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Sang Wook Kim  (Kim SW) 13 Articles
Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification Scores in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Sang Wook Kim, Eun Hee Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(2):113-123.   Published online April 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.2.113
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BACKGROUND
Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is expressed in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions and is known to be involved in the degradation of plaque. This study examines the association of MMP-3 gene promoter 5A/6A and -709A>G polymorphisms with coronary artery calcium scores in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: The study comprises 140 type 2 diabetes patients aged 34~85 years, who showed no evidence of clinical cardiovascular disease before recruitment. Recruitment was based on patient's coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores and polymorphisms were identified. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis showed that the CAC scores were significantly associated with age (P = 0.008), waist circumference (P = 0.03), duration of diabetes (P = 0.003) and the serum creatinine level (P = 0.012). MMP-3 5A/6A and -709A>G polymorphisms were not associated with CAC across all subjects. However, in the subgroup with a duration of diabetes over 10 years, MMP-3 -709A>G were significantly associated with CAC (P = 0.037) adjusted for age, body mass index, waist circumference and duration of diabetes. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the CAC scores in patients with type 2 diabetes were related with age, waist circumference, duration of diabetes and higher serum creatinine levels. MMP-3 polymorphisms with -709A>G are associated with high CAC in patients with a duration of diabetes over 10 years.
Clustering of Risk Variables in Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Jungup District, Korea.
Sang Wook Kim, Myung Hoe Huh, Young Il Kim, Jin Yub Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Moo Song Lee, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(6):843-856.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), a clustering of hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, low HDL cholesterol and high triglyceride, is prevalent in Korea. We studied the correlational structure of IRS using factor analysis to evaluate whether a single process underlies in the clustering of these risk factors. METHODS: Factor analysis was performed using data from 1,018 non-diabetic subjects (388 men and 630 women) who participated in the Jungup epidemiological study. RESULTS: Factor analysis reduced 9 correlated risk factors to 4 independent factors, each reflecting a different aspect of IRS: hypertension factor (increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure), glucose intolerance factor (increased fasting and postload glucose), obesity factor (increased body mass index, waist circumference, and increased insulin), and dyslipidemia factor (increased trigly- cerides and decreased HDL cholesterol). Increased insulin was also loaded into dyslipidemia factor in men and glucose intolerance factor in women. These factors explained about 70% of the total variance in the data. Three factors such as the glucose intolerance factor, the dyslipidemia factor and the obesity factor, were linked through mutual association with hyperinsulinemia, while hypertension factor was not associated with hyperin- sulinemia. Age-adjusted mean BP by BMI tertile and fasting insulin level tertile for men and women increased progressively with increase in BMI in men and women. There was no significant elevation of mean BP according to increase in fasting insulin level. In contrast to premenopausal women in whom hyperinsulinemia show mutual association with the glucose intolerance factor, the dyslipidemia factor, and the obesity factor, hyperinsulinemia was only loaded into obesity factor in postmenopausal women. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that more than one process underlies the clustering of IRS. In sulin resistance alone did not seem to be the single underlying mechanism of IRS. Especially, hypertension was not correlated with hyperin- sulinemia.
Leptin Concentration in Diabetin and Non-diabetin Subjects in the Community Population.
Kee Up Lee, Seong Kwan Hong, Sang Wook Kim, Young Il Kim, Yun Ey Chung, Moo Song Lee, Joong Yeoul Park, Jin Yup Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(4):592-600.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It has been suggested that adipose tissue releases leptin, a satiety factor, which circulates in blood and acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite. However, serum leptin concentration in obese human subjects is higher than that in lean subjects, suggesting leptin resistance. Although there have been several studies investigating serum leptin concentrations in Korean subjects, there has been no population-based study. This study was undertaken to investigate serum leptin concentration and associated factors in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects living in a rural area of Korea. METHOD: Among 898 subjects originally included in the Jung-up epidemiologic study, 119 men and 124 women with varying degrees of glucose tolerance were randomly selected. Serum leptin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: In agreement with previous studies, women had significantly higher serum leptin concentration than men. Serum leptin concentration in Korean men and women was apparently lower than in other populations, even after adjustment for BMI. Leptin concentration was not different among the three groups of glucose tolerance (normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes). Serum leptin concentration was positively correlated with serum true insulin, proinsulin and BMI in non-diabetic subjects. Serum leptin concentration was also significantly related with serum proinsulin/true insulin ratio in non-diabetic women. CONCLUSION: Serum leptin concentration in Korean subjects was lower than that reported in other populations. Serum leptin concentration was associated with BMI, serum true insulin and proinsulin levels in non-diabetic subjects, but not in diabetic ubjects.
Prevalence of Islet Cell Autoantibodies and Mitochondrial DNA Mutation among Typical and Atypical Type 1 Diabetic Patients in Korea.
Hong kyu Lee, Kee Up Lee, Sung Kwan Hong, Byuong Doo Rhee, Dong Seop Choi, Hyoung Woo Lee, Sang Wook Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Woo Je Lee, Kyung Soo Ko
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(4):541-551.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
American Diabetes Association (ADA) proposed new criteria for the classification of diabetic patients, which were mainly based on the presence of autoimmune markers. But it is questionable if we can apply the new ADA criteria to Korean type 1 diabetic patients directly. In this study, we measured several autoantibodies to islet cell in Korean subjects with typical and atypical clinical manifestations of type 1 diabetes mellitus. And mutation of mitochondrial DNA was analyzed in the same patients. METHODS: We measured fasting serum C-peptide in 1870 diabetic patients attending the diabetes clinic of Asan Medical Center. Among the 117 patients with fasting serum C-peptide less than 0.6 ng/mL, glucagon-stimulated C-peptide was measured, and 57 Patients showed the level less than 1 ng/mL and they were diagnosed as type 1 diabetic patients. They were subgrouped into typical (n=26, needed insulin injection within 1 year after diagnosis) and atypical (n=30, did not need insulin for more than l year after diagnosis) type 1 diabetic patients. ICA was measured by indirect immunofluorescence method. Anti-GAD antibody was measured by radioimmunoassay. Anti-ICA512 antibody was measured by western blotting. Mitochondrial DNA 3243 mutation was detected using restriction enzyme Apa-I digestion of the amplified genomic DNA from the subjects. RESULTS: 1) Median age of onset was 40 years for atypical type 1 diabetes patients, while it was 27.5 years for typical type 1 diabetes patients. Average duration of insulin requirement was 0.18 years for typical group and 5.73 years for atypical group. In this series, only typical type 1 diabetic patients experienced diabetic ketoacidosis. 2) Only 50 % of typical type 1 diabetic patients and 47 % of atypical type 1 diabetic patients had at least one autoantibody among ICA, anti-GAD antibody and anti-ICA512 antibody. 3) Mitochondrial DNA 3243 point mutation was detected in 3 patients with atypical type 1 diabetes (10 %), but it was not found in patients with typical type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the prevalence of autoantibodies in Korean type 1 diabetic patients was lower than that reported in Caucasians irrespective of clinical features. Therefore, it may not be easy to apply this new diabetes classification of ADA to Korean type 1 diabetic patients. In addition, mitochondrial DNA mutation may be responsible for some of the Korean atypical type 1 diabetic patients.
Lack of Effectiveness of Glomerular Hyperfiltration on Development of Microalbuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: five Year Follow-up Study.
Eun Sook Kim, Sang Wook Kim, Jin Yub Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(2):155-161.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is found in 30-40% of patients with type 1 diabetes at the onset of the disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that this might be responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. However, it is still controversial whether GHF is a risk factor in patients with type 2 diabetes. This led us to perform a five-year-prospective study in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 68 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied prospectively, They were all normoalbuminuric initially. Glomerular filtration rate was determined by the 51Cr-EDTA single injection method and urinary albumin excretion rate by the radioimtnunoassay method. RESULTS: GHF was present in 19 out of 68 patients. At follow-up, l7 out of 49 patients of the normofiltration group and 3 out of 19 patients of GHF group progressed to microalbuminuria (p>0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the known duration of diabetes, systolic hypertension, and the presence of retinopathy were independently associated with the development of microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that GHF does not predict the subsequent development of diabetic nephropathy as indicated by the elevation of the urinary albumin excretion rate during the five year interval.
Microalbuminuria in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Subjects: A population Based Study.
Young Il Kim, Yun Ey Chung, Jin Yup Kim, Sang Wook Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Moo Song Lee, Joong Yeoul Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(1):79-86.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Microalbuminuria is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence ot microalbuminuria among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in Korea and to determine the factors associated with microalbuminuria. METHOD: A sample of 1,791 subjects aged > 40 years living in Jungup district were selected from the 28,380 inhabitants using a random cluster sampling method. Among these subjects, 1,006 of them (56.1%) underwent the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test that was also part of the timed overnight urine collection. 46 subjects were excluded because they had signs of urinary tract infection (n=41) or overt proteinuria (n=5). Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) between 20 and 200 pg/min. RESULTS: Subjects with microalbuminuria had a higher weight and body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting and 2hr plasma glucose, fasting semm insulin and proinsulin concentrations than subjects without microalbuminuria. The prevalence of micro- albuminuria increased as the glucose tolerance worsened[6.0% in normal glucose tolerance, 11.8% in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 21.8% in diabetes, respectively; x trend=25.9, p<0.(0001]. Mean UAER of subjects with hypertension was greater than that of subjects without hypertension (7.8+0.9ug/min vs. 9.6+0.7ug/min, p<0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that the UAER was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with weight and BMI, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic BP, fasting and 2hr plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin and proinsulin after sex-adjustment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that weight or BMI, diastolic BP, 2hr plasma glucose and fasting serum insulin were independently associated with UAER in non-diabetic subjects. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that the prevalence of microalburninuria is higher in patients with glucose intolerance. The association of the UAER with BMI, diastolic BP, 2hr plasma glucose and fasting serum insulin suggest that microalbuminuria is a feature of the insulin resistance syndrome.
Prevalence of Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Subjects Living in Jungup District , Korea.
Sang Wook Kim, Jin Yub Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Young Il Kim, Moo Song Lee, Hyeong Ho Kim, Joong Yeoul Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(1):70-78.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The clustering of hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, low HDL cholesteml and high triglyceride is known as insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). We studied the prevalence of insulin resistance syndrome among subjects living in Jungup district, Korea. METHODS: Among a total of 151,000 subjects over 40 years of years living in Jungup district, a sample of 1,791 was selected using a random cluster sampling method. Oral glucose tolerance test revealed 1,018 subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance. The IRS was defined as the coexistence of two or more components of triad; hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia (triglycerides >= 200mg/dL and HDL <45 mg/dL for woman, HDL < 35 mg/dL for men). RESULTS: Twenty-one percent of men and 45% of women were obese and 50.8% and 61.9% were hypertensive. Eleven percent of men and 16 percent of women were found to have dyslipidemia. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 10.2% for men and 15.7% for women. The prevalence of IRS in the Jungup population was 12.8% for men and 19.6% for women. The prevalence of IRS increased according to the plasma level of insulin. There was a positive correlation between the number of components of IRS and the level of fasting plasma insulin. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the prevalence of IRS is high in Korean subjects. The close correlation between the IRS components and fasting insulin level suggests that cardiovascular risk is associated with insulin resistance.
Effect of Decreased Plasma Free Fatty Acids by an Antilipolytic Agent on Plasma Glucose Level and Liver Glycogen Content in Streptozotocin - induced Diabetic Rat.
Yun Ey Chung, Sang Wook Kim, Jin Yub Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(1):46-54.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Increased availability of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) leads to an inhibition of glucose utilization in peripheral tissue and to an increase of gluconeogenesis in the liver. A previous study has shown that a decrease in plasma FFA profoundly inhitbits hepatic gluconeogenesis, but total hepatic glucose production is maintained due to a com pensatory increase in glycogenolysis. It has been suggested that this hepatic autoregulatory mechanism is defective in the diabetic state, but there has been no firm evidence to confirm this. This study was performed to see the effect of decreasing plasma FFA on plasma glucose and hepatic glucose metabolism in diabetic rats, METHODS: Eight nondiabetic and 8 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used. Blood sampling for plasma glucose and free fatty acid and liver biopsy for measurement of glycogen content were done after intravenous phenobarbital ancsthesia. Acipimox (50 mg/kg in saline) was administered via gastric tube. Plasma glucose and FFA were measured at 30, 60 and 120 min. Liver biopsy was repeated at 120 min. RESULTS: Baseline plasma glucose and FFA were higher in diabetic rats than in nondiabetic rats (18.8 +1.4 mmol/L vs. 6.9+0.8 mmol/L, 720+/-36 umol/L vs. 420+40 umol/L p<0.001 respectively). Hepatic glycogen content was higer in nondiabetic rats (31.8 +1.6mg/g liver vs. 26.02.Dmg/g liver, p<0.01). After acipimox administration, plasma glucose decreased profoundly in diabetic rats (18.8+1.4 mmol/L to 9.2+1.2 mmol/L, p<0.001) but not in nondiabetic rats. Glycogen content was significantly reduced in both groups (p<0.001). However, the difference in the contents was much smaller in the diabetic group compared with the nondiabetic group (6.5+2.1 mg/g liver vs. 19.2+ l.9 mg/g liver, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: 1t is suggested that the intrahepatic autoregulatory mechanism, which maintains hepatic glucose production constant in nondiabetic rats, is defective in diabetic rats.
The Effects of Metformin Given into the Brain on Food Intake and a Expressions of Hypothalamic Neurotransmitters in the Rats.
Eun Sook Kim, Jin Yub Kim, Sang Wook Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Ki Up Lee, Sung Kwan Hong
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):475-481.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Metformin, a biguanide agent, is an oral hypoglycemic agent frequently prescribed to non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. In adclition to the glucose lowering effect, it is known to suppress fol intake, but the action mechanism for food intake suppression is not known yet. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) is recently identified that strongly stimulates food intake and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is also known to be involved in the ingestion of foods. The effects of mettormin on these substances are not known yet. We tried to define the effect of metformin administered into the lateral ventricle on the amount of food intake and mRNA expressions of NPY and MCH. METHODS: Each rat was housed in a separate cage, and brain cannula was set into the lateral ventricle and proper position was checked by the response to angiotensin-II injection. Metformin l ug (1 ug/uL) or normal saline (1 uL) were injected daily into the lateral ventricle for 4 days in the Metformin group (n=7) and Control group (n=6) respectively, and the amount of food intake and weight change were recrded. Expressions of corticotropin releasing hormone mRNA in paraventricular nucleus, NPY mRNA in arcuate nucleus, and MCH mRNA in lateral hypothalamus were measured by the in situ hybridization technique. RESULTS: The amount of food intake was lower in metformin group than that in control group by 14~35% during the study period (p<0.05). Changes of body weight was -18+9 g (mean+SD) in metformin group and -2+11 g in control group. But mRNA expressions of NPY, MCH and CRH were not different between the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Metformin injected into the brain reduced the amount of food intake and body weight without the changes of NPY and MCH mRNAs. This study suggests that metformin suppress food intake by directly acting in the brain, but these effects are not through the changes of NPY and MCH mRNA expressions.
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Korean Adults Living in Jungup District, South Korea.
Young Il Kim, Chul Soo Choi, Sang Wook Kim, Jong Soo Lee, Hyeong Ho Kim, Moo Sung Lee, Sang Il Lee, Joong Yeoul Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):363-371.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Similar to other countries that underwent industrialization in recent years, the prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in Far East Asian countries. While the prevalence of diabetes in South Korean adults was estimated to be less than 0.5% in 1960s, a recent study from Yonchon County showed a dramatic increase to 7.2%. This was the only study performed in population-based subjects. We studied the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) among subjects living in Jungup clistrict, Chonlabuk-do, South Korea. METHODS: Among a total of 28,380 subjects aged over 40 years living in Jungup district a sample of 1,791 subjects living in six villages was selected using a random cluster sampling method. Among these subjects, 1,108 subjects(61.9%) completed 75g oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT). RESULTS: When the WHO criteria were used, the prevalence of diabetes and IGT were 7.1% and 8.5%, respectively, after correction for Segi's standard world population. Among the diabetic subjects, 62% of the patients did not know that they had diabetes previously. When the 1997 ADA criteria after OGTT were employed, the prevalence of diabetes and IGT/IFG(impaired fasting glucose) was 8.5% and 11.1%, respectively. The mean body mass index(BMI) of whole subjects was 22.9+2.7 for men and 24.3+3.2kg/m for women. Among subjects with normal glucose tolerance, IGT and diabetes, 31.5%, 42.3% and 50.0% of subjects were currently obese(BMI >25kg/m), respectively. The prevalence of both diabetes and IGT increased with inereasing waist-to-hip ratio(WHR) in men and women. On the other hand, the prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance increased with increasing BMI only in women but not in men. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT in the present study was quite similar to that in the previous Yonchon study. This prevalence of diabetes is higher than or similar to that reported in the Caucasian(~ 3% 8%), even though mean BMI of this community population(23.9 kg/m) is lower than that in the Caucasian (24.5~28.0 kg/m). It can be speculated that Far East Asian penple are more prone to develop diabetes for their degree of obesity.
High Serum Lipoprotein ( a ) Levels in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Proliferative Diabetic retinopathy.
Hyung Joo Park, Chul Hee Kim, Yun Ey Chung, Sang Wook Kim, Jin Yub Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):338-343.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
To examine the possible association between serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentration and proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 412 Korean outpatients with type 2 diabetes were examined. Diabetic retinopathy was determined by fundoscopic examination by an ophthalmologist and/or by fluorecein angiography. Semm Lp(a) levels were measured by one step sandwich ELISA method. RESULTS: The patient with PDR had higher serum Lp(a) levels than those with no retinopathy or non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that serum Lp(a) level and the presence of diabetic nephropathy were independent variables having a statistically significant association with PDR. CONCLUSION: Korean type 2 diabetic patients with PDR had higher serum Lp(a) levels compared with those with no retinopathy or NPDR. Although these results suggested that Lp(a) might play a role in the occlusion of retinal capillaries leading to PDR, further prospective studies are required to prove causal relationship.
Changes in Serum True Insulin and C-peptide Levels during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Koreans with Glucose Intolerance.
Young Il Kim, Chul Soo Choi, Sang Wook Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Chul Hee Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(2):192-198.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Previous studies have shown that progression from normal glucose tolerance(NGT) to impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) is associated with the development of insulin resistance and hyper-insulinemia, while further progression from IGT to NIDDM results from an inability of the 8-cell to maintain high rate of insulin secretion. However, it is not established whether similar findings are also observed in Korean subjects with glucose intolerance. The aim of this study was to examine insulin secretory response after oral glucose stimulation in obese and non-obese Korean subjects according to varying degree of glucose intolerance. METHODS: Eighty eight Korean men underwent 75g oral glucose tolerance test. The subjects were classified into NGT(n=30), IGT(n=23), NIDDM(n= 35) according to National Diabetes Data Group criteria. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m . Serum true insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Fasting serum true insulin and C-peptide levels were not different from each other among NGT, IGT and NIDDM groups, both in obese and non-obese subjects. Obese subjects with IGT had significantly higher serum true insulin and C-peptide levels at 120 min than those in NGT subjects, but the levels at 30 and 60 min were not different. On the other hand, non-obese subjects with IGT had lower serum true insulin level at 30 min and lower serum C-pepitde level at 60 min compared to those in NGT subjects. True insulin and C-pepitde levels at 30 and 60 min were significantly lower in patients with NIDDM than in those with NGT, both in obese and non-obese subjects. CONCLUSION: Hyperinsulinemia, especially at a later phase of oral glucose tolerance test, is apparent in obese subjects with IGT. On the other hand, early phase insulin secretory defect is prominent in non-obese subjects with IGT. These results suggest that impaired insulin secretion may play a primary role in the pathogenesis of non-obese NIDDM in Korea.
The prevalence of micro-and macrovascular complications of korean niddm patients.
Joong Yeol Park, Sang Wook Kim, Goo Yeong Cho, Mee Hwa Lee, Soo Jung Je, Ki Up Lee, Ghi Su Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1993;17(4):377-385.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal