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Woo-Hwi Jeon 1 Article
COVID-19
Association of Metabolic Syndrome with COVID-19 in the Republic of Korea
Woo-Hwi Jeon, Jeong-Yeon Seon, So-Youn Park, In-Hwan Oh
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):427-438.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0105
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is reportedly a crucial risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since the epidemiological studies that examine this association are few and include small samples, we investigated the relationship between MetS and COVID-19 severity and death using a larger sample in the Republic of Korea.
Methods
We analyzed 66,321 patients, 4,066 of whom had COVID-19. We used chi-square tests to examine patients’ characteristics. We performed logistic regression analysis to analyze differences in COVID-19 infection and clinical outcomes according to the presence of MetS.
Results
Although MetS was not significantly associated with COVID-19 risk, acquiring MetS was significantly associated with the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34 to 2.91; P=0.001). The mortality risk was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with MetS (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.59; P=0.006). Patients with abnormal waist circumference were approximately 2.07 times more likely to develop severe COVID-19 (P<0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly associated with COVID-19; the mortality risk due to COVID-19 was 1.74 times higher in men with an HDL-C level of <40 mg/dL and in women with an HDL-C level of <50 mg/dL (P=0.012).
Conclusion
COVID-19 is likely associated with severity and death in patients with MetS or in patients with MetS risk factors. Therefore, patients with MetS or those with abnormal waist circumference and HDL-C levels need to be treated with caution.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Heterogeneity in familial clustering of metabolic syndrome components in the multiethnic GENNID study
    Jia Y. Wan, Deborah Goodman, Sukh Makhnoon, Trina M. Norden‐Krichmar, Baolin Wu, Karen L. Edwards
    Obesity.2024; 32(1): 176.     CrossRef
  • Associated Factors with Changes of Metabolic Abnormalities among General Population in COVID-19 Pandemic
    Eunjoo Kwon, Eun-Hee Nah, Suyoung Kim, Seon Cho, Hyeran Park
    Korean Journal of Health Promotion.2023; 23(2): 55.     CrossRef
  • Association between metabolic syndrome and mortality in patients with COVID-19: A nationwide cohort study
    Hyo Jin Park, Jin-Hyung Jung, Kyungdo Han, Jean Shin, Yoojeong Lee, Yujin Chang, Kyeyeung Park, Yoon Jeong Cho, Youn Seon Choi, Seon Mee Kim, Ga Eun Nam
    Obesity Research & Clinical Practice.2022; 16(6): 484.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal