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Min Kim  (Kim M) 2 Articles
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Rg3 Improves Mitochondrial Function and the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Mitochondrial Biogenesis in C2C12 Myotubes
Min Joo Kim, Young Do Koo, Min Kim, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Sung Soo Chung, Hak C. Jang, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(5):406-413.   Published online August 12, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.5.406
  • 5,242 View
  • 73 Download
  • 22 Web of Science
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Panax ginseng has glucose-lowering effects, some of which are associated with the improvement in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Because mitochondria play a pivotal role in the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, we investigated the effects of the ginsenoside Rg3, one of the active components of P. ginseng, on mitochondrial function and biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes.

Methods

C2C12 myotubes were treated with Rg3 for 24 hours. Insulin signaling pathway proteins were examined by Western blot. Cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the oxygen consumption rate were measured. The protein or mRNA levels of mitochondrial complexes were evaluated by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis.

Results

Rg3 treatment to C2C12 cells activated the insulin signaling pathway proteins, insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt. Rg3 increased ATP production and the oxygen consumption rate, suggesting improved mitochondrial function. Rg3 increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor, which are transcription factors related to mitochondrial biogenesis. Subsequent increased expression of mitochondrial complex IV and V was also observed.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that Rg3 improves mitochondrial function and the expression of key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to an improvement in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Rg3 may have the potential to be developed as an anti-hyperglycemic agent.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Ginseng Leaf Extract and Its Acid-Treated Form, UG0712 Between Their Effects on Exercise Performance in Mice
    Young Jin Lee, Su Hyun Yu, Gwang Yeong Seok, Su Yeon Kim, Mi Jeong Kim, Inhye Jeong, Wan Heo, Bo Su Lee, Seon Gil Do, Bok Kyung Han, Young Jun Kim
    Food Supplements and Biomaterials for Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ginsenosides for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes: Therapeutic perspectives and mechanistic insights
    Tae Hyun Kim
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2024; 48(3): 276.     CrossRef
  • Preparation and bioactivity of the rare ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2: An updated review
    Wenqi Xu, Wei Lyu, Cuicui Duan, Fumin Ma, Xiaolei Li, Dan Li
    Fitoterapia.2023; 167: 105514.     CrossRef
  • Ginsenoside Rc, an Active Component of Panax ginseng, Alleviates Oxidative Stress-Induced Muscle Atrophy via Improvement of Mitochondrial Biogenesis
    Aeyung Kim, Sang-Min Park, No Soo Kim, Haeseung Lee
    Antioxidants.2023; 12(8): 1576.     CrossRef
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 protects glucocorticoid‑induced muscle atrophy in vitro through improving mitochondrial biogenesis and myotube growth
    Ryuni Kim, Jee Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae
    Molecular Medicine Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Beneficial Effects of Walnut Oligopeptides on Muscle Loss in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone-8 (SAMP8) Mice: Focusing on Mitochondrial Function
    Rui Fan, Yuntao Hao, Qian Du, Jiawei Kang, Meihong Xu, Yong Li
    Nutrients.2022; 14(10): 2051.     CrossRef
  • Ginseng and ginsenosides: Therapeutic potential for sarcopenia
    Weiwei Zha, Yuanhai Sun, Wenwen Gong, Linghuan Li, Wonnam Kim, Hanbing Li
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2022; 156: 113876.     CrossRef
  • Bioactive Oligopeptides from Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) Suppress Oxidative Stress-Induced Senescence in Fibroblasts via NAD+/SIRT1/PGC-1α Signaling Pathway
    Na Zhu, Mei-Hong Xu, Yong Li
    Nutrients.2022; 14(24): 5289.     CrossRef
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    Qingxia Huang, Song Gao, Daqing Zhao, Xiangyan Li
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2021; 45(3): 371.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Biological Aging and Antioxidant Capacity in Postmenopausal Women: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Study
    Tae-Ha Chung, Ji-Hye Kim, So-Young Seol, Yon-Ji Kim, Yong-Jae Lee
    Nutrients.2021; 13(9): 3090.     CrossRef
  • A comprehensive review on the phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, and antidiabetic effect of Ginseng
    Yage Liu, Hao Zhang, Xuan Dai, Ruyuan Zhu, Beibei Chen, Bingke Xia, Zimengwei Ye, Dandan Zhao, Sihua Gao, Alexander N. Orekhov, Dongwei Zhang, Lili Wang, Shuzhen Guo
    Phytomedicine.2021; 92: 153717.     CrossRef
  • Chronic Adipose Tissue Inflammation Linking Obesity to Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
    Federica Zatterale, Michele Longo, Jamal Naderi, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Antonella Desiderio, Claudia Miele, Francesco Beguinot
    Frontiers in Physiology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Stereoisomer-specific ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 reverses replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts via Akt-mTOR-Sirtuin signaling
    Kyeong-Eun Yang, Hyun-Jin Jang, In-Hu Hwang, Eun Mi Hong, Min-Goo Lee, Soon Lee, Ik-Soon Jang, Jong-Soon Choi
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2020; 44(2): 341.     CrossRef
  • Ginsenosides for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases: Pharmacology and mechanisms
    Wenxiang Fan, Yongliang Huang, Hui Zheng, Shuiqin Li, Zhuohong Li, Li Yuan, Xi Cheng, Chengshi He, Jianfeng Sun
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2020; 132: 110915.     CrossRef
  • Ca2+-activated mitochondrial biogenesis and functions improve stem cell fate in Rg3-treated human mesenchymal stem cells
    Taeui Hong, Moon Young Kim, Dat Da Ly, Su Jung Park, Young Woo Eom, Kyu-Sang Park, Soon Koo Baik
    Stem Cell Research & Therapy.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Adipocytes as a Primary Cause of Adipose Tissue Inflammation
    Chang-Yun Woo, Jung Eun Jang, Seung Eun Lee, Eun Hee Koh, Ki-Up Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(3): 247.     CrossRef
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 upregulates myotube formation and mitochondrial function, thereby protecting myotube atrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha
    Sang-Jin Lee, Ju Hyun Bae, Hani Lee, Hyunji Lee, Jongsun Park, Jong-Sun Kang, Gyu-Un Bae
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2019; 242: 112054.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic Potential of Ginsenosides as an Adjuvant Treatment for Diabetes
    Litao Bai, Jialiang Gao, Fan Wei, Jing Zhao, Danwei Wang, Junping Wei
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ginseng and obesity
    Zhipeng Li, Geun Eog Ji
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2018; 42(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Molecular signaling of ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, and Rg3 and their mode of actions
    Padmanaban Mohanan, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Deok-Chun Yang
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2018; 42(2): 123.     CrossRef
  • Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) enhances skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism
    W.F. Theeuwes, H.R. Gosker, R.C.J. Langen, K.J.P. Verhees, N.A.M. Pansters, A.M.W.J. Schols, A.H.V. Remels
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease.2017; 1863(12): 3075.     CrossRef
  • Anti-Fatigue Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Mice
    Lei Bao, Xiaxia Cai, Junbo Wang, Yuan Zhang, Bin Sun, Yong Li
    Nutrients.2016; 8(12): 807.     CrossRef
Effects of Sulfonylureas on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activity and on Glucose Uptake by Thiazolidinediones
Kyeong Won Lee, Yun Hyi Ku, Min Kim, Byung Yong Ahn, Sung Soo Chung, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):340-347.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.340
  • 4,588 View
  • 41 Download
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Sulfonylurea primarily stimulates insulin secretion by binding to its receptor on the pancreatic β-cells. Recent studies have suggested that sulfonylureas induce insulin sensitivity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), one of the nuclear receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of sulfonylurea on PPARγ transcriptional activity and on the glucose uptake via PPARγ.

Methods

Transcription reporter assays using Cos7 cells were performed to determine if specific sulfonylureas stimulate PPARγ transactivation. Glimepiride, gliquidone, and glipizide (1 to 500 µM) were used as treatment, and rosiglitazone at 1 and 10 µM was used as a control. The effects of sulfonylurea and rosiglitazone treatments on the transcriptional activity of endogenous PPARγ were observed. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with rosiglitazone (10 µM), glimepiride (100 µM) or both to verify the effect of glimepiride on rosiglitazone-induced glucose uptake.

Results

Sulfonylureas, including glimepiride, gliquidone and glipizide, increased PPARγ transcriptional activity, gliquidone being the most potent PPARγ agonist. However, no additive effects were observed in the presence of rosiglitazone. When rosiglitazone was co-treated with glimepiride, PPARγ transcriptional activity and glucose uptake were reduced compared to those after treatment with rosiglitazone alone. This competitive effect of glimepiride was observed only at high concentrations that are not achieved with clinical doses.

Conclusion

Sulfonylureas like glimepiride, gliquidone and glipizide increased the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Also, glimepiride was able to reduce the effect of rosiglitazone on PPARγ agonistic activity and glucose uptake. However, the competitive effect does not seem to occur at clinically feasible concentrations.

Citations

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    Bodo Haas, Moritz David Sebastian Hass, Alexander Voltz, Matthias Vogel, Julia Walther, Arijit Biswas, Daniela Hass, Alexander Pfeifer
    Molecular Metabolism.2024; 85: 101956.     CrossRef
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