Lee, Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) Fatty Liver Research Group
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):382-401.   Published online May 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0010
  • 12,227 View
  • 335 Download
  • 42 Web of Science
  • 42 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

This clinical practice position statement, a product of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association, proposes recommendations for the diagnosis, progression and/or severity assessment, management, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both T2DM and NAFLD have an increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications compared to those without NAFLD. With regards to the evaluation of patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ultrasonography-based stepwise approaches using noninvasive biomarker models such as fibrosis-4 or the NAFLD fibrosis score as well as imaging studies such as vibration-controlled transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction are recommended. After the diagnosis of NAFLD, the stage of fibrosis needs to be assessed appropriately. For management, weight reduction achieved by lifestyle modification has proven beneficial and is recommended in combination with antidiabetic agent(s). Evidence that some antidiabetic agents improve NAFLD/NASH with fibrosis in patients with T2DM is emerging. However, there are currently no definite pharmacologic treatments for NAFLD in patients with T2DM. For specific cases, bariatric surgery may be an option if indicated.

Citations

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    Sook Jung Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
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    Journal of the Endocrine Society.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Efficacy and Safety of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Yuan Zhu, Jiao Xu, Dong Zhang, Xingyu Mu, Yi Shi, Shangtao Chen, Zengxiang Wu, Shuangqing Li
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  • Liver fibrosis indices are related to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes
    Kyuho Kim, Tae Jung Oh, Hyen Chung Cho, Yun Kyung Lee, Chang Ho Ahn, Bo Kyung Koo, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
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Editorial
Smoking as a Target for Prevention of Diabetes
Ye Seul Yang, Tae Seo Sohn
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):402-404.   Published online June 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0126
  • 4,570 View
  • 67 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
PDFPubReader   

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between Smoking Status and the Risk of Hip Fracture in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    Se-Won Lee, Jun-Young Heu, Ju-Yeong Kim, Jinyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
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Original Articles
Complications
The Risk of Diabetes on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Seung Min Chung, Yin Young Lee, Eunyeong Ha, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee, Jian Hur, Kyung Soo Hong, Jong Geol Jang, Hyun Jung Jin, Eun Young Choi, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Jin Hong Chung, Kwan Ho Lee, June Hong Ahn, Jun Sung Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):405-413.   Published online May 21, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0105
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

To determine the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we explored the clinical characteristics of patients with DM and compared risk factors such as age, glycemic control, and medications to those without DM.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study of 117 confirmed patients with COVID-19 which conducted at a tertiary hospital in Daegu, South Korea. The primary outcome was defined as the severe and critical outcome (SCO), of which the composite outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, intensive care unit care, and 28-day mortality. We analyzed what clinical features and glycemic control-related factors affect the prognosis of COVID-19 in the DM group.

Results

After exclusion, 110 participants were finally included. DM patients (n=29) was older, and showed higher blood pressure compared to non-DM patients. DM group showed higher levels of inflammation-related biomarkers and severity score, and highly progressed to SCO. After adjustment with other risk factors, DM increased the risk of SCO (odds ratio [OR], 10.771; P<0.001). Among the DM patients, SCO was more prevalent in elderly patients of ≥70 years old and age was an independent risk factor for SCO in patients with DM (OR, 1.175; P=0.014), while glycemic control was not. The use of medication did not affect the SCO, but the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors showed protective effects against acute cardiac injury (OR, 0.048; P=0.045).

Conclusion

The COVID-19 patients with DM had higher severity and resulted in SCO. Intensive and aggressive monitoring of COVID-19 clinical outcomes in DM group, especially in elderly patients is warranted.

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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Metabolic Health, Obesity, and the Risk of Developing Open-Angle Glaucoma: Metabolically Healthy Obese Patients versus Metabolically Unhealthy but Normal Weight Patients
Younhea Jung, Kyungdo Han, Hae-Young L. Park, Seung Hoon Lee, Chan Kee Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):414-425.   Published online December 23, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0048
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study sought to investigate the associations between metabolic health status, obesity, and incidence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).

Methods

In this nationwide, population-based, longitudinal prospective cohort study conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance System, we categorized all subjects based on presence and severity of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Insurance claims data were used to identify POAG development. Then, Cox regression was applied to calculate the hazard of developing POAG in people with various components of metabolic syndrome, obesity, or their combination.

Results

Of the total 287,553 subjects, 4,970 (1.3%) developed POAG. High fasting glucose, blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels were all associated with increased risk of developing POAG. Regarding obesity level, people with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2 were more likely to develop POAG than those with normal BMI. Also, people with greater number of metabolic syndrome components showed a greater POAG incidence. People who are metabolically unhealthy and obese (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.574; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.449 to 1.711) and those who are metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO: adjusted HR, 1.521; 95% CI, 1.405 to 1.645) but not those who are metabolically healthy obese (MHO: adjusted HR, 1.019; 95% CI, 0.907 to 1.144) had an increased hazard of developing POAG compared with metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO) subjects.

Conclusion

Metabolic health status and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of POAG incidence. MUNO subjects but not MHO subjects showed a higher risk of POAG development than did MHNO subjects, suggesting that metabolic status is more important than obesity in POAG.

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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine
Ji Hye Kim, Dae Chul Seo, Byung Jin Kim, Jeong Gyu Kang, Seung Jae Lee, Sung Ho Lee, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):426-435.   Published online November 1, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0068
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

No study has assessed association between cigarette smoking and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) incidence using two different smoking classification systems: self-reported questionnaire and urine cotinine. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate NODM risk using the above two systems in Korean adults.

Methods

Among individuals enrolled in Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Cohort Study who visited between 2011 and 2012 at baseline and 2014 at follow-up, 78,212 participants without baseline diabetes mellitus were followed up for a median of 27 months. Assessment of NODM incidence was made at the end of follow-up period. Cotinine-verified current smoking was having urinary cotinine ≥50 ng/mL.

Results

Percentages of self-reported and cotinine-verified current smokers were 25.9% and 23.5%, respectively. Overall incidence of NODM was 1.5%. According to multivariate regression analyses, baseline self-reported current smoking (relative risk [RR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.65) and cotinine-verified current smoking (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.49) increased NODM risk compared to baseline self-reported never smoking and cotinine-verified current non-smoking. Higher daily amount and longer duration of smoking were also associated with increased NODM risk (P for trends <0.05). In particular, self-reported current smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day (RR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.15) and ≥10 years (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.67) had the highest RRs for NODM. These results remained significant in males, although there was no gender interaction.

Conclusion

This longitudinal study showed that baseline self-reported and cotinine-verified current smoking were associated with increased risks of NODM, especially in males.

Citations

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  • Variability in the association of smoking status with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Korean population according to different definitions of smoking status: analysis based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-202
    Yechan Kyung, Young Sook Park, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Health Research.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
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    Ibrahim Abdulsada, Zain Alabdeen Obaid, Farah Almerza, Mays Alwaeli, Anmar Al-Elayawi, Taha Al-Dayyeni, Harir Al-Tuhafy
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    Chan Liu, Yanqin Wu, Wenjuan Duan, Wenming Xu
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    Soo Young Kim
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  • Letter: Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:426–35)
    Bo-Yeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 619.     CrossRef
  • Response: Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:426–35)
    Ji Hye Kim, Byung Jin Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 623.     CrossRef
  • Smoking as a Target for Prevention of Diabetes
    Ye Seul Yang, Tae Seo Sohn
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Association between Higher Blood Pressure and Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Adults
Xue Yang, Jian Chen, An Pan, Jason H.Y. Wu, Fei Zhao, Yue Xie, Yi Wang, Yi Ye, Xiong-Fei Pan, Chun-Xia Yang
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):436-445.   Published online November 14, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0081
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

To examine the prospective association between higher blood pressure (BP) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

Methods

A total of 9,642 middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults (≥45 years old; 47.30% men) without diabetes from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were included for analyses. Participants were categorized into three groups: normal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension, according to the 2010 Chinese Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. The incidence of T2DM was determined by self-reported physician diagnosis during two follow-up surveys conducted in 2013 to 2014 and 2015 to 2016.

Results

During the 4-year follow-up, 429 participants (4.45%) developed T2DM, including 3.51% of the men and 5.29% of the women. The incidence rates of T2DM were 2.57%, 3.75%, and 6.71% in the normal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education level, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference, and dyslipidemia, both prehypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.77) and hypertension (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.54 to 2.64) were associated with increased risk of T2DM, compared to those with a normal BP. The ORs associated with T2DM were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.13) for an increase of 10 mm Hg in systolic BP and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10) for an increase of 5 mm Hg in diastolic BP.

Conclusion

Higher BP is a risk factor for T2DM in middle-aged and elderly Chines. It may be a potential target for diabetes prevention.

Citations

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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Association between the Thigh Muscle and Insulin Resistance According to Body Mass Index in Middle-Aged Korean Adults
Ji Eun Heo, Jee-Seon Shim, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):446-457.   Published online April 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0110
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

We examined the associations between thigh muscle area (TMA) and insulin resistance (IR) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean general population.

Methods

TMA was measured using quantitative computed tomography and corrected by body weight (TMA/Wt) in 1,263 men, 788 premenopausal women, and 1,476 postmenopausal women all aged 30 to 64 years. The tertiles of TMA/Wt were calculated separately for men and for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was performed using fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and increased IR was defined according to sex-specific, top quartiles of HOMA-IR. Associations between the TMA/Wt tertiles and increased IR according to the BMI categories (<25 and ≥25 kg/m2) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results

In men with higher BMIs, but not in those with lower BMIs, the presence of an increased IR had significantly higher odds ratios in the lower TMA/Wt tertiles, even after adjustment for visceral fat area. However, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, there was no significant inverse association between TMA/Wt tertiles and increased IR, regardless of BMI category.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that the thigh muscle is inversely associated with IR in men, particularly in those with higher BMIs.

Citations

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Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Validation of Risk Prediction Models for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in a Prospective Korean Community-Based Cohort
Jae Hyun Bae, Min Kyong Moon, Sohee Oh, Bo Kyung Koo, Nam Han Cho, Moon-Kyu Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):458-469.   Published online January 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0061
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

To investigate the performance of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) in a large, prospective, community-based cohort in Korea and to compare it with that of the Framingham Global Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the Korean Risk Prediction Model (KRPM).

Methods

In the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KOGES)-Ansan and Ansung study, we evaluated calibration and discrimination of the PCE for non-Hispanic whites (PCE-WH) and for African Americans (PCE-AA) and compared their predictive abilities with the FRS-CVD and the KRPM.

Results

The present study included 7,932 individuals (3,778 men and 4,154 women). The PCE-WH and PCE-AA moderately overestimated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) for men (6% and 13%, respectively) but underestimated the risk for women (−49% and −25%, respectively). The FRS-CVD overestimated ASCVD risk for men (91%) but provided a good risk prediction for women (3%). The KRPM underestimated ASCVD risk for men (−31%) and women (−31%). All the risk prediction models showed good discrimination in both men (C-statistic 0.730 to 0.735) and women (C-statistic 0.726 to 0.732). Recalibration of the PCE using data from the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study substantially improved the predictive accuracy in men.

Conclusion

In the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study, the PCE overestimated ASCVD risk for men and underestimated the risk for women. The PCE-WH and the FRS-CVD provided an accurate prediction of ASCVD in men and women, respectively.

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Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Impact of Diabetes Control on Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Analysis from Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Registry
Gyung-Min Park, Chang Hoon Lee, Seung-Whan Lee, Sung-Cheol Yun, Young-Hak Kim, Yong-Giun Kim, Ki-Bum Won, Soe Hee Ann, Shin-Jae Kim, Dong Hyun Yang, Joon-Won Kang, Tae-Hwan Lim, Eun Hee Koh, Woo Je Lee, Min-Seon Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Hong-Kyu Kim, Jaewon Choe, Sang-Gon Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):470-479.   Published online November 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0073
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

There are limited data on the impact of diabetes control on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

Methods

We analyzed 6,434 consecutive asymptomatic individuals without previous history of coronary artery disease who underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) (mean age, 53.7±7.6 years and 4,694 men [73.0%]). The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were assessed by CCTA, and ≥50% diameter stenosis was defined as significant. A cardiac event was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. Study participants were categorized as normal (n=5,319), controlled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7%, n=747), or uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c ≥7%, n=368), respectively.

Results

Compared with normal individuals, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of for any atherosclerotic plaque (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.38; P=0.086) and significant coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.42; P=0.583) in controlled diabetic individuals. In contrast, uncontrolled diabetic individuals had consistently higher risks of any atherosclerotic plaque (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.70 to 2.75; P<0.001) and significant coronary artery stenosis (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 2.52 to 4.43; P<0.001) than normal individuals. During a follow-up of median 5.4 years, there was no significant difference in cardiac events between normal and controlled diabetic individuals (P=0.365). However, uncontrolled diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiac events compared with normal individuals (P<0.001) and controlled diabetic individuals (P=0.023).

Conclusion

Asymptomatic uncontrolled diabetes was associated with significant subclinical coronary atherosclerosis with subsequent high risk for cardiac events.

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Letters
Letter: Acute Hyperglycemic Crises with Coronavirus Disease-19: Case Reports (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:349–53)
Ja Young Jeon
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):480-481.   Published online June 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0121
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  • Gut and glucose: an unusual first presentation of COVID‐19
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Response: Acute Hyperglycemic Crises with Coronavirus Disease-19: Case Reports (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:349–53)
Na-young Kim, Eunyeong Ha, Jun Sung Moon, Yong-Hoon Lee, Eun Young Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):484-485.   Published online June 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0129
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    Alef Aragão Carneiro dos Santos, Luiz Eduardo Rodrigues, Amanda Lins Alecrim-Zeza, Liliane de Araújo Ferreira, Caio dos Santos Trettel, Gabriela Mandú Gimenes, Adelson Fernandes da Silva, Celso Pereira Batista Sousa-Filho, Tamires Duarte Afonso Serdan, Ad
    Frontiers in Microbiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors Behind the Higher COVID-19 Risk in Diabetes: A Critical Review
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    Frontiers in Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Digital health services among patients with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review
    NiK D. Purnamayanti, AnggiL Wicaksana
    Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 25(2): 86.     CrossRef
Response: Association between Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:267–76)
Hokyou Lee, Gyuri Kim, Yong-ho Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):486-487.   Published online June 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0127
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  • Association of Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease With Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Cardiac Morphology
    Dandan Peng, Zhenqiu Yu, Mingwei Wang, Junping Shi, Lei Sun, Yuanyuan Zhang, Wenbin Zhao, Chen Chen, Jiake Tang, Chunyi Wang, Jie Ni, Wen Wen, Jingjie Jiang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef

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