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Volume 32(3); June 2008
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Review
Glucose Toxicity and Pancreatic Beta Cell Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes.
Kyu Chang Won, Ji Sung Yoon
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):175-181.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.175
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  • 36 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The adverse effects of prolonged exposure of pancreatic islets to supraphysiologic glucose concentrations (i.e. glucose toxicity) is mediated at least in part by glucose oxidation and the subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can impair insulin gene expression and beta cell function. Multiple biochemical pathways and mechanisms of action for glucose toxicity have been suggested. These include glucose autoxidation, protein kinase C activation, methylglyoxal formation and glycation, hexosamine metabolism, sorbitol formation, and oxidative phosphorylation. There are many potential mechanisms whereby excess glucose metabolites traveling along these pathways might cause beta cell damage. However, all these pathways have in common the formation of reactive oxygen species that, in excess and over time, cause chronic oxidative stress, which in turn causes defective insulin gene expression and insulin secretion as well as increased apoptosis. The intracellular peroxide levels of the pancreatic islets (INS-1 cells, rat islets) by flow cytometry were increased in the high glucose media compared to 5.6 mM glucose media. The insulin, MafA, PDX-1 mRNA levels and glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) were decreased in high glucose media compared to 5.6 mM glucose media. The HO-1 seems to mediate the protective response of pancreatic islets against the oxidative stress that is due to high glucose conditions. Also, we observed decreased glutathione level, gamma-GCS expression and increased oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde level at leukocytes and mesothelial cells from patients with Korean Type 2 Diabetes (esp, poorly controlled patients). In conclusion, this pathophysiologic sequence sets the scene for considering antioxidant therapy as an adjunct in the management of diabetes, especially type 2 Diabetes.

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  • Factors That Influence Pancreatic Beta Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Sub-Analysis of the MARCH Trial
    Yan Duan, Jia Liu, Yuan Xu, Ning Yang, Wenying Yang, Guang Wang
    Diabetes Therapy.2018; 9(2): 743.     CrossRef
  • Effects of 8 Weeks Resistance Exercise on GSH, SOD, TBARS Activities and GLUT2 mRNA Expression of Pancreas in OLETF Rats
    Min-Ki Lee, Jin-Hwan Yoon
    The Korean Journal of Physical Education.2017; 56(3): 551.     CrossRef
  • Determining the Factors that Influence the Insulin Requirements in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Jin Ook Chung, Dong Hyeok Cho, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2010; 25(2): 110.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Weight Training by Intensity for 8 Weeks of Metabolic Syndrome Factor Improvement in Overweight High School Students

    Journal of Life Science.2009; 19(4): 492.     CrossRef
Editorial
Diabetic Nephropathy and Glomerular Filtration Rate.
Tae Seo Sohn
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):182-184.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.182
  • 1,925 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Articles
Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by High Glucose is Reactive Oxygen Dependent.
Yong Seong An, Ji Hae Kwon, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):185-195.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.185
  • 1,773 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress contributes to vascular diseases in patients with diabetes. As the mechanism of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications is poorly understood, this study was aimed to assess the potential role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and to determine whether the oxidative stress is a major factor in hyperglycemia-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS: We treated primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells for 72 hours with medium containing 5.5 mM D-glucose (normal glucose), 30 mM D-glucose (high glucose) or 5.5 mM D-glucose plus 24.5 mM mannitol (osmotic control). We measured the migration of VSMCs and superoxide production. Immunoblotting of PKC isozymes using phoshospecific antibodies was performed, and PKC activity was also measured. RESULTS: Migration of VSMCs incubated under high glucose condition were markedly increased compared to normal glucose condition. Treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 10 micromol/L) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 500 U/mL) significantly suppressed high glucose-induced migration of VSMCs. Superoxide production was significantly increased in high glucose condition and was markedly decreased after treatment with DPI and SOD. High glucose also markedly increased activity of PKC-delta isozyme. When VSMCs were treated with rottlerin or transfected with PKC-delta siRNA, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were significantly attenuated in the high glucose-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC-delta markedly decreased VSMC migration by high glucose. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose-induced VSMC migration is dependent upon activation of PKC-delta, which may responsible for elevated intracellular ROS production in VSMCs, and this is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase.
The Effects of D-Chiro-Inositol on Glucose Metabolism in 3T3-L1 Cells.
Kang Seo Park, Jae Min Lee, Bon Jeong Ku, Young Suk Jo, Seong Kyu Lee, Kyung Wan Min, Kyung Ah Han, Hyo Jeong Kim, Hyun Jin Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):196-203.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.196
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  • 23 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The target of the treatment of metabolic syndrome and diabetes is an improvement of insulin resistance. D-chiro-inositol (DCI) plays a role in a phospholipid mediating intracellular insulin action. In the previous studies, the urine level of DCI were decreased in the diabetic animal with insulin resistance. Some clinical studies showed that DCI improved a glucose level and HbA1c. Therefore we studied the relationship between DCI and glucose metabolism, especially insulin resistance. METHODS: To investigate the mechanism of DCI affecting the glucose metabolism, we examined the effects of DCI on 2-deoxyglucose uptake, gene expression of adipocytokines and AMPK pathway by using RT-PCR and western blot in 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake increased in DCI-treated cells by about 1.2-fold (relative to the control) and was inhibited by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 Kinase) inhibitors (Wortmanin, LY294002) and AMPK inhibitor (STO-609). In Western blot analysis, it didn't show the difference of phosphorylation of Akt and AMPK between DCI-treated group and control in 3T3-L1 cells. However, DCI decreased the gene expression of resistin in 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSION: DCI may involve other pathway of insulin signaling, but not PI3 Kinase and AMPK signaling pathways and it may be useful in managing metabolic syndrome by improving insulin resistance through increasing glucose uptake and decreasing resistin relevant to insulin resistance.

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  • Variation of Pinitol Content for Domestic Legume Species in Korea
    Seung-Min Seo, Yeon-Shin Jeong, Dhakal Krisna Hari, Dong-Hyun Shin, In-Jung Lee, Eun-Sook Park, Jeong-Dong Lee, Young-Hyun Hwang
    Korean Journal of Crop Science.2011; 56(1): 50.     CrossRef
Association of the Polymorphisms in the PSMA6 (rs1048990) and PSMB5 (rs2230087) Genes with Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Subjects.
Hee Kyoung Kim, Su Won Kim, Yun Jeong Doh, Sae Rom Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Keun Gyu Park, Hye Soon Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Min Yoo, Jung Guk Kim, Bo Wan Kim, In Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):204-214.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.204
  • 1,983 View
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The 26S ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a principal proteolytic pathway of intracellular molecules regulating apoptosis, cell cycle, cell proliferation or differentiation, inflammation and etc. The recent study suggests that the rs1048990 (C/G) polymorphism of the proteasome subunit alpha type 6 (PSMA6) gene is associated with the increase of the risk of myocardial infarction by the dysregulation of IkappaB degradation. We hypothesized that 26S UPS is important in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by controlling the degradation of IkappaB and insulin receptor substances as a substrate. We therefore investigated whether the rs1048990 (C/G) polymorphism of PSMA6 gene and the rs2230087 (G/A) polymorphism of proteasome subunit beta type 5 gene (PSMB5), that is chymotrypsin-like protease determining the rate of proteolysis, are associated with susceptibility to T2DM in Korean subjects. METHODS: We examined the polymorphisms of these genes in 309 diabetic subjects and 170 non-diabetic controls. The polymorphisms of rs1048990 (C/G) and rs2230087 (G/A) were genotyped by real-time PCR. RESULTS: The frequency of the G allele of rs1048990 (C/G) and the A allele of rs2230087 (G/A) polymorphisms was significantly higher in diabetic patients (28% and 13%) compared to that in controls (13% and 1%; P = 0.000 and P = 0.000, respectively). Logistic regression analysis of the rs1048990 (C/G) polymorphism showed that the odds ratio (OR) (adjusted for age, smoking, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, HDL-C, triglyceride, and total cholesterol) was 3.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.35-6.59; P = 0.000) for the G allele and 5.09 (95% CI, 2.71-9.57; P = 0.000) for CG and GG genotype when compared with the CC genotype. Logistic regression analysis of the rs2230087 (G/A) polymorphism showed that the adjusted OR was 5.70 (95% CI, 1.63-19.98; P = 0.007) for the A allele and 6.08 (95% CI, 1.66-22.29; P = 0.006) for GA and AA genotype when compared with the GG genotype. In multiple logistic regression analysis with T2DM as the independent Variable rs1048990 (C/G) and rs2230087 (G/A) polymorphisms were the predictor for T2DM. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the G allele of rs1048990 (C/G) polymorphism and the A allele of rs2230087 (G/A) polymorphism may be genetic risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean subjects.

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  • Ubiquitin-proteasome system in diabetic retinopathy
    Zane Svikle, Beate Peterfelde, Nikolajs Sjakste, Kristine Baumane, Rasa Verkauskiene, Chi-Juei Jeng, Jelizaveta Sokolovska
    PeerJ.2022; 10: e13715.     CrossRef
  • 1,4-Dihydropyridine derivatives without Ca2+-antagonist activity up-regulatePsma6mRNA expression in kidneys of intact and diabetic rats
    Kristīne Ošiņa, Evita Rostoka, Jelizaveta Sokolovska, Natalia Paramonova, Egils Bisenieks, Gunars Duburs, Nikolajs Sjakste, Tatjana Sjakste
    Cell Biochemistry and Function.2016; 34(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Genetic variations in the PSMA3, PSMA6 and PSMC6 genes are associated with type 1 diabetes in Latvians and with expression level of number of UPS-related and T1DM-susceptible genes in HapMap individuals
    Tatjana Sjakste, Natalia Paramonova, Kristine Osina, Kristine Dokane, Jelizaveta Sokolovska, Nikolajs Sjakste
    Molecular Genetics and Genomics.2016; 291(2): 891.     CrossRef
The Association of Plasma HDL-Cholesterol Level with Cardiovascular Disease Related Factors in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Hye Sook Hong, Jong Suk Park, Han Kyoung Ryu, Wha Young Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):215-223.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.215
  • 2,173 View
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  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death in type 2 diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients according to plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level and to document the effect of diet on HDL-cholesterol. METHODS: The subjects were 252 (male: 134, female: 118) Korean type 2 DM patients recruited from a general hospital's DM clinic and divided into low HDL-cholesterol group (male < 40 mg/dL, female < 50 mg/dL) and control group (male > or = 40 mg/dL, female > or = 50 mg/dL). Anthropometric and hematological variables and dietary intake were assessed by the groups. RESULTS: The subject's mean age was 60.2 +/- 1.1 years and duration of diabetes was 9.5 +/- 1.0 years. Anthropometric measurements (body fat mass, % body fat, WHR, fat free mass, and muscle mass) and BMI were not significantly different between two groups. The male subjects with low HDL-cholesterolemia showed higher Atherogenic Index (AI, P < 0.001) and higher % carbohydrate from energy than control group (P < 0.01). The female subjects with low HDL-cholesterolemia showed higher AI (P < 0.001) and a tendency of higher triglyceride level and lower intake of energy, protein, lipid, vitamin B1 and vitamin E (P < 0.05) than control group. CONCLUSION: The subject with low HDL-cholesterolemia showed significantly higher AI. Male subject with low HDL-cholesterolemia consumed higher carbohydrate and female subject with low HDL-cholesterolemia showed lower intakes of many nutrients. This result suggests the importance of an adequate and balanced diet to manage type 2 DM patients to prevent CVD complications.

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  • Improvement of High-fat Diet-induced Obesity by Xanthigen in C57BL/6N Mice
    Kyeong-Mi Choi, Youn-Sun Lee, Wonkyun Kim, Yung-Hyun Choi, Youn-Gil Kwak, Jae-Chul Jung, Jeongrai Lee, Hwan-Soo Yoo
    Journal of Life Science.2012; 22(12): 1697.     CrossRef
  • The Prevalence, Awareness and Treatment of High Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Korean Adults Without Coronary Heart Diseases - The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005 -
    Sun-Ja Choi, Sung-Hee Park, Kwang-Soo Lee, Hyun-Young Park
    Korean Circulation Journal.2012; 42(2): 86.     CrossRef
  • Administration of Triticum aestivum Sprout Water Extracts Reduce the Level of Blood Glucose and Cholesterol in Leptin Deficient ob/ob Mice
    Sun-Hee Lee, Sung-Won Lim, Nguyen Van Mihn, Jung-Mu Hur, Bong-Joon Song, Young-Mi Lee, Hoi-Seon Lee, Dae-Ki Kim
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2011; 40(3): 401.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Namhae Specialized Crops Water Extract on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a Cholesterol Diet
    Jung-Hye Shin, Min-Jung Kang, Seung-Mi Yang, Soo-Jung Lee, Nak-Ju Sung
    Korean journal of food and cookery science.2011; 27(5): 599.     CrossRef
Adiponectin Concentrations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with or without Metabolic Syndrome.
Ja Young Park, Ja Won Kim, Ji Min Kim, Ying Han, Soo Kyung Park, Ji Young Mok, Mi Kyoung Park, Hye Jeong Lee, Duk Kyu Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):224-235.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.224
  • 2,155 View
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  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Adipocytes produce several adipokines that modulate insulin action as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin concentrations and metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This study included 127 type 2 diabetic patients (males 63, females 64). The subjects were divided into two groups as with or without metabolic syndrome (MS(+) or MS(-)). The MS was diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation. Serum adiponectin, leptin, fasting plasma insulin, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, white blood corpuscle (WBC), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid and C-reactive protein (CRP) were examined. RESULTS: Serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in MS(+) than MS(-) (4.8 +/- 2.4 microgram/mL vs 7.6 +/- 5.8 microgram/mL, 7.6 +/- 3.7 microgram/mL vs 11.5 +/- 7.2 microgram/mL, P < 0.05 in males and females). After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), in MS (+), the serum levels of adiponectin correlated positively with high density lipoprotein - cholesterol (HDL-C) and negatively with height, body weight, ALT and CRP. In MS(-), the serum levels of adiponectin correlated positively with HDL-C and negatively with diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglyceride and CRP. By multiple regression analysis, no parameters were independently correlated with serum adiponectin concentrations in MS(+), while DBP and HDL-C were independently related to serum adiponectin concentrations in MS(-). CONCLUSION: Serum adiponectin concentrations were lower in type 2 diabetic patients with MS than without MS. There were no significant parameters related to decrease serum adiponectin concentrations in MS. But further study is needed to confirm this result.

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  • Urinary adiponectin concentration is positively associated with micro- and macro-vascular complications
    Won Seon Jeon, Ji Woo Park, Namseok Lee, Se Eun Park, Eun Jung Rhee, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Cheol-Young Park, Byung-Soo Youn
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2013;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Plasma Osteoprotegerin with Adiponectin and Difference according to Obesity in Men with Metabolic Syndrome
    Woori Na, Cheongmin Sohn
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2011; 16(6): 762.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of 12-Weeks Intensive Intervention Program on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Adipocytokines and Nutrients Intakes in Industrial Male Workers
    Kieun Moon, Ill Keun Park, Yeon Sang Jo, Yun Kyun Chang, Yun Mi Paek, Tae In Choi
    The Korean Journal of Nutrition.2011; 44(4): 292.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between Nutrients Intakes, Dietary Quality, and Serum Concentrations of Inflammatory Markers in Metabolic Syndrome Patients
    Misung Kim, Juyoung Kim, Wookyung Bae, Sohye Kim, Yesong Lee, Woori Na, Cheongmin Sohn
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2011; 16(1): 51.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Pancreatic Cancer in Diabetics and Clinical Characteristics of Diabetes-associated with Pancreatic Cancer - Comparison between Diabetes with and without Pancreatic Cancer -
    Seung Goun Hong, Jae Seon Kim, Sung Joo Jung, Moon Kyung Joo, Beom Jae Lee, Jong Eun Yeon, Jong-Jae Park, Kwan Soo Byun, Young-Tae Bak
    The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology.2009; 54(3): 167.     CrossRef
Randomized Controlled Trial
Effects of Telmisartan Compared with Valsartan on Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.
Soo Yeon Park, Sin Gon Kim, Juri Park, Yun Jeong Lee, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):236-242.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2006.32.3.236
  • 1,973 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Telmisartan, used for the treatment of hypertension, has been shown to function as a partial agonist of peroxime proliferative activated receptor-nu (PPAR-nu). Theoretically, telmisartan which simultaneously blocks the angiotensin II receptor and activates PPAR-nu should be more effective in improving atherosclerotic surrogate markers than angiotensin II receptor blockers alone. Therefore, this pilot study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of telmisartan and valsartan on plasma adiponectin levels and pulse wave velocity as a marker of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty two patients with type 2 diabetes (mean duration 7.6 +/- 5.1 years) taking oral hypoglycemic agents were randomly assigned to receive telmisartan or valsartan for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Telmisartan and valsartan treatment significantly increased circulating adiponectin levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.013, respectively) and reduced systolic (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), and brachial-ankle PWV (P = 0.019 and P = 0.002, respectively), without significant differences between the two treatments. Before and after treatment, the fasting plasma glucose, interleukin-6, homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMAIR) levels and lipid profile were unchanged in both treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our expectation, telmisartan, even with its partial PPAR-nu activity, is not superior to valsartan in improving plasma adipocytokine levels and arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that the partial PPAR-nu activity of telmisartan beyond valsartan may have less significant therapeutic implications than expected in treating patients with type 2 diabetes.
Original Articles
Relationship between Menopausal Status and Metabolic Syndrome Components in Korean Women.
Jang Hyun Koh, Mi Young Lee, Soo Min Nam, Joong Kyung Sung, Pil Moon Jung, Jin Kyu Noh, Jang Yel Shin, Young Goo Shin, Choon Hee Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):243-251.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.243
  • 2,096 View
  • 30 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Postmenopausal status is associated with a 60% increased risk for metabolic syndrome. It is thought to be associated with decreased estrogens and increased abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome components and menopausal status. METHODS: A total of 1,926 women were studied and divided into three groups according to their menstrual stage (premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal). The presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 7.1% in premenopause, 9.8% in perimenopause, and 24.2% in postmenopause. The strong correlation was noted between the metabolic syndrome score and waist circumference in postmenopause (r = 0.56, P < 0.01) and perimenopause (r = 0.60, P < 0.01). Along the menopausal transition, the risk of metabolic syndrome increased with high triglyceride after the age-adjusted (odds ratio (OR) 1.517 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.014~2.269] in perimenopausal women and OR 1.573 [95% CI 1.025~2.414] in postmenopausal women). In addition, the prevalence of metabolic syndromeincreased in accordance with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride and waist circumference were important metabolic syndrome components, though ALT and GGT may also be related for predicting metabolic syndrome during the transition to menopause.

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  • Interaction between major dietary patterns and cardiorespiratory fitness on metabolic syndrome in Iranian adults: a cross-sectional study
    Hossein Shahinfar, Mahtab Ghanbari, Yahya Jalilpiran, Nastaran Payande, Mahshid Shahavandi, Nadia Babaei, Kurosh Djafarian, Cain C. C. Clark, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
    Nutrition Journal.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jeong-Eun Yoo
    Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research.2016; 16(2): 133.     CrossRef
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    A. D. Rodrigues, H. Theodoro, K. G. Mendes, V. M. Paniz, D. de Lorenzi, M. T. Anselmo Olinto
    Climacteric.2012; 16(1): 96.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Web-based Health Education on Blood Glucose and Blood Pressure Improvement in Postmenopausal Women with Impaired Fasting Blood Glucose
    Jeong-Ah Oh, Hee-Seung Kim, Min-Jeong Park, Hye-Sun Shim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2011; 41(5): 724.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Risk Factors of Elderly Residents in Andong Rural Area 2. Based on the Biochemical Measurements and Nutrient Intakes
    Hye-Sang Lee, Chong-Suk Kwon
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2010; 39(10): 1459.     CrossRef
  • The Association between Serum GGT Concentration and Diabetic Peripheral Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Ho Chan Cho
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 111.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Risk Factors of Elderly Residents in Andong Rural Area 1. Based on the Anthropometric Measurements and Health Behaviors
    Hye-Sang Lee, Chong-Suk Kwon
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2010; 39(4): 511.     CrossRef
Clinical Significance of Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) without Albuminuria among Type 2 Diabetics.
Ji Eun Lee, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee, Ji Sung Yoon
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):252-258.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.252
  • 2,119 View
  • 17 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes is a predictor of development of clinical nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. But, it has been reported that reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may occur in some normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to identify whether decreased GFR without microalbuminuria is to predict diabetic vascular complications. METHODS: Between January 1998 and February 2001, 73 patients with type 2 diabetes who visited Yeungnam university medical center were divided into 5 groups according to initial GFR ranges: group 1 (GFR < 30 mL/min), group 2 (30 < or = GFR < 60 mL/min), group 3 (60 < or = GFR < 90 mL/min), group 4 (90 < or = GFR < 125 mL/min), group 5 (125 mL/min < or = GFR). They were examined for microvascular and macrovascular complications initially and after 4 years. RESULTS: Decreased GFR had a negative correlation with age (r = -0.472, P = 0.001). Decreased GFR without microalbuminuria had a significant correlation with development of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.016) after 4 years. There were no significant correlation with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and macrovacular disease. But, our study showed that coronary artery disease had an increasing tendency with decreased GFR without statistical significance (P = 0.085). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reduced GFR, independent of albuminuria, may be an important predictor of diabetic nephropathy and coronary artery disease to some extent. So we recommend that not only the microalbuminuria, but also the decrease in GFR should be evaluated at the follow-up of patients with type 2 diabetes.

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  • Screening and Management of Diabetic Nephropathy
    Ji Sung Yoon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2013; 14(1): 19.     CrossRef
Direct Medical Costs of Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the Tertiary Hospital.
Joo An Hwang, Tae Chin Park, Sun Hye Jung, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, So Hun Kim, Moon Suk Nam, Tae Hyun Kim, Moon Kyu Lee, Kwan Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):259-268.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.259
  • 1,968 View
  • 29 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common, chronic and costly disease. Its prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Diabetes has big economic burden mainly because of its chronic complications. We analyzed the annual direct medical costs of type 2 diabetic patients, including the costs associated with its complications in Korea retrospectively. METHODS: We enrolled 531 type 2 diabetic patients who had been treated in the 3 Tertiary Hospital in 2005. Clinical characteristics, duration of diabetes, modality of glycemic control, and presence of microvascular and macrovascular complications were assessed by the review of medical records. The annual direct medical costs were assessed using the hospital electronic database and included insurance covered and uncovered medical costs. RESULTS: The annual direct medical costs of type 2 diabetic patients without any complications was 1,184,563 won (95% CI for mean: 973,006~1,396,121 won). Compared to diabetic patients without complications, annual total medical costs increased 4.7-fold, 10.7-fold, and 8.8-fold in patients with microvascular complications, macrovascular complications and both complications, respectively. Hospitalization costs largely increased by 78.7-fold and 61.0-fold in patients with macrovascular complications and both complications, respectively. Major complications to increase medical costs were kidney transplantation (23.1-fold), dialysis (21.0-fold), PTCA or CABG (12.4-fold), and leg amputation (11.8-fold). The total medical costs dramatically increased according to the stage of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. CONCLUSION: Diabetic complications have a substantial impact on the direct medical costs of type 2 diabetic patients. The prevention of diabetic complications will benefit the patients as well as the overall healthcare expenditures.

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  • Policy Proposals for Infection Control in Patients with Chronic Wounds
    Kyung-Chul Moon, Donghyeok Shin, Kyu-Won Baek, Changsik John Pak, Young-Joon Jun
    Journal of Wound Management and Research.2022; 18(3): 249.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Co‐administration of Sulfonylureas and Antimicrobial Drugs on Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using a Case‐Crossover Design
    Sera Lee, Miyoung Ock, Hun‐Sung Kim, Hyunah Kim
    Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The effect of continuity of care on the incidence of end-stage renal disease in patients with newly detected type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a retrospective cohort study
    Yun Jung Jang, Yoon Soo Choy, Chung Mo Nam, Ki Tae Moon, Eun-Cheol Park
    BMC Nephrology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Social Welfare Information for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
    Jea Yeon Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(2): 117.     CrossRef
  • Hypoglycemia and Health Costs
    Yong-ho Lee, Gyuri Kim, Eun Seok Kang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(1): 11.     CrossRef
  • Outcome Research in Diabetes
    Kwan Woo Lee
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A Study on Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patient Against Commencement of Insulin Treatment.
Sun Hwa Hong, Mi Jin Kim, Sung Gab Noh, Dae Won Suh, Suk Jung Youn, Kwan Woo Lee, Ho Chae Lee, Yang Soo Chung, Hong Ryang Chung, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Kun Ho Yoon
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):269-279.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.269
  • 2,030 View
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  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
To achieve tight glycemic control in the poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients with oral hypoglycemic agent, it maybe beneficial to initiate insulin treatment at the early stage. Many patients with type 2 diabetes are often reluctant to begin insulin therapy despite poor glycemic control with oral hypoglycemic agents, this little known phenomenon, often termed 'psychological insulin resistance (PIR)'. This study investigates psychological insulin resistance in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. METHOD: This study examined a total of 76 type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during period of April to July 2006. Through questionnaire and telephone survey, total 24 questions were asked about various attitudes on insulin therapy including psychological barriers and patients' acceptance of this treatment. Subjects were asked to allocate points in 5-point scale (from 5 points for 'very true' to 1 point for 'very untrue'). RESULTS: The means of psychological rejection, injection-related anxiety and fear of insulin side effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain were 3.65 +/- 0.92, 3.17 +/- 0.98 and 2.8 +/- 1.02, respectively. Unwillingness was common in insulin therapy, 67% of patient rejected or was unwilling to take insulin. Main reasons of patients most frequently endorsed beginning insulin indicate that disease is worsening, permanence (once you start insulin you can never quit) and sense of personal failure. Furthermore, study indicates that patients' reasons for avoiding insulin therapy were mainly psychological rejection, which extended far beyond a simple injection related anxiety. CONCLUSION: PIR was psychological reluctance rather than injection related anxiety. To overcome these psychological barriers to insulin treatment, it is necessary to address appropriate diabetes education including training and counseling with excellent interactive communications between patients and clinicians.

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    Yeon Jeong Jang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2021; 22(3): 192.     CrossRef
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    Ji Hyeon Yu, Hye Young Kim, Sung Reul Kim, Eun Ko, Heung Yong Jin
    International Journal of Nursing Practice.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Youngshin Song, Younghee Jeon, Jeonghwa Cho, Bohyun Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2016; 46(6): 813.     CrossRef
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Current Status of Self-management and Barriers in Elderly Diabetic Patient.
Gyong Ae Choi, Soo Mi Jang, Hong Woo Nam
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):280-289.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.280
  • 2,214 View
  • 73 Download
  • 26 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes has a critical effect on elderly diabetic patients' quality of life. Elderly diabetic patients have many difficulties in diabetes self-management because their physical, psychological and social functions are decreased as a result of the aging process. Therefore, we evaluated the current status of self-management and barriers in elderly diabetic patients METHODS: The sample was 124 elderly diabetic patients (over 61 years) who visited a hospital and two senior welfare centers in Seoul from July to August 2006. The results of the study were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA, T-test, and hierarchical regression. RESULTS: 1) Diabetes self-management was composed of insulin injection, diet, exercise, foot management, smoking and drinking alcohol. An average score of self-management in the elderly diabetic patients was 4.5784. In demographic variables, only job status showed a significant effect on self-management. 2) Barriers such as 'forgetting taking diet and medication', 'being interrupted by others', and 'lack of family and social support' were significant factors in diabetes self-management. 3) These barriers for diabetes self-management were still significant in the case of controlling demographic and clinical variables. CONCLUSION: Diabetic educator should identify the significant factors that affect patient's self-management such as whether they have a full-time job, or the type of their job. In addition, diabetes education should focus on assertiveness training to deal with various interpersonal barriers and empowerment for enhancing patient's self-efficacy. These approaches would benefit patients who experience barriers of diabetes self-management

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