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So Young Park  (Park SY) 18 Articles
Pathophysiology
Attention to Innate Circadian Rhythm and the Impact of Its Disruption on Diabetes
Da Young Lee, Inha Jung, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):37-52.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0193
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Novel strategies are required to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and/or clinical outcomes and complications of diabetes. In this regard, the role of the circadian system may be a potential candidate for the prevention of diabetes. We reviewed evidence from animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies linking the circadian system to various aspects of the pathophysiology and clinical outcomes of diabetes. The circadian clock governs genetic, metabolic, hormonal, and behavioral signals in anticipation of cyclic 24-hour events through interactions between a “central clock” in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and “peripheral clocks” in the whole body. Currently, circadian rhythmicity in humans can be subjectively or objectively assessed by measuring melatonin and glucocorticoid levels, core body temperature, peripheral blood, oral mucosa, hair follicles, rest-activity cycles, sleep diaries, and circadian chronotypes. In this review, we summarized various circadian misalignments, such as altered light-dark, sleep-wake, rest-activity, fasting-feeding, shift work, evening chronotype, and social jetlag, as well as mutations in clock genes that could contribute to the development of diabetes and poor glycemic status in patients with diabetes. Targeting critical components of the circadian system could deliver potential candidates for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the future.
Technology/Device
Clinical and Lifestyle Determinants of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Metrics in Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Da Young Lee, Namho Kim, Inha Jung, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Jihee Kim, Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sung-Min Park, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):826-836.   Published online August 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0273
  • 1,981 View
  • 191 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There was limited evidence to evaluate the association between lifestyle habits and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics. Thus, we aimed to depict the behavioral and metabolic determinants of CGM metrics in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
This is a prospective observational study. We analyzed data from 122 insulin-treated patients with T2DM. Participants wore Dexcom G6 and Fitbit, and diet information was identified for 10 days. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed for the simultaneous achievement of CGM-based targets, defined by the percentage of time in terms of hyper, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability (GV). Intake of macronutrients and fiber, step counts, sleep, postprandial C-peptide-to-glucose ratio (PCGR), information about glucose lowering medications and metabolic factors were added to the analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of the distribution of energy and macronutrient during a day, and snack consumption on CGM metrics.
Results
Logistic regression analysis revealed that female, participants with high PCGR, low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and daytime step count had a higher probability of achieving all targets based on CGM (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] which were 0.24 [0.09 to 0.65], 1.34 [1.03 to 1.25], 0.95 [0.9 to 0.99], and 1.15 [1.03 to 1.29], respectively). And participants who ate snacks showed a shorter period of hyperglycemia and less GV compared to those without.
Conclusion
We confirmed that residual insulin secretion, daytime step count, HbA1c, and women were the most relevant determinants of adequate glycemic control in insulin-treated patients with T2DM. In addition, individuals with snack consumption were exposed to lower times of hyperglycemia and GV.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Explanatory variables of objectively measured 24-h movement behaviors in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review
    Lotte Bogaert, Iris Willems, Patrick Calders, Eveline Dirinck, Manon Kinaupenne, Marga Decraene, Bruno Lapauw, Boyd Strumane, Margot Van Daele, Vera Verbestel, Marieke De Craemer
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2024; 18(4): 102995.     CrossRef
Technology/Device
Comparison of Laser and Conventional Lancing Devices for Blood Glucose Measurement Conformance and Patient Satisfaction in Diabetes Mellitus
Jung A Kim, Min Jeong Park, Eyun Song, Eun Roh, So Young Park, Da Young Lee, Jaeyoung Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):936-940.   Published online March 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0293
  • 5,434 View
  • 259 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose is important for controlling diabetes. Recently, a laser lancing device (LMT-1000) that can collect capillary blood without skin puncture was developed. We enrolled 150 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood sampling was performed on the same finger on each hand using the LMT-1000 or a conventional lancet. The primary outcome was correlation between glucose values using the LMT-1000 and that using a lancet. And we compared the pain and satisfaction of the procedures. The capillary blood sampling success rates with the LMT-1000 and lancet were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r=0.974, P<0.001) between mean blood glucose levels in the LMT-1000 (175.8±63.0 mg/dL) and conventional lancet samples (172.5±63.6 mg/dL). LMT-1000 reduced puncture pain by 75.0% and increased satisfaction by 80.0% compared to a lancet. We demonstrated considerable consistency in blood glucose measurements between samples from the LMT-1000 and a lancet, but improved satisfaction and clinically significant pain reduction were observed with the LMT-1000 compared to those with a lancet.

Citations

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  • Comparison between a laser-lancing device and automatic incision lancet for capillary blood sampling from the heel of newborn infants: a randomized feasibility trial
    Chul Kyu Yun, Eui Kyung Choi, Hyung Jin Kim, Jaeyoung Kim, Byung Cheol Park, Kyuhee Park, Byung Min Choi
    Journal of Perinatology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Others
Fasting Glucose Variability and the Risk of Dementia in Individuals with Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Da Young Lee, Jaeyoung Kim, Sanghyun Park, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyungdo Han, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):923-935.   Published online May 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0346
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  • 258 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We investigated whether fasting glucose (FG) variability could predict the risk of dementia.
Methods
This cohort study analyzed data from Koreans with diabetes after at least three health examinations by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation between 2005 and 2010, which included at least one examination between 2009 and 2010. A total of 769,554 individuals were included, excluding those aged <40 years and those with dementia. FG variability was measured using the variability independent of the mean (FG-VIM). The incidence of dementia was defined by the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes and prescription of anti-dementia medication and was subdivided into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD).
Results
During the 6.9-year follow-up, 54,837, 41,032, and 6,892 cases of all-cause dementia, AD, and VD, respectively, were identified. Cox proportional regression analyses showed that as the FG-VIM quartile increased, the risk of dementia serially increased after adjustment for metabolic factors, income status, and diabetes-related characteristics, including the mean FG. Participants in FG-VIM quartile 4 showed a 18%, 19%, and 17% higher risk for all-cause dementia, AD, and VD, respectively, than those in quartile 1; this particularly included non-obese patients with a longer duration of diabetes, high FG levels, dyslipidemia, and those taking glucose-lowering medications. Conversely, the baseline FG status and dementia showed a U-shaped association.
Conclusion
Increased FG variability over 5 years can predict the risk of dementia in individuals with diabetes in Korea. This finding was more pronounced in patients with less favorable metabolic profiles.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Fasting glucose variability and risk of dementia in Parkinson’s disease: a 9-year longitudinal follow-up study of a nationwide cohort
    Sung Hoon Kang, Yunjin Choi, Su Jin Chung, Seok-Joo Moon, Chi Kyung Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Kyungmi Oh, Joon Shik Yoon, Sang Won Seo, Geum Joon Cho, Seong-Beom Koh
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of a Diabetic Microenvironment on Neurodegeneration: Special Focus on Neurological Cells
    Vishal Chavda, Dhananjay Yadav, Snehal Patel, Minseok Song
    Brain Sciences.2024; 14(3): 284.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Glucose Variability and Dementia Incidence in Latinx Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Study
    Heather Cuevas, Elizabeth Muñoz, Divya Nagireddy, Jeeyeon Kim, Grace Ganucheau, Fathia Alomoush
    Clinical Nursing Research.2023; 32(2): 249.     CrossRef
  • The effects of long-term cumulative HbA1c exposure on the development and onset time of dementia in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Hospital based retrospective study (2005–2021)
    Sunyoung Cho, Choon Ok Kim, Bong-soo Cha, Eosu Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Min-Gul Kim, Min Soo Park
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 201: 110721.     CrossRef
  • Physiological Mechanisms Inherent to Diabetes Involved in the Development of Dementia: Alzheimer’s Disease
    Himan Mohamed-Mohamed, Victoria García-Morales, Encarnación María Sánchez Lara, Anabel González-Acedo, Teresa Pardo-Moreno, María Isabel Tovar-Gálvez, Lucía Melguizo-Rodríguez, Juan José Ramos-Rodríguez
    Neurology International.2023; 15(4): 1253.     CrossRef
  • Cumulative effect of impaired fasting glucose on the risk of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people: a nationwide cohort study
    Jin Yu, Kyu-Na Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Technology/Device
Assessment of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Resistance in Human
So Young Park, Jean-François Gautier, Suk Chon
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):641-654.   Published online September 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0220
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  • 50 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The impaired insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance (or decreased insulin sensitivity) play a major role in the pathogenesis of all types of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is very important to assess the pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance/ sensitivity to determine the type of DM and to plan an optimal management and prevention strategy for DM. So far, various methods and indices have been developed to assess the β-cell function and insulin resistance/sensitivity based on static, dynamic test and calculation of their results. In fact, since the metabolism of glucose and insulin is made through a complex process related with various stimuli in several tissues, it is difficult to fully reflect the real physiology. In order to solve the theoretical and practical difficulties, research on new index is still in progress. Also, it is important to select the appropriate method and index for the purpose of use and clinical situation. This review summarized a variety of traditional methods and indices to evaluate pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance/sensitivity and introduced novel indices.

Citations

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  • Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Fermented Chili Pepper Alleviates Insulin Resistance in HepG2 Cells via Regulating INSR, PTP1B, PPAR-γ, and AMPK Pathways
    Tao Wang, Meiqi Li, Shengbao Cai, Linyan Zhou, Xiaosong Hu, Junjie Yi
    Fermentation.2023; 9(2): 84.     CrossRef
  • 2,3-Dihydrosorbicillin and chrysopanol stimulate insulin secretion in INS-1 cells
    Dahae Lee, Jaekyung Kim, Sungyoul Choi, Jinwon Choi, Jin Woo Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Sang Hee Shim
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters.2023; 83: 129186.     CrossRef
  • Insulin: A connection between pancreatic β cells and the hypothalamus
    Brenda De la Cruz Concepción, Yaccil Adilene Flores Cortez, Martha Isela Barragán Bonilla, Juan Miguel Mendoza Bello, Monica Espinoza Rojo
    World Journal of Diabetes.2023; 14(2): 76.     CrossRef
  • The Metabolic Score for Insulin Resistance (METS-IR) Predicts Cardiovascular Disease and Its Subtypes in Patients with Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    Wenbo Yang, Xintian Cai, Junli Hu, Wen Wen, Heizhati Mulalibieke, Xiaoguang Yao, Ling Yao, Qing Zhu, Jing Hong, Qin Luo, Shasha Liu, Nanfang Li
    Clinical Epidemiology.2023; Volume 15: 177.     CrossRef
  • Association between dietary patterns and biomarkers in connection with diabetes mellitus in adolescents: A systematic review
    Bernardo Paz Barboza, Camila Tureck, Liliana Paula Bricarello, Mariane de Almeida Alves, Anabelle Retondario, Amanda de Moura Souza, Ricardo Fernandes, Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2023; 33(4): 685.     CrossRef
  • PNPLA3 rs738409 risk genotype decouples TyG index from HOMA2-IR and intrahepatic lipid content
    Ákos Nádasdi, Viktor Gál, Tamás Masszi, Anikó Somogyi, Gábor Firneisz
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ethnic Variability in Glucose and Insulin Response to Rice Among Healthy Overweight Adults: A Randomized Cross-Over Study
    Amena Sadiya, Vidya Jakapure, Vijay Kumar
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 993.     CrossRef
  • Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 and obesity, two adipose tissue pathologies with different inflammatory profiles
    Guillaume Treiber, Marie-Paule Gonthier, Alice Guilleux, Samir Medjane, Oriane Bonfanti, Muriel Cogne, Olivier Meilhac, Estelle Nobecourt
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Discriminant Model for Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Erislandis López-Galán, Rafael Barrio-Deler, Manuel Alejandro Fernández-Fernández, Yaquelin Del Toro-Delgado, Isaac Enrique Peñuela-Puente, Miguel Enrique Sánchez-Hechavarría, Mario Eugenio Muñoz-Bustos, Gustavo Alejandro Muñoz-Bustos
    Medicina.2023; 59(5): 839.     CrossRef
  • Mechanisms of Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Syndrome
    Sepiso K. Masenga, Lombe S. Kabwe, Martin Chakulya, Annet Kirabo
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(9): 7898.     CrossRef
  • Estimated Glucose Disposal Rate Predicts Renal Progression in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Juan Peng, Aimei Li, Liangqingqing Yin, Qi Yang, Jinting Pan, Bin Yi
    Journal of the Endocrine Society.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Transfer RNA Mutation Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Fanny Rizki Rahmadanthi, Iman Permana Maksum
    Biology.2023; 12(6): 871.     CrossRef
  • Honokiol improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetic rats via alleviating oxidative stress and insulin resistance
    An He, Huilin Yu, Yu Hu, Huiling Chen, Xiang Li, Jian Shen, Rongjuan Zhuang, Yi Chen, Bryan Richard Sasmita, Minghao Luo, Dingyi Lv
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.2022; 600: 109.     CrossRef
  • Relationship of Vitamin A and Thyroid Function in Individuals With Obesity and After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy
    Bingwei Ma, Peng Yang, Jingyang Gao, Lei Du, Chunjun Sheng, Taofeek Usman, Xingchun Wang, Shen Qu
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of Personalized Diabetes Self-care Using an Electronic Medical Record–Integrated Mobile App in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial
    Eun Young Lee, Seon-Ah Cha, Jae-Seung Yun, Sun-Young Lim, Jin-Hee Lee, Yu-Bae Ahn, Kun-Ho Yoon, Min Kyung Hyun, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(7): e37430.     CrossRef
  • Acyclovir alleviates insulin resistance via activating PKM1 in diabetic mice
    Zhuozhou Hu, Jing Zhou, Liang Han, Xiangxiang Li, Chun Li, Tongyu Wu, Jingjing Liu, Wenyang Zhao, Jia Kang, Xinping Chen
    Life Sciences.2022; 304: 120725.     CrossRef
  • Identifying Glucose Metabolism Status in Nondiabetic Japanese Adults Using Machine Learning Model with Simple Questionnaire
    Tomoki Uchida, Takeshi Kanamori, Takanori Teramoto, Yuji Nonaka, Hiroki Tanaka, Satoshi Nakamura, Norihito Murayama, Rajesh Kaluri
    Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Elevated triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index predicts impaired islet β-cell function: A hospital-based cross-sectional study
    Zi Chen, Jie Wen
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Maternal Glycaemic and Insulinemic Status and Newborn DNA Methylation: Findings in Women With Overweight and Obesity
    Marion Lecorguillé, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Patrick J Twomey, Karien Viljoen, John Mehegan, Cecily C Kelleher, Matthew Suderman, Catherine M Phillips
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2022; 108(1): 85.     CrossRef
  • Acanthosis Nigricans: Pointer of Endocrine Entities
    Andreea-Maria Radu, Mara Carsote, Mihai Cristian Dumitrascu, Florica Sandru
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(10): 2519.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between Insulin Resistance Risk Scales and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Liver Fibrosis Scales in 219,477 Spanish Workers
    José Ignacio Ramírez-Manent, Emilio Martínez-Almoyna, Carlos López, Carla Busquets-Cortés, Hilda González San Miguel, Ángel Arturo López-González
    Metabolites.2022; 12(11): 1093.     CrossRef
  • Investigation of Insulin Secretion in Glucose Tolerance Test by the Intake of Novel Imeglimin (Twymeeg)
    Hiroshi BANDO, Hiroko OGAWA, Hirohisa URASAKI, Shinji NAGAHIRO, Hiroko URASAKI, Miwako NAKANISHI, Osami WATANABE
    Asploro Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Case Reports.2022; 5(3): 113.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation and Screening of Hypoglycemic Activity of Total Ginsenosides GBE-5 Fraction From Panax Ginseng Berry Based on UHPLC–MS Metabolomics
    Heyu Wang, Yu Tong, Anqi Wang, Ying Li, Bofan Lu, Hui Li, Lili Jiao, Wei Wu
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Clinical Diabetes and Therapeutics
Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index as a Surrogate Marker of Early Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
So Young Park, Sang Ook Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Suk Chon
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(4):285-295.   Published online July 27, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0080
  • 4,878 View
  • 52 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are commonly used surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a complement to the baPWV, which is affected by blood pressure. However, it is unclear which marker is the most sensitive predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).

Methods

This was a retrospective non-interventional study that enrolled 219 patients with T2DM. The correlations among IMT, ABI, and CAVI as well as the relationship of these tests to the 10-year ASCVD risk were also analyzed.

Results

Among the 219 patients, 39 (17.8%) had ASCVD. In the non-ASCVD group, CAVI correlated significantly with IMT after adjusting for confounding variables, but ABI was not associated with CAVI or IMT. The analyses after dividing the non-ASCVD group into three subgroups according to the CAVI score (<8, ≥8 and <9, and ≥9) demonstrated the significant increase in the mean IMT, 10-year ASCVD risk and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decrease in the mean ABI in the high-CAVI group. A high CAVI was an independent risk factor in the non-ASCVD group for both a high 10-year ASCVD risk (≥7.5%; odds ratio [OR], 2.42; P<0.001) and atherosclerosis (mean IMT ≥1 mm; OR, 1.53; P=0.007).

Conclusion

In Korean patients with T2DM without ASCVD, CAVI was the most sensitive of several surrogate markers for the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis.

Citations

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  • The effects of severe periodontitis on arterial stiffness using cardio‐ankle vascular index in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Gizem Torumtay Cin, Semin Melahat Fenkci, Ismail Doğu Kiliç, Halil Serdar Aslan, Cihan İlyas Sevgican, Hande Şenol
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    Mustafa Tarik Agac, Süret Ağaç, Muhammed Necati Murat Aksoy, Mehmet Bülent Vatan
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    Javad Alizargar, Chyi-Huey Bai, Nan-Chen Hsieh, Shu-Fang Vivienne Wu, Shih-Yen Weng, Jia-Ping Wu
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  • Cardiovascular remodeling in patients with diabetic сardiomyopathy
    A. S. Veklich, N. A. Koziolova, P. G. Karavaev
    Russian Journal of Cardiology.2019; (11): 42.     CrossRef
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  • Response: Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index as a Surrogate Marker of Early Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:285-95)
    So Young Park, Suk Chon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(5): 449.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index as a Surrogate Marker of Early Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:285-95)
    Dongwon Yi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(5): 447.     CrossRef
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Air Pollution Has a Significant Negative Impact on Intentional Efforts to Lose Weight: A Global Scale Analysis
Morena Ustulin, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Jeong-taek Woo, Sang Youl Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(4):320-329.   Published online April 24, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0104
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Air pollution causes many diseases and deaths. It is important to see how air pollution affects obesity, which is common worldwide. Therefore, we analyzed data from a smartphone application for intentional weight loss, and then we validated them.

Methods

Our analysis was structured in two parts. We analyzed data from a cohort registered to a smartphone application in 10 large cities of the world and matched it with the annual pollution values. We validated these results using daily pollution data in United States and matching them with user information. Body mass index (BMI) variation between final and initial login time was considered as outcome in the first part, and daily BMI in the validation. We analyzed: daily calories intake, daily weight, daily physical activity, geographical coordinates, seasons, age, gender. Weather Underground application programming interface provided daily climatic values. Annual and daily values of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were extracted. In the first part of the analysis, we used 2,608 users and then 995 users located in United States.

Results

Air pollution was highest in Seoul and lowest in Detroit. Users decreased BMI by 2.14 kg/m2 in average (95% confidence interval, −2.26 to −2.04). From a multilevel model, PM10 (β=0.04, P=0.002) and PM2.5 (β=0.08, P<0.001) had a significant negative effect on weight loss when collected per year. The results were confirmed with the validation (βAQI*time=1.5×10–5; P<0.001) by mixed effects model.

Conclusion

This is the first study that shows how air pollution affects intentional weight loss applied on wider area of the world.

Citations

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Complications
Glycated Albumin Is a More Useful Glycation Index than HbA1c for Reflecting Renal Tubulopathy in Subjects with Early Diabetic Kidney Disease
Ji Hye Huh, Minyoung Lee, So Young Park, Jae Hyeon Kim, Byung-Wan Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(3):215-223.   Published online May 2, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0091
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The aim of this study was to investigate which glycemic parameters better reflect urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) abnormality, a marker for renal tubulopathy, in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with normoalbuminuria and a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

Methods

We classified 1,061 participants with T2DM into two groups according to uNAG level—normal vs. high (>5.8 U/g creatinine)—and measured their biochemical parameters.

Results

Subjects with high uNAG level had significantly higher levels of fasting and stimulated glucose, glycated albumin (GA), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and lower levels of homeostasis model assessment of β-cell compared with subjects with normal uNAG level. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that uNAG was significantly associated with GA (standardized β coefficient [β]=0.213, P=0.016), but not with HbA1c (β=−0.137, P=0.096) or stimulated glucose (β=0.095, P=0.140) after adjusting confounding factors. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the value of the area under the curve (AUC) for renal tubular injury of GA was significantly higher (AUC=0.634; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.646 to 0.899) than those for HbA1c (AUC=0.598; 95% CI, 0.553 to 0.640), stimulated glucose (AUC=0.594; 95% CI, 0.552 to 0.636), or fasting glucose (AUC=0.558; 95% CI, 0.515 to 0.600). The optimal GA cutoff point for renal tubular damage was 17.55% (sensitivity 59%, specificity 62%).

Conclusion

GA is a more useful glycation index than HbA1c for reflecting renal tubulopathy in subjects with T2DM with normoalbuminuria and normal eGFR.

Citations

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  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonist Improves Renal Tubular Damage in Mice with Diabetic Kidney Disease
    Ran Li, Dunmin She, Zhengqin Ye, Ping Fang, Guannan Zong, Yong Zhao, Kerong Hu, Liya Zhang, Sha Lei, Keqin Zhang, Ying Xue
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Clinical Care/Education
Diabetes Camp as Continuing Education for Diabetes Self-Management in Middle-Aged and Elderly People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
So Young Park, Sun Young Kim, Hye Mi Lee, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee, Kang-Hee Sim, Sang-Man Jin
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(2):99-112.   Published online March 3, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.2.99
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Despite the established benefits of diabetes camps for the continuing education of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, little is known about the long-term metabolic benefits of diabetes camps for middle-aged and elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability.

Methods

The 1-year mean and variability of HbA1c before and after the diabetes camp was compared between the participants of the diabetes camp (n=57; median age 65 years [range, 50 to 86 years]; median diabetes duration 14 years [range, 1 to 48 years]). Additional case-control analysis compared the metabolic outcomes of the participants of the diabetes camp and their propensity score-matched controls who underwent conventional diabetes education (n=93).

Results

The levels of HbA1c during the first year after the diabetes camp were comparable to those of the matched controls (P=0.341). In an analysis of all participants of the diabetes camp, the 1-year mean±standard deviation (SD) of HbA1c decreased (P=0.010 and P=0.041) after the diabetes camp, whereas the adjusted SD and coefficient of variance (CV) of HbA1c did not decrease. The adjusted SD and CV significantly decreased after the diabetes camp in participants whose 1-year mean HbA1c was ≥6.5% before the diabetes camp (n=40) and those with a duration of diabetes less than 15 years (n=32).

Conclusion

The 1-year mean and SD of HbA1c decreased after the diabetes camp, with significant reduction in the adjusted SD and CV in those with higher baseline HbA1c and a shorter duration of diabetes.

Citations

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    Veronika Wallroth, Kjerstin Larsson, Agneta Schröder
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Response: Effects of Rebamipide on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2016;40:240-7)
Sejeong Park, So Young Park, Sang Youl Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(4):336-337.   Published online August 18, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.4.336
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PDFPubReader   
Others
Effects of Rebamipide on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sejeong Park, So Young Park, Yu Jin Kim, Soo Min Hong, Suk Chon, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-taek Woo, Sung-Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Sang Youl Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(3):240-247.   Published online April 5, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.3.240
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rebamipide is an effective gastric cytoprotective agent, but there are few data on its usefulness in T2DM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the improvement of GI symptoms after rebamipide treatment in patients with T2DM.

Methods

Patients with T2DM and atypical GI symptoms were enrolled. They took rebamipide (100 mg thrice daily) for 12 weeks and filled out the diabetes bowel symptom questionnaire (DBSQ) before and after rebamipide treatment. The DBSQ consisted of 10 questions assessing the severity of GI symptoms by a 1 to 6 scoring system. Changes in the DBSQ scores before and after rebamipide treatment were analyzed to evaluate any improvements of GI symptoms.

Results

A total of 107 patients were enrolled, and 84 patients completed the study. The mean age was 65.0±7.8, 26 patients were male (24.8%), the mean duration of T2DM was 14.71±9.12 years, and the mean glycosylated hemoglobin level was 6.97%±0.82%. The total DBSQ score was reduced significantly from 24.9±8.0 to 20.4±7.3 before and after rebamipide treatment (P<0.001). The DBSQ scores associated with reflux symptoms, indigestion, nausea or vomiting, abdominal bloating or distension, peptic ulcer, abdominal pain, and constipation were improved after rebamipide treatment (P<0.05). However, there were no significant changes in symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, and anal incontinence. No severe adverse events were reported throughout the study.

Conclusion

Rebamipide treatment for 12 weeks improved atypical GI symptoms in patients with T2DM.

Citations

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    Jin Hwa Kim
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  • Response: Effects of Rebamipide on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2016;40:240-7)
    Sejeong Park, So Young Park, Sang Youl Rhee
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A Smartphone Application Significantly Improved Diabetes Self-Care Activities with High User Satisfaction
Yu Jin Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Jong Kyu Byun, So Young Park, Soo Min Hong, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(3):207-217.   Published online April 22, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.3.207
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We developed for the first time a smartphone application designed for diabetes self-management in Korea and registered a patent for the relevant algorithm. We also investigated the user satisfaction with the application and the change in diabetes related self-care activities after using the application.

Methods

We conducted a questionnaire survey on volunteers with diabetes who were using the application. Ninety subjects responded to the questionnaire between June 2012 and March 2013. A modified version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) was used in this study.

Results

The survey results exhibited a mean subject age of 44.0 years old, and males accounted for 78.9% of the subjects. Fifty percent of the subjects had diabetes for less than 3 years. The majority of respondents experienced positive changes in their clinical course after using the application (83.1%) and were satisfied with the structure and completeness of the application (86.7%). Additionally, the respondents' answers indicated that the application was easy to use (96.7%) and recommendable to others (97.7%) and that they would continue using the application to manage their diabetes (96.7%). After using the Diabetes Notepad application, diabetes related self-care activities assessed by SDSCA displayed statistically significant improvements (P<0.05), except for the number of days of drinking.

Conclusion

This smartphone-based application can be a useful tool leading to positive changes in diabetes related self-care activities and increase user satisfaction.

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Intracerebroventricular Injection of Metformin Induces Anorexia in Rats
Chang Koo Lee, Yoon Jung Choi, So Young Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Kyu Chang Won, Yong Woon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(4):293-299.   Published online August 20, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.4.293
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Metformin, an oral biguanide insulin-sensitizing agent, is well known to decrease appetite. Although there is evidence that metformin could affect the brain directly, the exact mechanism is not yet known.

Methods

To evaluate whether metformin induces anorexia via the hypothalamus, various concentrations of metformin were injected into the lateral ventricle of rats through a chronically implanted catheter and food intake was measured for 24 hours. The hypothalamic neuropeptides associated with regulation of food intake were also analyzed following 1 hour of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of metformin.

Results

An ICV injection of metformin decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner in unrestrained conscious rats. Hypothalamic phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) increased by 3 µg with metformin treatment, but there was no further increase in pAMPK with increases in metformin dosage. The hypothalamic phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) increased by 3 µg with metformin treatment, but, there was no further increase in pSTAT3 level following increases of metformin dosage. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin was elevated with metformin treatment, while neuropeptide Y was not significantly changed.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that metformin induces anorexia via direct action in the hypothalamus and the increase in pSTAT3, at least in part, is involved in the process. However, hypothalamic pAMPK appears not to contribute to metformin-induced appetite reduction in normal rats. Further studies exploring new pathways connecting metformin and feeding regulation are needed.

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ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel-Deficient Mice Show Hyperphagia but Are Resistant to Obesity
Yeul Bum Park, Yun Jung Choi, So Young Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Seong Ho Kim, Dae Kyu Song, Kyu Chang Won, Yong Woon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(3):219-225.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.219
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The hypothalamus, the center for body weight regulation, can sense changes in blood glucose level based on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in the hypothalamic neurons. We hypothesized that a lack of glucose sensing in the hypothalamus affects the regulations of appetite and body weight.

Methods

To evaluate this hypothesis, the responses to glucose loading and high fat feeding for eight weeks were compared in Kir6.2 knock-out (KO) mice and control C57BL/6 mice, because Kir6.2 is a key component of the KATP channel.

Results

The hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) analyzed one hour after glucose injection was suppressed in C57BL/6 mice, but not in Kir6.2 KO mice, suggesting a blunted hypothalamic response to glucose in Kir6.2 KO mice. The hypothalamic NPY expression at a fed state was elevated in Kir6.2 KO mice and was accompanied with hyperphagia. However, the retroperitoneal fat mass was markedly decreased in Kir6.2 KO mice compared to that in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the body weight and visceral fat following eight weeks of high fat feeding in Kir6.2 KO mice were not significantly different from those in control diet-fed Kir6.2 KO mice, while body weight and visceral fat mass were elevated due to high fat feeding in C57BL/6 mice.

Conclusion

These results suggested that Kir6.2 KO mice showed a blunted hypothalamic response to glucose loading and elevated hypothalamic NPY expression accompanied with hyperphagia, while visceral fat mass was decreased, suggesting resistance to diet-induced obesity. Further study is needed to explain this phenomenon.

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    Kaifan Yu, Yanlin He, Ilirjana Hyseni, Zhou Pei, Yongjie Yang, Pingwen Xu, Xing Cai, Hesong Liu, Na Qu, Hailan Liu, Yang He, Meng Yu, Chen Liang, Tingting Yang, Julia Wang, Pierre Gourdy, Jean-Francois Arnal, Francoise Lenfant, Yong Xu, Chunmei Wang
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Therapeutic Target Achievement in Type 2 Diabetic Patients after Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia Management
Ah Young Kang, Su Kyung Park, So Young Park, Hye Jeong Lee, Ying Han, Sa Ra Lee, Sung Hwan Suh, Duk Kyu Kim, Mi Kyoung Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(3):264-272.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.264
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Our study group established "3H care" in 2002. The meaning of "3H care" attain and maintain adequate controls over hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. This study evaluated the achievement of target goals after one year or more of "3H care" by specialists in our diabetic clinic.

Methods

This was a retrospective study of 200 type 2 diabetic patients who received "3H care" for one year or more in our diabetic clinic. We evaluated achievement of target goals for metabolic controls as suggested by the American Diabetes Association.

Results

Overall, 200 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled, of whom 106 were males (53%) and 94 were females (47%). After one year of "3H care," the mean HbA1c was 7.2±1.5% and the percentage of patients achieving glycemic control (HbA1c <7%) was 51.8%. However only 32.2% of hypertensive patients achieved the recommended target. After one year of "3H care," the percentages of those who achieved the target value for dyslipidemia were 80.0% for total cholesterol, 66.3% for low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 57.9% for triglyceride, and 51.8% for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The percentage that achieved all three targets level was only 4.4% after one year and 14.8% after two years.

Conclusion

The results of this study demonstrate that only a minor proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes achieved the recommended goals despite the implementation of "3H care." It is our suggestion that better treatment strategies and methods should be used to control hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

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Is A1C Variability an Independent Predictor for the Progression of Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients?
Chul Sik Kim, So Young Park, Sung Hoon Yu, Jun Goo Kang, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo-Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(3):174-181.   Published online June 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.3.174
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Little is known about the relative contribution of long-term glycemic variability to the risk of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of A1C variability on the progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods

Among type 2 diabetic patients who visited Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from March 2007 to September 2009, 120 patients who had carotid artery IMT measured annually and A1C checked every three months for at least one year were analyzed. Individual A1C variability was defined as the standard deviation (SD) of five A1C levels taken every three months for approximately one year. Change in IMT was defined as an increase in IMT on follow-up measurement. The association between the SD of A1C and changes in IMT was evaluated.

Results

With greater A1C variability, there was a greater increase in the mean IMT (r = 0.350, P < 0.001) of the carotid artery. After adjusting for confounding factors that may influence IMT, A1C variability was significantly associated with the progression of IMT (r = 0.222, P = 0.034). However, the SD of A1C was not a significant independent risk factor for the progression of IMT in multiple regression analysis (β = 0.158, P = 0.093).

Conclusion

Higher A1C variability is associated with IMT progression in type 2 diabetic patients; however, it is not an independent predictor of IMT progression. Overall glycemic control is the most important factor in the progression of IMT.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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