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Sin Gon Kim  (Kim SG) 14 Articles
Relationship Between Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Chronic Complications in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes.
Hye Soo Chung, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Doo Man Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Dong seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(5):392-400.   Published online October 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.5.392
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We examined the relationships between components of metabolic syndrome at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and the development of chronic complications in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The medical records of patients with type 2 diabetes who had undergone treatment for at least five years prior were collected from 10 general hospitals in Korea. Among a total of 1,418 patients reviewed for possible inclusion in this study, 603 patients were selected, and the occurrence of complications among these patients was evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 603 patients (male, 253; female, 350), 154 males (60.8%) and 266 females (76.0%) were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome at the time of initial diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The incidence of chronic complications (average follow-up 15.2 +/- 4.9 years) included 60 cases of coronary artery disease (CAD), 57 cases of cerebrovascular accident (CVA), 268 cases of diabetic retinopathy (DR), 254 cases of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and 238 cases of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). As compared to patients without metabolic syndrome, the adjusted relative risks (95% CI) of incidental diabetic complications in patients with metabolic syndrome were 3.28 (1.40~7.71) for CAD, 2.04 (0.86~4.82) for CVA, 1.53 (1.10~2.14) for DR, 1.90 (1.29~2.80) for DN, and 1.51, (1.06~2.14) for DPN. With the addition of just one constituent of metabolic syndrome, the relative risk of developing CAD, CVD, DR, DN, and DPN increased by 2.08 (95% CI, 1.27~3.40), 1.16 (0.80~1.66), 1.09 (0.93~1.26), 1.29 (1.06~1.57) and 1.06 (0.87~1.26), respectively. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes increases the risk of developing both macrovascular and microvascular complications.

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  • COVID-19 pandemic: Effects of national lockdown on the state of health of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Moroccan population
    Hamid Farhane, Majida Motrane, Fatima-Ezzahra Anaibar, Aïcha Motrane, Said Nassor Abeid, Nourdin Harich
    Primary Care Diabetes.2021; 15(5): 772.     CrossRef
  • Profil clinique du syndrome métabolique et facteurs associés à sa présence au cours du diabète de type 2 à Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)
    O. Guira, H. Tiéno, Y. Sagna, P. Mayodé, D. Yanogo, L. Zoungrana, C.-G. Kyélem, M.-T. Yaméogo, J.-Y. Drabo
    Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques.2016; 10(1): 70.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Quality of Life in Korean Adult Women
    Hyung-Su Park, Jong Park
    The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences.2013; 8(4): 639.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Risk Analysis Model with Personalized Food Intake Preference
    So-Hye Jeon, Nam-Hyun Kim
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2013; 14(11): 5771.     CrossRef
  • Comorbidity Study on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Data Mining
    Hye Soon Kim, A Mi Shin, Mi Kyung Kim, Yoon Nyun Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2012; 27(2): 197.     CrossRef
  • Cardio-Metabolic Features of Type 2 Diabetes Subjects Discordant in the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome
    Sa Rah Lee, Ying Han, Ja Won Kim, Ja Young Park, Ji Min Kim, Sunghwan Suh, Mi-Kyoung Park, Hye-Jeong Lee, Duk Kyu Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2012; 36(5): 357.     CrossRef
The Effect of Cellular Phone-Based Telemedicine on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Insulin Therapy.
Yun Jeong Lee, Mi Hyun Jeong, Joo Hyung Kim, Juri Park, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):232-240.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.232
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cellular phones are extremely prevalent in modern society and they enable appropriate feedback mechanisms through real time monitoring and short message services regarding blood glucose levels. We investigated whether cellular phone-based telemedicine support system could improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients who were in inadequate glycemic control regardless of insulin therapy. METHODS: A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted involving 74 type 2 diabetic patients with suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c levels > 7%) regardless of insulin therapy. The intervention (cellular phone-based telemedicine) group managed their blood glucose using a cellular phone for 3 months, while the control (self monitoring of blood glucose) group managed their blood glucose with a standard glucometer for the same period. RESULTS: Three months later, HbA1c levels were decreased in both groups. However, the decrease in the control group from 8.37% to 8.20% was only 0.20% (P = 0.152) which was not significant. In contrast, the intervention group had a significant reduction of 0.61% from 8.77% to 8.16% (P < 0.001). Moreover, among patients with a baseline > or = 8%, the patients in the intervention group showed a significant reduction of 0.81% from 9.16% to 8.34% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HbA1c levels were significantly decreased in the cellular phone-based telemedicine group compared with the control group after 3 months. This study suggests that cellular phone-based telemedicine is helpful for better glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients who previously were unable to control glucose levels adequately with insulin therapy.

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  • A Survey on Ubiquitous Healthcare Service Demand among Diabetic Patients
    Soo Lim, So-Youn Kim, Jung Im Kim, Min Kyung Kwon, Sei Jin Min, Soo Young Yoo, Seon Mee Kang, Hong Il Kim, Hye Seung Jung, Kyong Soo Park, Jun Oh Ryu, Hayley Shin, Hak Chul Jang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(1): 50.     CrossRef
Effects of Comprehensive Support on Glycemic Control Using Community Networks in Low- Income Elderly Patients with Diabetes.
Nam Hoon Kim, Yun Jeong Lee, Hye Ok Kim, Cho Rong Oh, Ju Ri Park, Soo Yoen Park, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Sin Gon Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(5):453-461.   Published online October 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.5.453
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes is common among elderly, and low-income is associated with poor adherence to treatment and increased mortality. We evaluated whether comprehensive support using community networks improves glycemic control among low-income elderly patients with diabetes. METHODS: A total of 49 low-income elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, mean age 73 years, were enrolled. For 1 year, study subjects underwent various lifestyle modification programs provided by community networks. The biochemical data including glycemic markers and anthropometric data were obtained at the baseline and at the end of the study. Also, the patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their quality of life, self-confidence and self-care behavior. RESULTS: After lifestyle modification program, overall changes of fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, and other biochemical markers were not significantly different. In a subgroup analysis of 21 patients with poorly controlled diabetes (fasting glucose > 140 mg/dL or HbA1c > 7.5%), fasting plasma glucose was significantly reduced (P = 0.030). Among patients with baseline HbA1c level > or = 8%, HbA1c levels after intervention decreased from 9.33 +/- 1.07% to 8.27 +/- 1.15% (P = 0.092). The results of the questionnaires revealed significant increases in the scores of quality of life, self-confidence and self-care behavior (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among low-income, elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, lifestyle modification through community networks showed no significant changes in glycemic control markers. More intensive and precise interventions using community networks are needed for the glycemic control of low-income, elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

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  • The Effects of a Health Mentoring Program in Community-dwelling Vulnerable Elderly Individuals with Diabetes
    Ki wol Sung, Hye Seung Kang, Ji Ran Nam, Mi Kyung Park, Ji Hyeon Park
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2018; 48(2): 182.     CrossRef
  • Development of a scale to measure diabetes self‐management behaviors among older Koreans with type 2 diabetes, based on the seven domains identified by the American Association of Diabetes Educators
    Kyoungsan Seo, Misoon Song, Suyoung Choi, Se‐an Kim, Sun Ju Chang
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science.2017; 14(2): 161.     CrossRef
  • Current Status and Effects of Dining with Diabetes in Korea and Abroad
    Seung Hye Yang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2017; 18(2): 117.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Management through Care Communities
    Kyeong Ok Yun
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(4): 271.     CrossRef
  • Understanding Psycho-Social Aspects and Social Welfare Information of Low-Income Diabetes Patients
    Been Yoo
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2015; 16(3): 212.     CrossRef
  • Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus With Pancreatic Cancer Manifested as Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State
    Tae Hyung Kwon, Min Seong Kim, Jun Ho Jeon, Dong Il Jeong, Sang Seok Yun, Yong Kyu Lee
    Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society.2013; 17(2): 95.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Comprehensive Self-Management Program Promoting Self Efficacy for Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Ju-Young Park, Il-Sun Ko
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2012; 19(1): 74.     CrossRef
Effects of Telmisartan Compared with Valsartan on Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.
Soo Yeon Park, Sin Gon Kim, Juri Park, Yun Jeong Lee, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):236-242.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2006.32.3.236
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BACKGROUND
Telmisartan, used for the treatment of hypertension, has been shown to function as a partial agonist of peroxime proliferative activated receptor-nu (PPAR-nu). Theoretically, telmisartan which simultaneously blocks the angiotensin II receptor and activates PPAR-nu should be more effective in improving atherosclerotic surrogate markers than angiotensin II receptor blockers alone. Therefore, this pilot study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of telmisartan and valsartan on plasma adiponectin levels and pulse wave velocity as a marker of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty two patients with type 2 diabetes (mean duration 7.6 +/- 5.1 years) taking oral hypoglycemic agents were randomly assigned to receive telmisartan or valsartan for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Telmisartan and valsartan treatment significantly increased circulating adiponectin levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.013, respectively) and reduced systolic (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), and brachial-ankle PWV (P = 0.019 and P = 0.002, respectively), without significant differences between the two treatments. Before and after treatment, the fasting plasma glucose, interleukin-6, homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMAIR) levels and lipid profile were unchanged in both treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our expectation, telmisartan, even with its partial PPAR-nu activity, is not superior to valsartan in improving plasma adipocytokine levels and arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that the partial PPAR-nu activity of telmisartan beyond valsartan may have less significant therapeutic implications than expected in treating patients with type 2 diabetes.
VEGF-Angiopoietin-Tie2 System in Diabetic Retinopathy.
Nan Hee Kim, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Kye Won Lee, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Yoon Shin Park, Inho Jo, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(2):122-132.   Published online March 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
Ischemia-induced neovascularization can cause the loss of vision in retinal disorders such as diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have shown that the angiopoietin-Tie2 system is a major regulator of vascular integrity and it is involved in pathologic angiogenesis. However, its role in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy is not yet known. We examined the regulation of the VEGF-angiopoietin-Tie2 system in both in vitro and in vivo studies to discover their possible role in diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: We investigated the effects of a well-known angiogenic stimulus, hypoxia(2% O2 concentration) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF, 10 ng/mL) on the expression of the angiopoietin-Tie2 mRNA in bovine retinal pericytes(BRP) and bovine aortic endothelial cells(BAEC). We also examined the expressions of VEGF-angiopoietin-Tie2 mRNA in retinas of type 2 diabetic OLETF(Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty) rats at 30 and 50 weeks. We also investigated the effect of angiotensin II receptor type 1(AT1) antagonist on the VEGFangiopoietin-Tie2 expression. RESULTS: Hypoxia and VEGF treatment significantly increased angiopoietin-1(Ang1) mRNA expression in the BRPs. In contrast, the angiopoietin-2(Ang2) mRNA expression was unaltered in the BRPs treated with hypoxia and VEGF. Significant up-regulation of Tie2 mRNA expression was found and this lasted up to 12 h. However, using BAECs, we found that only the Ang2 expression responded to these two angiogenic stimuli. In OLETF rats, the Ang-Tie2 expression patterns were similar with those of the BAECs. Ang2 and VEGF mRNA were increased at 30 and 50 weeks for the OLETF rats, whereas the Ang1 expression was not changed. The up-regulation of Ang2 and VEGF was decreased with the losartan treatment, an AT1 receptor antagonist. Tie2 mRNA expression was increased only at 50 weeks and it did not show any decrement by the losartan treatment. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that hypoxia and VEGF treatment differentially regulate the angiopoietin-Tie2 system in the two vascular cells. Ang2 and VEGF expressions were predominantly increased in type 2 diabetic rats, and the unopposed action of Ang2 with VEGF might be involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy. The renin-angiotensin system may be a potential mechanism for the up-regulated VEGF-Ang2 system
Correlation of C-reactive Protein with Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly Korean Women with Normal or Impaired Glucose Tolerance.
Soon Beom Kwon, Kyung Mook Choi, Soo Yeon Park, Hye Jin Yoo, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Sang Soo Park, Hee Young Kim, Kye Won Lee, Ji A Seo, Jeong Heon Oh, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):432-440.   Published online October 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Previous studies have reported that type 2 diabetes is associated with the increased blood concentrations of markers for the acute phase response, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum sialic acid and fibrinogen. The purpose of this study was to verify whether the pro-inflammatory cytokine- induced acute-phase response is a major pathogenic mechanism for type 2 diabetes in elderly Korean women. METHODS: We randomly selected a total of 232 non-smoking and non-diabetic female subjects among a total of 1,737 elderly subjects aged over 60 years who had participated in a population based study in Seoul, Korea (SWS Study 1999). We compared concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), as well as the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP), between the subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESULTS: The IGT group showed higher serum high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations than did the NGT group (the median was 1.2 versus 0.9, respectively, p<0.05). Moreover, a close relationship between serum hs-CRP concentrations and many components of the metabolic syndrome was found. However, serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were not increasedin the IGT group, and they were not closely correlated with the components of metabolic syndrome. Multiple regression analysis using a stepwise selection method showed that the white blood cell counts, body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin, post-load 2h glucose, hematocrit and LDL cholesterol were associated with hs-CRP. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the relationship between C-reactive protein, impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean women.
Serum CRP levels are associated with Estradiol levels and Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Korean Women.
Kwon Beom Kim, Hee Young Kim, Kye Won Lee, Ji A Seo, Jeong Heon Oh, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Chol Shin, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(4):324-337.   Published online August 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Several reports have recently suggested a positive correlation between components of metabolic syndrome (MS) or insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) and markers of the acute-phase response, including C-reactive protein (CRP). These results imply that MS and type 2 diabetes are the results of ongoing inflammatory process. Whether estrogen plays a beneficial role in preventing atherosclerosis has been a matter of controversy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum levels of estradiol (E2) and the components of the MS and CRP in nondiabetic subjects of Ansan Health Study (AHS). METHODS: Eight-hundred and ninety-one healthy non-diabetic women aged over 18 years were enrolled. After measurements of the anthropometric and metabolic parameters, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed with regard to the CRP level, as a dependent variable, and with regards to age, blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR and fat content as independent variables. RESULTS: In the multiple linear regression analysis, the CRP concentration was found to be independently associated with the E2 level, total fat content, leukocyte counts, and total cholesterol level in all subjects and the serum E2 levels was correlated with age, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and the CRP level. When subjects were grouped according to their number of MS or IRS components, the CRP levels were found to show statistically significant differences between the MS and IRS groups. CONCLUSION: As a marker of chronic inflammation, the serum CRP level was independently associated with the components of MS and IRS. Also, the serum CRP and E2 levels were positively correlated. These results suggest that estrogen and CRP might play some independent roles in chronic inflammation which is a part of MS and IRS.
Plasma and urinary Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Jeong Heon Oh, Hye Jin Yoo, Soo Yeon Park, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Sang Soo Park, Soon Beom Kwon, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Kye Won Lee, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Dae Ryong Cha, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(2):111-121.   Published online April 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
VEGF(vascular endothelial growth factor) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neovascularization and endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. However, its precise role in diabetic nephropathy is still unknown. Our aims were to determine whether alterations of plasma and urinary VEGF levels were related to diabetic microvascular complications, especially nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 107 type 2 diabetic patients, without non-diabetic kidney diseases, and 47 healthy control subjects were studied. The urinary albumin excretion was defined as the albumin-to-creatinine ratio(ACR) in 24 hour urine samples. The study subjects were divided into four groups: a nondiabetic healthy control group(n=47), a normoalbuminuric diabetic group(ACR <30mug/mg, n=37), a microalbuminuric diabetic group(ACR 30~299mug/mg, n=37) and an overt proteinuric diabetic group(ACR=300mug/mg, n=33). The plasma and urinary VEGF levels were measured in these subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: 1) The urinary VEGF concentrations were significantly higher in the diabetic groups than in the controls, even in the normoalbuminuric stage(log VEGF/Cr, normoalbuminuria; 4.33+/-1.06 vs. control; 3.53+/-0.79, p=0.009). The levels of urinary VEGF excretions increased with advancing diabetic nephropathy stage. 2) The plasma and urinary VEGF levels were higher in the hypertensive diabetic than the normotensive diabetic patients. 3) In the diabetic patients, the level of plasma VEGF was positively correlated with the BUN(r=0.398, p=0.039) and urinary ACR (r=0.251, p=0.044). The level of urinary VEGF was positively correlated with the urinary ACR(r=0.645, p<0.001), and creatinine(r=0.336, p=0.009), but negatively correlated with the level of serum albumin(r=-0.557, p<0.001). Both the levels of urinary VEGF and serum creatinine were independently correlated with the urinary ACR. CONCLUSIONS: The excretion of urinary VEGF increased at a relatively earlier stage in diabetic nephropathy and was significantly correlated with the excretion of urinary albumin. These results suggested the possibility of urinary VEGF as a sensitive marker or the detection of diabetic nephropathy and in predicting disease progression.
Brachial-ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Koreans with the Metabolic Syndrome.
Kyung Mook Choi, Kye Won Lee, Sul Hye Ryoung, Ji A Seo, Jeong Heon Oh, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):36-44.   Published online February 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is known as metabolic syndrome. In this study, the association between the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity(baPWV), a novel non-invasive means of measuring atherosclerosis, and the cardiovascular risk factors of the metabolic syndrome were investigated. METHODS: The study group comprised 460 non-diabetic Koreans, male:female ratio 158:302, with a mean age of 52.4+/-11.3 years. The anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose(FBG), lipid profiles, ankle-brachial pressure index(ABI) and baPWV were measured in each subject. RESULTS: The ABI and baPWV levels were significantly higher in the men than the women. In both the men and women, the baPWV was closely associated with the cardiovascular risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Those who had more metabolic syndrome components showed higher baPWV levels. Women with metabolic syndrome showed higher baPWV levels compared to those without (1517+/-281 vs. 1336+/-250, P<0.001). A multiple regression analysis showed the baPWV to be significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and FBG (adjusted R-square 0.554). CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that the baPWV was significantly associated with the features of metabolic syndrome, including the FBG, in non-diabetic Koreans.
Relations between Insulin Resistance and Hematologic Parameters in Elderly Koreans: Southwest Seoul (SWS) Study.
Kye Won Lee, Hye Jin Yoo, Soo Yeon Park, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Sang Soo Park, Soon Beom Kwon, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Jeong Heon Oh, Dong Hyun Shin, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Hyoung Jin Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(4):352-361.   Published online August 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is known as insulin resistance syndrome. Hyperinsulinemia has been suggested as a cardiovascular risk factor due to the capacity of insulin to induce vascular endothelial proliferation and atherosclerosis. Insulin also has been shown to stimulate erythroid colony formation independently of erythropoietin. WBC count is one of the major components of the inflammatory process and is increased by IL-6, which is high in those with features of insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether insulin resistance affects hematological parameters. METHODS: In this study, 1,314, randomly selected, non-diabetic, elderly subjects over 60 years living in the southwest area of Seoul were recruited. Subjects underwent 75 g OGTT and careful physical examinations during evaluation, and were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Biochemical data and hematologic parameters were also measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) method. Analysis of variance, Duncan's multiple comparisons and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out. RESULTS: In the male non-smoking group we found a correlation between insulin resistance and hemoglobin concentration (r=0.20, p=0.0186). In the female non- smoking group we found correlations between insulin resistance and both hemoglobin concentration (r=0.10, p=0.0017) and white blood cell (WBC) count (r=0.15, p=0.001). Hemoglobin concentration and WBC count were also correlated with BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting insulin levels in female non-smokers. In multiple regression analysis, using HOMA IR as a dependent variable, we found significance in the variables of hemoglobin concentration, WBC count, age, BMI and triglyceride level. CONCLUSION: Our study provided evidence for a relation between insulin resistance and hematological parameters such as hemoglobin concentration and WBC count in elderly Koreans. This suggests that increased hemoglobin level and WBC count could be considered as novel aspects of the met.
Detection of Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy by 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.
Young Hee Rho, Nan Hee Kim, Dong Lim Kim, Dong Hyun Shin, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Woo Hyuk Song, Sei Hyun Baik, Woo Keun Seo, Min Kyu Park, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(3):208-219.   Published online June 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy is a relatively common diabetic complication, associated with high long-term mortality. Ewing's test is known as the 'gold standard' for evaluating and diagnosing this disease, yet is not widely used due to the inconvenient procedures of the test. 24-hour Holter EKG monitoring, and the analytical product, heart rate variability, is being introduced as a relatively simple and reliable procedure for the evaluation of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. We explored whether such heart rate variability products derived from Holter monitoring, correlated with the presence, absence, or severity of diabetes mellitus, and whether it correlated well with conventional autonomic tests. METHODS: We compared 59 type 2 diabetic patients with 71 normal subjects. All underwent 24-hr Holter EKG monitoring and basic autonomic evaluations, such as the head-up tilting, hand grip, and deep breathing-heart rate variability tests. Those who had diabetes also underwent evaluation for basic blood chemistry, and complication studies, for things such as: 24-hour urine albumin excretion, fundoscopy and nerve conduction. RESULTS: Variables for heart rate variability were expressed as SDDN, rMSSD, LF, HF, and LF/HF, where SDDN is the Standard Deviation of all RR intervals, rMSSD the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals, LF the power in the Low Frequency range and HF the power in the High Frequency range, with LF/HF being the ratio between LF and HF. Heart rate variability was significantly lower in terms of rMSSD, LF, HF, but not in terms of the LF/HF ratio, for the diabetic patients compared to the normal subjects. These three variables also correlated with the conventional autonomic tests of systolic blood pressure changes during standing up (negatively), and heart rate variability during deep breathing (positively). SDDN, rMSSD, LF, and HF also correlated negatively with the duration of diabetes. SDDN, LF and HF were significantly lower among patients who had complications such as: retinopathy, nephropathy or peripheral neuropathy, than in those who did not. CONCLUSION: Heart rate variability was lower in type 2 diabetic patients than the control subjects, which correlated well with the duration of diabetes mellitus, diabetic chronic complications and the conventional autonomic nervous function tests, so could be an useful adjunct or even a replacement, for conventional autonomic nervous system testing procedures. More research is needed in this field.
Plasma Leptin Concentration, Obesity, and Insulin Resistance in Healthy Korean Population.
Dong Lim Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Dong Hyun Shin, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Kwan Kim, Chol Shin, Seung Gwan Lee, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(2):100-111.   Published online April 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and body weight. It has been demonstrated that the plasma leptin levels correlates with body adiposity. Increased adiposity is accompanied by a low insulin sensitivity, which turns into insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest a complex interrelationship between leptin and insulin or insulin resistance. Therefore, the relationship between leptin and the variables of body adiposity, and insulin resistance in a non-diabetic population was examined. METHODS: 555 healthy non-diabetic people aged 20 to 80 were enrolled in this study. Leptin was measured by the mean radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with leptin as a dependent variable and with age, sex, BP, the lipid profile, the fasting plasma glucose levels, HOMA-IR and the trunk fat contents as independent variables. RESULTS: The plasma leptin concentrations were higher in women than in men. The leptin concentrations correlated with the body fat content, BMI and HOMA-IR but, less so with age, the fasting plasma glucose levels, the postprandial glucose levels, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. After adjusting for the body mass index, the leptin levels significantly correlated with both the body fat content and the HOMA-IR. The results between males and females were similar when the data was analyzed after dividing by gender. Gender, the trunk fat content, HOMA-IR, and the total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels were independent variables which influences the log transformed leptin in multiple logistic regression analysis. When the subjects were grouped according to the number of insulin resistance syndrome including dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, there was a linear increase in the leptin concentration with an increase in the number of the components of insulin resistance syndrome. CONCLUSION: The plasma leptin concentrations are related to adiposity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in the non-diabetic Korean population. The relationship between leptin and insulin resistance independent of body fat suggests that insulin resistance might play some role in the development of hyperleptinemia and vice versa
Effect of Protein Kinase C Inhibitor on Glucose Transporter-1 (GLUT1) Expression in Cultured Rat Mesangial Cells.
Ie Byung Park, Dae Ryong Cha, Dong Rim Kim, Sin Gon Kim, Dong Hyun Shin, Kyung Mook Choi, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(3):218-229.   Published online June 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Recent studies have suggested that increased glucose uptake via GLUT1 may be a major determinant of glucose utilization and extracellular matrix formation in mesangial cells. This study was to evaluate the effect of protein kinase C inhibitor on glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) expression in cultured rat mesangial cells. METHODS: The GLUT1 expression was evaluated in mesangial cells exposed to various glucose concentrations of media (5.5 mM, 15 mM or 30 mM) and incubation times (6 hr, 24 hr or 72 hr) by semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The effect of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin C and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on GLUT1 expression was also evaluated under the same conditions. RESULTS: The GLUT1 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in MG (15 mM) and HG (30 mM) than those in NG (5.5 mM) with incubation of 6 hr, 24 hr and 72 hr, respectively. In HG media, the GLUT1 mRNA expression with incubation of 24 hr and 72 hr were significantly increased than that with incubation of 6 hr, respectively. In HG media, the GLUT1 mRNA expressions were significantly reduced in calphostin C and PMA treated groups compared with those in untreated groups. In western blot analysis of HG media, GLUT1 proteins were identified in PMA- or calphostin C-untreated group and PMA 6 hr treated group, but not identified in PMA 24 hr treated group and in calphostin C-treated groups with incubation of 6 hr and 24 hr. CONCLUSION: PKC inhibitors decrease glucose-induced GLUT1 expression under high glucose concentration in mesangial cells. These results suggest that PKC pathway may regulate GLUT1 expression under high glucose concentration in cultured rat mesangial cells.
Urinary albumin excretion, von Willebrand factor and macrovascular disease in patients with NIDDM.
Sin Gon Kim, Soo Mi Kim, Dong Hyun Shin, Nan Hee Kim, Yoon Sang Choi, Ie Byung Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(2):176-184.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is not only an independent predictor of progressive renal disease but also an important marker of atherosclerotic disease in patients with NIDDM. However, the pathaphysiologic basis of this observation is poorly understood. Recently, one interesting hypothesis suggested: UAE rnerely reflects a glomerular manifestation of an otherwise generalized vascular dysfunction(hyperpermeable state), and Stehouwer et al. Reported a strong relationship between plasma von Willebrand factor level(a measure of endothelial dysfunction), UAE and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we studied the relationship between UAE, plasma vWF and macrovascular disease in patients with NIDDM. METHODS: We measured UAE and plasma vWF levels in 102 patients with NIDDM, and investigated the telationship between these values and macrovascular diseses. Also, we assesed the risk factars for macrovascular disease. RESULTS: 1) Among total of 102 patients, nonnoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria group were 58 patients(56.9%), 28 patients(27.5%) and 16 patients(15.6%), respectively. 2) The prevalencies of hypertension, diabetic retinopathy and macrovascular diseases were the highest in macroalbuminuria group, followed by microalbuminuria and norrnoalbuminuria group in order of frequency. 3) Plasma vWF and UAE levels were significantly correlated(r=0.44). 4) Plasma vWF concentrations were higher in patients with macrovascular diseases than in those without macrovascular diseases, and also higher in patients with retinopathy compared with those without retinopathy. 5) Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, smoking and vWF were independent risk factors for macrovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: 1) As plasma vWF and UAE values were increased, more macrovascular diseases were observed in patients with NIDDM. 2) Plasma vWF may be used as an indicator of macrovascular disease in patients with NIDDM.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal